Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Body noun ; plural Bodies [ Middle English bodi , Anglo-Saxon bodig ; akin to Old High German botah . √257. Confer Bodice .]


1. The material organized substance of an animal, whether living or dead, as distinguished from the spirit, or vital principle; the physical person.

Absent in body , but present in spirit.
1 Cor. v. 3

For of the soul the body form doth take.
For soul is form, and doth the body make.
Spenser.

2. The trunk, or main part, of a person or animal, as distinguished from the limbs and head; the main, central, or principal part, as of a tree, army, country, etc.

Who set the body and the limbs
Of this great sport together?
Shak.

The van of the king's army was led by the general; . . . in the body was the king and the prince.
Clarendon.

Rivers that run up into the body of Italy.
Addison.

3. The real, as opposed to the symbolical; the substance, as opposed to the shadow.

Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ.
Col. ii. 17.

4. A person; a human being; -- frequently in composition; as, any body , no body .

A dry, shrewd kind of a body .
W. Irving.

5. A number of individuals spoken of collectively, usually as united by some common tie, or as organized for some purpose; a collective whole or totality; a corporation; as, a legislative body ; a clerical body .

A numerous body led unresistingly to the slaughter.
Prescott.

6. A number of things or particulars embodied in a system; a general collection; as, a great body of facts; a body of laws or of divinity.

7. Any mass or portion of matter; any substance distinct from others; as, a metallic body ; a moving body ; an aëriform body . "A body of cold air." Huxley.

By collision of two bodies , grind
The air attrite to fire.
Milton.

8. Amount; quantity; extent.

9. That part of a garment covering the body, as distinguished from the parts covering the limbs.

10. The bed or box of a vehicle, on or in which the load is placed; as, a wagon body ; a cart body .

11. (Print.) The shank of a type, or the depth of the shank (by which the size is indicated); as, a nonpareil face on an agate body .

12. (Geom.) A figure that has length, breadth, and thickness; any solid figure.

13. Consistency; thickness; substance; strength; as, this color has body ; wine of a good body .

» Colors bear a body when they are capable of being ground so fine, and of being mixed so entirely with oil, as to seem only a very thick oil of the same color.

After body (Nautical) , the part of a ship abaft the dead flat. -- Body cavity (Anat.) , the space between the walls of the body and the inclosed viscera; the cælum; -- in mammals, divided by the diaphragm into thoracic and abdominal cavities. -- Body of a church , the nave. -- Body cloth ; plural Body cloths , a cloth or blanket for covering horses. -- Body clothes . ( plural )
1. Clothing for the body; esp. underclothing. 2. Body cloths for horses. [ Obsolete] Addison. -- Body coat , a gentleman's dress coat. -- Body color (Paint.) , a pigment that has consistency, thickness, or body, in distinction from a tint or wash. -- Body of a law (Law) , the main and operative part. -- Body louse (Zoology) , a species of louse ( Pediculus vestimenti ), which sometimes infests the human body and clothes. See Grayback . -- Body plan (Shipbuilding) , an end elevation, showing the conbour of the sides of a ship at certain points of her length. -- Body politic , the collective body of a nation or state as politically organized, or as exercising political functions; also, a corporation. Wharton.

As to the persons who compose the body politic or associate themselves, they take collectively the name of "people", or "nation".
Bouvier.

-- Body servant , a valet. -- The bodies seven (Alchemy) , the metals corresponding to the planets. [ Obsolete]

Sol gold is, and Luna silver we threpe (=call), Mars yren (=iron), Mercurie quicksilver we clepe, Saturnus lead, and Jupiter is tin, and Venus coper.
Chaucer.

-- Body snatcher , one who secretly removes without right or authority a dead body from a grave, vault, etc.; a resurrectionist. -- Body snatching (Law) , the unauthorized removal of a dead body from the grave; usually for the purpose of dissection.

Body transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Bodied ; present participle & verbal noun Bodying .] To furnish with, or as with, a body; to produce in definite shape; to embody.

To body forth , to give from or shape to mentally.

Imagination bodies forth
The forms of things unknown.
Shak.

Body noun (Aëronautics) The central, longitudinal framework of a flying machine, to which are attached the planes or aërocurves, passenger accommodations, controlling and propelling apparatus, fuel tanks, etc.

Bodyguard noun
1. A guard to protect or defend the person; a lifeguard.

2. Retinue; attendance; following. Bp. Porteus.

Boer noun [ Dutch, a farmer. See Boor .] A colonist or farmer in South Africa of Dutch descent.

