Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Winnebagoes noun ; sing. Winnebago (Ethnol.) A tribe of North American Indians who originally occupied the region about Green Bay, Lake Michigan, but were driven back from the lake and nearly exterminated in 1640 by the IIlinnois.

Winner noun One who wins, or gains by success in competition, contest, or gaming.

Winning adjective Attracting; adapted to gain favor; charming; as, a winning address. "Each mild and winning note." Keble.

Winning noun
1. The act of obtaining something, as in a contest or by competition.

2. The money, etc., gained by success in competition or contest, esp, in gambling; -- usually in the plural.

Ye seek land and sea for your winnings .
Chaucer.

3. (Mining) (a) A new opening. (b) The portion of a coal field out for working.

Winning headway (Mining) , an excavation for exploration, in post-and-stall working. -- Winning post , the post, or goal, at the end of a race.

Winningly adverb In a winning manner.

Winningness noun The quality or state of being winning. " Winningness in style." J. Morley.

Winninish noun (Zoology) The land-locked variety of the common salmon. [ Canada]

Winnow (wĭn"no) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Winnowed (-nod); present participle & verbal noun Winnowing .] [ Middle English windewen , winewen , Anglo-Saxon windwian ; akin to Goth. winpjan (in comp.), winpi - skauro a fan, Latin ventilare to fan, to winnow; confer Latin wannus a fan for winnowing, German wanne , Old High German wanna . √131. See Wind moving air, and confer Fan ., noun , Ventilate .]


1. To separate, and drive off, the chaff from by means of wind; to fan; as, to winnow grain.

Ho winnoweth barley to-night in the threshing floor.
Ruth. iii. 2.

2. To sift, as for the purpose of separating falsehood from truth; to separate, as bad from good.

Winnow well this thought, and you shall find
This light as chaff that flies before the wind.
Dryden.

3. To beat with wings, or as with wings. [ Poetic]

Now on the polar winds; then with quick fan
Winnows the buxom air.
Milton.

Winnow intransitive verb To separate chaff from grain.

Winnow not with every wind.
Ecclus. v. 9.

Winnower noun One who, or that which, winnows; specifically, a winnowing machine.

Winnowing noun The act of one who, or that which, winnows.

Winrow noun A windrow.

Winsing adjective Winsome. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Winsome adjective [ Compar. Winsomer ; superl. Winsomest .] [ Anglo-Saxon wynsum , from wynn joy; akin to Old Saxon wunnia , Old High German wunna , wunni , German wonne , Goth. wunan to rejoice (in un wunands sad), Anglo-Saxon wunian to dwell. ............. See Win , transitive verb , Wont , adjective ]


1. Cheerful; merry; gay; light-hearted.

Misled by ill example, and a winsome nature.
Jeffrey.

2. Causing joy or pleasure; gladsome; pleasant.

Still plotting how their hungry ear
That winsome voice again might hear.
Emerson.

Winsomeness noun The characteristic of being winsome; attractiveness of manner. J. R. Green.

Winter noun [ Anglo-Saxon winter ; akin to OFries. & Dutch winter , Old Saxon & Old High German wintar , German winter , D. & Swedish vinter , Icelandic vetr , Goth. wintrus ; of uncertain origin; confer Old Gallic vindo- white (in comp.), OIr. find white. .............]


1. The season of the year in which the sun shines most obliquely upon any region; the coldest season of the year. "Of thirty winter he was old." Chaucer.

And after summer evermore succeeds
Barren winter , with his wrathful nipping cold.
Shak.

Winter lingering chills the lap of May.
Goldsmith.

» North of the equator, winter is popularly taken to include the months of December, January, and February (see Season ). Astronomically, it may be considered to begin with the winter solstice, about December 21st, and to end with the vernal equinox, about March 21st.

2. The period of decay, old age, death, or the like.

Life's autumn past, I stand on winter's verge.
Wordsworth.

