Webster's Dictionary, 1913
[ Latin consternatio
, from consternare
to overome, perplex, an accessory form of consternere
to throw down, prostrate; con
to spread out, throw down: confer French consternation
. See Stratum
.] Amazement or horror that confounds the faculties, and incapacitates for reflection; terror, combined with amazement; dismay.
The chiefs around, Syn.
In silence wrapped, in consternation drowned.
Attend the stern reply.
-- Alarm; fright; amazement; astonishment; surprise; panic; perturbation. See Alarm
Constipate transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Constipated
; present participle & verbal noun Constipating
.] [ Latin constipatus
, past participle of constipare
to crowd together. See Costive
.] 1. To crowd or cram into a narrow compass; to press together or condense.
Of cold the property is to condense and constipate . 2. To stop (a channel) by filling it, and preventing passage through it; as, to constipate the capillary vessels. 3. (Medicine) To render costive; to cause constipation in.
[ Latin constipatio
a crowding together: confer French constipation
.] 1. Act of crowding anything into a less compass, or the state of being crowded or pressed together; condensation.
Fullness of matter, or a pretty close constipation . . . of its particles. 2. A state of the bowels in which the evacuations are infrequent and difficult, or the intestines become filled with hardened fæces; costiveness.
; plural Constituencies A body of constituents, as the body of citizens or voters in a representative district.
[ Latin constituens
, present participle See Constitute
.] 1. Serving to form, compose, or make up; elemental; component.
Body, soul, and reason are the three parts necessarily constituent of a man. 2. Having the power of electing or appointing.
A question of right arises between the constituent and representative body.
Constituent noun 1. The person or thing which constitutes, determines, or constructs.
Their first composure and origination require a higher and nobler constituent than chance. 2. That which constitutes or composes, as a part, or an essential part; a component; an element.
Sir M. Hale
We know how to bring these constituents together, and to cause them to form water. 3. One for whom another acts; especially, one who is represented by another in a legislative assembly; -- correlative to representative .
The electors in the district of a representative in Congress, or in the legislature of a State, are termed his constituents .
To appeal from the representatives to the constituents . 4. (Law) A person who appoints another to act for him as attorney in fact. Burrill.
Constitute transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Constituted
; present participle & verbal noun Constituting
.] [ Latin constitutus
, past participle of constiture
to constitute; con-
to place, set, from status
station, from stare
to stand. See Stand
.] 1. To cause to stand; to establish; to enact.
Laws appointed and constituted by lawful authority. 2. To make up; to compose; to form.
Truth and reason constitute that intellectual gold that defies destruction. 3. To appoint, depute, or elect to an office; to make and empower.
Me didst Thou constitute a priest of thine. Constituted authorities
, the officers of government, collectively, as of a nation, city, town, etc. Bartlett.
Constitute noun An established law. [ Obsolete] T. Preston.
Constituter noun One who constitutes or appoints.
[ French constitution
, Latin constitute
.] 1. The act or process of constituting; the action of enacting, establishing, or appointing; enactment; establishment; formation. 2. The state of being; that form of being, or structure and connection of parts, which constitutes and characterizes a system or body; natural condition; structure; texture; conformation.
The physical constitution of the sun. 3. The aggregate of all one's inherited physical qualities; the aggregate of the vital powers of an individual, with reference to ability to endure hardship, resist disease, etc.; as, a robust constitution .
Sir J. Herschel.
Our constitutions have never been enfeebled by the vices or luxuries of the old world. 4. The aggregate of mental qualities; temperament.
He defended himself with . . . less passion than was expected from his constitution . 5. The fundamental, organic law or principles of government of men, embodied in written documents, or implied in the institutions and usages of the country or society; also, a written instrument embodying such organic law, and laying down fundamental rules and principles for the conduct of affairs.
Our constitution had begun to exist in times when statesmen were not much accustomed to frame exact definitions.
» In England the constitution is unwritten, and may be modified from time to time by act of Parliament. In the United States a constitution cannot ordinarily be modified, exept through such processes as the constitution itself ordains. 6. An authoritative ordinance, regulation or enactment; especially, one made by a Roman emperor, or one affecting ecclesiastical doctrine or discipline; as, the constitutions of Justinian.
The positive constitutions of our own churches.
A constitution of Valentinian addressed to Olybrius, then prefect of Rome, for the regulation of the conduct of advocates. Apostolic constitutions
. See under Apostolic .
[ f. French constitutionnel
.] 1. Belonging to, or inherent in, the constitution, or in the structure of body or mind; as, a constitutional infirmity; constitutional ardor or dullness. 2. In accordance with, or authorized by, the constitution of a state or a society; as, constitutional reforms. 3. Regulated by, dependent on, or secured by, a constitution; as, constitutional government; constitutional rights. Hallam. 4. Relating to a constitution, or establishment form of government; as, a constitutional risis.