Boes 3d sing. pr. of Behove . Behoves or behooves. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Bog noun [ Ir. & Gael. bog soft, tender, moist: confer Ir. bogach bog, moor, marsh, Gael. bogan quagmire.]


1. A quagmire filled with decayed moss and other vegetable matter; wet spongy ground where a heavy body is apt to sink; a marsh; a morass.

Appalled with thoughts of bog , or caverned pit,
Of treacherous earth, subsiding where they tread.
R. Jago.

2. A little elevated spot or clump of earth, roots, and grass, in a marsh or swamp. [ Local, U. S.]

Bog bean . See Buck bean . -- Bog bumper (bump, to make a loud noise), Bog blitter , Bog bluiter , Bog jumper , the bittern. [ Prov.] -- Bog butter , a hydrocarbon of butterlike consistence found in the peat bogs of Ireland. -- Bog earth (Min.) , a soil composed for the most part of silex and partially decomposed vegetable fiber. P. Cyc. -- Bog moss . (Botany) Same as Sphagnum . -- Bog myrtle (Botany) , the sweet gale. -- Bog ore . (Min.) (a) An ore of iron found in boggy or swampy land; a variety of brown iron ore, or limonite. (b) Bog manganese, the hydrated peroxide of manganese. -- Bog rush (Botany) , any rush growing in bogs; saw grass. -- Bog spavin . See under Spavin .

Bog transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Bogged ; present participle & verbal noun Bogging .] To sink, as into a bog; to submerge in a bog; to cause to sink and stick, as in mud and mire.

At another time, he was bogged up to the middle in the slough of Lochend.
Sir W. Scott.

Bogberry noun (Botany) The small cranberry ( Vaccinium oxycoccus ), which grows in boggy places.

Bogey noun A goblin; a bugbear. See Bogy .

Bogey noun ; plural Bogeys . [ Also bogie .]
1. A goblin; a bugbear.

I have become a sort of bogey -- a kill- joy.
Wm. Black.

2. (Golf) A given score or number of strokes, for each hole, against which players compete; -- said to be so called because assumed to be the score of an imaginary first-rate player called Colonel Bogey.

Boggard noun A bogey. [ Local, Eng.]

Boggle intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Boggled ; present participle & verbal noun Boggling ] [ See Bogle , noun ]
1. To stop or hesitate as if suddenly frightened, or in doubt, or impeded by unforeseen difficulties; to take alarm; to exhibit hesitancy and indecision.

We start and boggle at every unusual appearance.
Glanvill.

Boggling at nothing which serveth their purpose.
Barrow.

2. To do anything awkwardly or unskillfully.

3. To play fast and loose; to dissemble. Howell.

Syn. -- To doubt; hesitate; shrink; stickle; demur.

Boggle transitive verb To embarrass with difficulties; to make a bungle or botch of. [ Local, U. S.]

Boggler noun One who boggles.

Bogglish adjective Doubtful; skittish. [ Obsolete]

Boggy adjective Consisting of, or containing, a bog or bogs; of the nature of a bog; swampy; as, boggy land.

Bogie noun [ A dialectic word. N. of Eng. & Scot.] A four-wheeled truck, having a certain amount of play around a vertical axis, used to support in part a locomotive on a railway track.

Bogie engine (Railroads) A switching engine the running gear and driving gear of which are on a bogie, or truck.

Bogle noun [ Scot. and North Eng. bogle , bogill , bugill , specter; as a verb, to terrify, from W. bwgwl threatening, fear, bwg , bwgan , specter, hobgoblin. Confer Bug .] A goblin; a specter; a frightful phantom; a bogy; a bugbear. [ Written also boggle .]

Bogsucker noun (Zoology) The American woodcock; -- so called from its feeding among the bogs.

Bogtrotter noun One who lives in a boggy country; -- applied in derision to the lowest class of Irish. Halliwell.

Bogtrotting adjective Living among bogs.

Bogue intransitive verb (Nautical) To fall off from the wind; to edge away to leeward; -- said only of inferior craft.

Bogue noun (Zoology) The boce; -- called also bogue bream . See Boce .

Bogus adjective [ Etymol. uncertain.] Spurious; fictitious; sham; -- a cant term originally applied to counterfeit coin, and hence denoting anything counterfeit. [ Colloq. U. S.]

Bogus noun A liquor made of rum and molasses. [ Local, U. S.] Bartlett.

Bogwood noun The wood of trees, esp. of oaks, dug up from peat bogs. It is of a shining black or ebony color, and is largely used for making ornaments.