The anient constitutional traditions of the state. 5. For the benefit or one's constitution or health; as, a constitutional walk.
[ Colloq.] Constitutional law
, law that relates to the constitution, as a permanent system of political and juridical government, as distinguished from statutory and common law, which relate to matters subordinate to such constitution.
Constitutional noun A walk or other exercise taken for one's health or constitution.
[ Colloq.] Thackeray.
The men trudged diurnal constitutionals along the different roads.
Constitutionalism noun The theory, principles, or authority of constitutional government; attachment or adherence to a constitution or constitutional government. Carlyle.
Constitutionalist noun One who advocates a constitutional form of government; a constitutionalist.
. [ f. French constitutionalité
.] 1. The quality or state of being constitutional, or inherent in the natural frame. 2. The state of being consistent with the constitution or frame of government, or of being authorized by its provisions. Burke.
Constitutionalities , bottomless cavilings and questionings about written laws.
Constitutionally adverb 1. In accordance with the constitution or natural disposition of the mind or body; naturally; as, he was constitutionally timid.
The English were constitutionally humane. 2. In accordance with the constitution or fundamental law; legally; as, he was not constitutionally appointed.
Nothing would indue them to acknowledge that [ such] an assembly . . . was constitutionally a Parliament.
Constitutionist noun One who adheres to the constitution of the country. Bolingbroke.
Constitutive adjective 1. Tending or assisting to constitute or compose; elemental; essential.
An ingredient and constitutive part of every virtue. 2. Having power to enact, establish, or create; instituting; determining. Sir W. Hamilton.
Constitutively adverb In a constitutive manner.
Constrain transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Constrained
; present participle & verbal noun Constraining
.] [ Old French constraindre
, French contrainde
, Latin constringere
to draw tight. See Strain
, and. confer Constrict
.] 1. To secure by bonds; to chain; to bond or confine; to hold tightly; to constringe.
He binds in chains
The drowsy prophet, and his limbs constrains .
When winter frosts constrain the fields with cold. 2. To bring into a narrow compass; to compress.
How the strait stays the slender waist constrain . 3. To hold back by force; to restrain; to repress.
My sire in caves constrains the winds. 4. To compel; to force; to necessitate; to oblige.
The love of Christ constraineth us.
2. Cor. v. 14.
I was constrained to appeal unto Cæsar. 5. To violate; to ravish.
Acts xxviii. 19.
[ Obsolete] Shak. 6. To produce in such a manner as to give an unnatural effect; as, a constrained voice. Syn.
-- To compel; force; drive; impel; urge; press.
Constrainable adjective [ Confer Old French constraignable , French contraignable .] Capable of being constrained; liable to constraint, or to restraint. Hooker.
Constrained adjective Marked by constraint; not free; not voluntary; embarrassed; as, a constrained manner; a constrained tone.
Constrainedly adverb By constraint or compulsion; in a constrained manner. Hooker.
Constrainer noun One who constrains.
[ Old French constrainte
, French constrainte
.] The act of constraining, or the state of being constrained; that which compels to, or restrains from, action; compulsion; restraint; necessity.
Long imprisonment and hard constraint .
Not by constraint , but by my choice, I came. Syn.
-- Compulsion; violence; necessity; urgency. -- Constraint
implies strong binding force; as, the constraint
of necessity; the constraint
of fear. Compulsion
implies the exertion of some urgent impelling force; as, driven by compulsion
. The former prevents us from acting agreeably to our wishes; the latter forces us to act contrary to our will. Compulsion
is always produced by some active agent; a constraint
may be laid upon us by the forms of civil society, or by other outward circumstances. Crabb.
Constraintive adjective Constraining; compulsory. [ R.] "Any constraintive vow." R. Carew.
Constrict transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Constricted
; present participle & verbal noun Constricting
.] [ Latin constrictus
, past participle of constringere
. See Constrain
.] To draw together; to render narrower or smaller; to bind; to cramp; to contract or cause to shrink.
Such things as constrict the fibers.
Membranous organs inclosing a cavity which their contraction serves to constrict .
Todd & Bowman.
1. Drawn together; bound; contracted; cramped. 2. (Botany) Contracted or compressed so as to be smaller in certain places or parts than in others.
[ Latin constrictio
: confer French constriction
.] 1. The act of constricting by means of some inherent power or by movement or change in the thing itself, as distinguished from compression . 2. The state of being constricted; the point where a thing is constricted; a narrowing or binding.
A constriction of the parts inservient to speech.
Constrictive adjective Serving or tending to bind or constrict.