Bogy noun ; plural Bogies [ See Bogle .] A specter; a hobgoblin; a bugbear. "Death's heads and bogies ." J. H. Newman. [ Written also bogey .]

There are plenty of such foolish attempts at playing bogy in the history of savages.
C. Kingsley.

Bohea noun [ From Wu-i , pronounced by the Chinese bu-i , the name of the hills where this kind of tea is grown.] Bohea tea, an inferior kind of black tea. See under Tea .

» The name was formerly applied to superior kinds of black tea, or to black tea in general.

Bohemia noun
1. A country of central Europe.

2. Fig.: The region or community of social Bohemians. See Bohemian , noun , 3.

She knew every one who was any one in the land of Bohemia .
Compton Reade.

Bohemian adjective
1. Of or pertaining to Bohemia, or to the language of its ancient inhabitants or their descendants. See Bohemian , noun , 2.

2. Of or pertaining to a social gypsy or "Bohemian" (see Bohemian , noun , 3); vagabond; unconventional; free and easy. [ Modern]

Hers was a pleasant Bohemian life till she was five and thirty.
Blackw. Mag.

Artists have abandoned their Bohemian manners and customs nowadays.
W. Black.

Bohemian chatterer , or Bohemian waxwing (Zoology) , a small bird of Europe and America ( Ampelis garrulus ); the waxwing. -- Bohemian glass , a variety of hard glass of fine quality, made in Bohemia. It is of variable composition, containing usually silica, lime, and potash, rarely soda, but no lead. It is often remarkable for beauty of color.

Bohemian noun
1. A native of Bohemia.

2. The language of the Czechs (the ancient inhabitants of Bohemia), the richest and most developed of the dialects of the Slavic family.

3. A restless vagabond; -- originally, an idle stroller or gypsy (as in France) thought to have come from Bohemia; in later times often applied to an adventurer in art or literature, of irregular, unconventional habits, questionable tastes, or free morals. [ Modern]

» In this sense from the French bohémien , a gypsy; also, a person of irregular habits.

She was of a wild, roving nature, inherited from father and mother, who were both Bohemians by taste and circumstances.
Thackeray.

Bohemianism noun The characteristic conduct or methods of a Bohemian. [ Modern]

Bohun upas See Upas .

Boiar noun See Boyar .

Boil (boil) intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Boiled (boild); present participle & verbal noun Boiling .] [ Middle English boilen , Old French boilir , builir , French bouillir , from Latin bullire to be in a bubbling motion, from bulla bubble; akin to Greek ... , Lithuanian bumbuls . Confer Bull an edict, Budge , v. , and Ebullition .]
1. To be agitated, or tumultuously moved, as a liquid by the generation and rising of bubbles of steam (or vapor), or of currents produced by heating it to the boiling point; to be in a state of ebullition; as, the water boils .

2. To be agitated like boiling water, by any other cause than heat; to bubble; to effervesce; as, the boiling waves.

He maketh the deep to boil like a pot.
Job xii. 31.

3. To pass from a liquid to an aëriform state or vapor when heated; as, the water boils away.

4. To be moved or excited with passion; to be hot or fervid; as, his blood boils with anger.

Then boiled my breast with flame and burning wrath.
Surrey.

5. To be in boiling water, as in cooking; as, the potatoes are boiling .

To boil away , to vaporize; to evaporate or be evaporated by the action of heat. -- To boil over , to run over the top of a vessel, as liquid when thrown into violent agitation by heat or other cause of effervescence; to be excited with ardor or passion so as to lose self-control.

Boil transitive verb
1. To heat to the boiling point, or so as to cause ebullition; as, to boil water.

2. To form, or separate, by boiling or evaporation; as, to boil sugar or salt.

3. To subject to the action of heat in a boiling liquid so as to produce some specific effect, as cooking, cleansing, etc.; as, to boil meat; to boil clothes.

The stomach cook is for the hall,
And boileth meate for them all.
Gower.

4. To steep or soak in warm water. [ Obsolete]

To try whether seeds be old or new, the sense can not inform; but if you boil them in water, the new seeds will sprout sooner.
Bacon.

To boil down , to reduce in bulk by boiling; as, to boil down sap or sirup.

Boil noun Act or state of boiling. [ Colloq.]

Boil noun [ Influenced by boil , v. See Beal , Bile .] A hard, painful, inflamed tumor, which, on suppuration, discharges pus, mixed with blood, and discloses a small fibrous mass of dead tissue, called the core .

A blind boil , one that suppurates imperfectly, or fails to come to a head. -- Delhi boil (Medicine) , a peculiar affection of the skin, probably parasitic in origin, prevailing in India (as among the British troops) and especially at Delhi.

Boilary noun See Boilery .

Boiled adjective Dressed or cooked by boiling; subjected to the action of a boiling liquid; as, boiled meat; a boiled dinner; boiled clothes.

Boiler noun
1. One who boils.

2. A vessel in which any thing is boiled.

» The word boiler is a generic term covering a great variety of kettles, saucepans, clothes boilers, evaporators, coppers, retorts, etc.

3. (Mech.) A strong metallic vessel, usually of wrought iron plates riveted together, or a composite structure variously formed, in which steam is generated for driving engines, or for heating, cooking, or other purposes.

» The earliest steam boilers were usually spheres or sections of spheres, heated wholly from the outside. Watt used the wagon boiler (shaped like the top of a covered wagon) which is still used with low pressures. Most of the boilers in present use may be classified as plain cylinder boilers , flue boilers , sectional and tubular boilers .

Barrel of a boiler , the cylindrical part containing the flues. -- Boiler plate , Boiler iron , plate or rolled iron of about a quarter to a half inch in thickness, used for making boilers and tanks, for covering ships, etc. -- Cylinder boiler , one which consists of a single iron cylinder. -- Flue boilers are usually single shells containing a small number of large flues, through which the heat either passes from the fire or returns to the chimney, and sometimes containing a fire box inclosed by water. -- Locomotive boiler , a boiler which contains an inclosed fire box and a large number of small flues leading to the chimney. -- Multiflue boiler . Same as Tubular boiler , below. -- Sectional boiler , a boiler composed of a number of sections, which are usually of small capacity and similar to, and connected with, each other. By multiplication of the sections a boiler of any desired capacity can be built up. -- Tubular boiler , a boiler containing tubes which form flues, and are surrounded by the water contained in the boiler. See Illust. of Steam boiler , under Steam . -- Tubulous boiler . See under Tubulous . See Tube , noun , 6, and 1st Flue .

Boiler noun A sunken reef; esp., a coral reef on which the sea breaks heavily.

Boilery (boil"ẽr*ȳ) noun [ Confer French bouillerie .] A place and apparatus for boiling, as for evaporating brine in salt making.

Boiling adjective Heated to the point of bubbling; heaving with bubbles; in tumultuous agitation, as boiling liquid; surging; seething; swelling with heat, ardor, or passion.

Boiling point , the temperature at which a fluid is converted into vapor, with the phenomena of ebullition. This is different for different liquids, and for the same liquid under different pressures. For water, at the level of the sea, barometer 30 in., it is 212 ° Fahrenheit; for alcohol, 172.96°; for ether, 94.8°; for mercury, about 675°. The boiling point of water is lowered one degree Fahrenheit for about 550 feet of ascent above the level of the sea. -- Boiling spring , a spring which gives out very hot water, or water and steam, often ejecting it with much force; a geyser. -- To be at the boiling point , to be very angry. -- To keep the pot boiling , to keep going on actively, as in certain games. [ Colloq.]

Boiling noun
1. The act of ebullition or of tumultuous agitation.

2. Exposure to the action of a hot liquid.

Boilingly adverb With boiling or ebullition.

And lakes of bitumen rise boiling higher.
Byron.

Bois d'arc [ French, bow wood. So called because used for bows by the Western Indians.] (Botany) The Osage orange ( Maclura aurantiaca ).

The bois d'arc seems to be the characteristic growth of the black prairies.
U. S. Census (1880).

Bois durci [ French, hardened wood.] A hard, highly polishable composition, made of fine sawdust from hard wood (as rosewood) mixed with blood, and pressed.

Boist noun [ Old French boiste , French boîte , from the same root as English box .] A box. [ Obsolete]

Boisterous adjective [ Middle English boistous ; of uncertain origin; confer W. bwyst wild, savage, wildness, ferocity, bwystus ferocious.]
1. Rough or rude; unbending; unyielding; strong; powerful. [ Obsolete] " Boisterous sword." " Boisterous hand." Shak.

2. Exhibiting tumultuous violence and fury; acting with noisy turbulence; violent; rough; stormy.

The waters swell before a boisterous storm.
Shak.

The brute and boisterous force of violent men.
Milton.

3. Noisy; rough; turbulent; as, boisterous mirth; boisterous behavior.

I like not that loud, boisterous man.
Addison.

4. Vehement; excessive. [ R.]

The heat becomes too powerful and boisterous for them.
Woodward.

Syn. -- Loud; roaring; violent; stormy; turbulent; furious; tumultuous; noisy; impetuous; vehement.