1. That which constricts, draws together, or contracts. 2. (Anat.) A muscle which contracts or closes an orifice, or which compresses an organ; a sphincter. 3. (Zoology) A serpent that kills its prey by inclosing and crushing it with its folds; as, the boa constrictor .
Constringe transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Constringed
; present participle & verbal noun Constringing
.] [ Latin constringere
. See onstrain
.] To dawn together; to contract; to force to contract itself; to constrict; to cause to shrink.
Strong liquors . . . intoxicate, constringe , harden the fibers, and coagulate the fluids.
Constringent adjective [ Latin constringens , present participle] Having the quality of contracting, binding, or compressing. Thomson.
(kŏn*strŭkt") transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Constructed
; present participle & verbal noun Constructing
.] [ Latin constructus
, past participle of construere
to bring together, to construct; con-
to pile up, set in order. See Structure
, and confer Construe
.] 1. To put together the constituent parts of (something) in their proper place and order; to build; to form; to make; as, to construct an edifice. 2. To devise; to invent; to set in order; to arrange; as, to construct a theory of ethics. Syn.
-- To build; erect; form; compile; make; fabricate; originate; invent.
Construct adjective Formed by, or relating to, construction, interpretation, or inference. Construct form or state (Heb. Gram.) , that of a noun used before another which has the genitive relation to it.
Constructer noun One who, or that which, constructs or frames.
[ Latin constructio
: confer French construction
.] 1. The process or art of constructing; the act of building; erection; the act of devising and forming; fabrication; composition. 2. The form or manner of building or putting together the parts of anything; structure; arrangement.
An astrolabe of peculiar construction . 3. (Gram.) The arrangement and connection of words in a sentence; syntactical arrangement.
Some particles . . . in certain constructions have the sense of a whole sentence contained in them. 4. The method of construing, interpreting, or explaining a declaration or fact; an attributed sense or meaning; understanding; explanation; interpretation; sense.
Any person . . . might, by the sort of construction that would be put on this act, become liable to the penalties of treason.
Strictly , the term [ construction ] signifies determining the meaning and proper effect of language by a consideration of the subject matter and attendant circumstances in connection with the words employed.
Interpretation properly precedes construction , but it does not go beyond the written text. Construction of an equation (Math.)
, the drawing of such lines and figures as will represent geometrically the quantities in the equation, and their relations to each other.
-- Construction train (Railroad)
, a train for transporting men and materials for construction or repairs.
Constructional adjective Pertaining to, or deduced from, construction or interpretation.
Constructionist noun One who puts a certain construction upon some writing or instrument, as the Constitutions of the United States; as, a strict constructionist ; a broad constructionist .
[ Confer French constructif
.] 1. Having ability to construct or form; employed in construction; as, to exhibit constructive power.
The constructive fingers of Watts. 2. Derived from, or depending on, construction or interpretation; not directly expressed, but inferred. Constructive crimes (Law)
, acts having effects analogous to those of some statutory or common law crimes; as, constructive treason. Constructive crimes are no longer recognized by the courts.
-- Constructive notice
, notice imputed by construction of law.
-- Constructive trust
, a trust which may be assumed to exist, though no actual mention of it be made.
Constructively adverb In a constructive manner; by construction or inference.
A neutral must have notice of a blockade, either actually by a formal information, or constructively by notice to his government.
1. Tendency or ability to form or construct. 2. (Phren.) The faculty which enables one to construct, as in mechanical, artistic, or literary matters.
Constructor noun [ Confer Late Latin constructor .] A constructer.
Constructure noun That which is constructed or formed; an edifice; a fabric. [ Obsolete]
Construe transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Construed
; present participle & verbal noun Construing
.] [ Latin construere
: confer French construire
. See Construct
.] 1. To apply the rules of syntax to (a sentence or clause) so as to exhibit the structure, arrangement, or connection of, or to discover the sense; to explain the construction of; to interpret; to translate. 2. To put a construction upon; to explain the sense or intention of; to interpret; to understand.
Thus we are put to construe and paraphrase our own words to free ourselves either from the ignorance or malice of our enemies.
And to be dull was construed to be good.
Constuprate transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Construprated
; past participle & verbal noun Constuprating
.] [ Latin constupratus
, past participle of constuprare
to ravish; con-
to ravish, stuprum
rape.] To ravish; to debauch. Burton.
Constupration noun The act of ravishing; violation; defilement. Bp. Hall.
[ Latin consubstantialis
: confer French consubstantiel
. See Substantial
.] Of the same kind or nature; having the same substance or essence; coessential.
Christ Jesus . . . coeternal and consubstantial with the Father and with the Holy Ghost.
Consubstantialism noun The doctrine of consubstantiation.
Consubstantialist noun One who believes in consubstantiation. Barrow.