Winter apple , an apple that keeps well in winter, or that does not ripen until winter. -- Winter barley , a kind of barley that is sown in autumn. -- Winter berry (Botany) , the name of several American shrubs ( Ilex verticillata , I. lævigata , etc.) of the Holly family, having bright red berries conspicuous in winter. -- Winter bloom . (Botany) (a) A plant of the genus Azalea. (b) A plant of the genus Hamamelis ( H. Viginica ); witch-hazel; -- so called from its flowers appearing late in autumn, while the leaves are falling. -- Winter bud (Zoology) , a statoblast. -- Winter cherry (Botany) , a plant ( Physalis Alkekengi ) of the Nightshade family, which has, a red berry inclosed in the inflated and persistent calyx. See Alkekengi . -- Winter cough (Medicine) , a form of chronic bronchitis marked by a cough recurring each winter. -- Winter cress (Botany) , a yellow-flowered cruciferous plant ( Barbarea vulgaris ). -- Winter crop , a crop which will bear the winter, or which may be converted into fodder during the winter. -- Winter duck . (Zoology) (a) The pintail. (b) The old squaw. -- Winter egg (Zoology) , an egg produced in the autumn by many invertebrates, and destined to survive the winter. Such eggs usually differ from the summer eggs in having a thicker shell, and often in being enveloped in a protective case. They sometimes develop in a manner different from that of the summer eggs. -- Winter fallow , ground that is fallowed in winter. -- Winter fat . (Botany) Same as White sage , under White . -- Winter fever (Medicine) , pneumonia. [ Colloq.] -- Winter flounder . (Zoology) See the Note under Flounder . -- Winter gull (Zoology) , the common European gull; -- called also winter mew . [ Prov. Eng.] -- Winter itch . (Medicine) See Prarie itch , under Prairie . -- Winter lodge , or Winter lodgment . (Botany) Same as Hibernaculum . -- Winter mew . (Zoology) Same as Winter gull , above. [ Prov. Eng.] -- Winter moth (Zoology) , any one of several species of geometrid moths which come forth in winter, as the European species ( Cheimatobia brumata ). These moths have rudimentary mouth organs, and eat no food in the imago state. The female of some of the species is wingless. -- Winter oil , oil prepared so as not to solidify in moderately cold weather. -- Winter pear , a kind of pear that keeps well in winter, or that does not ripen until winter. -- Winter quarters , the quarters of troops during the winter; a winter residence or station. -- Winter rye , a kind of rye that is sown in autumn. -- Winter shad (Zoology) , the gizzard shad. -- Winter sheldrake (Zoology) , the goosander. [ Local, U. S.] -- Winter sleep (Zoology) , hibernation. - - Winter snipe (Zoology) , the dunlin. -- Winter solstice . (Astron.) See Solstice , 2. -- Winter teal (Zoology) , the green-winged teal. -- Winter wagtail (Zoology) , the gray wagtail ( Motacilla melanope ). [ Prov. Eng.] -- Winter wheat , wheat sown in autumn, which lives during the winter, and ripens in the following summer. -- Winter wren (Zoology) , a small American wren ( Troglodytes hiemalis ) closely resembling the common wren.

Winter intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Wintered ; present participle & verbal noun Wintering .] To pass the winter; to hibernate; as, to winter in Florida.

Because the haven was not commodious to winter in, the more part advised to depart thence.
Acts xxvii. 12.

Winter intransitive verb To keep, feed or manage, during the winter; as, to winter young cattle on straw.

Winter-beaten adjective Beaten or harassed by the severe weather of winter. Spenser.

Winter-ground transitive verb To coved over in the season of winter, as for protection or shelter; as, to winter- ground the roods of a plant.

The ruddock would . . . bring thee all this,
Yea, and furred moss besides, when flowers are none
To winter-ground thy corse.
Shak.

Winter-proud adjective Having too rank or forward a growth for winter.

When either corn is winter-proud , or other plants put forth and bud too early.
Holland.

Winter-rig transitive verb [ See Winter and Ridge .] To fallow or till in winter. [ Prov. Eng.]

Winter's bark (Botany) The aromatic bark of tree ( Drimys, or Drymis, Winteri ) of the Magnolia family, which is found in Southern Chili. It was first used as a cure for scurvy by its discoverer, Captain John Winter , vice admiral to sir Francis Drake, in 1577.

Wintergreen noun (Botany) A plant which keeps its leaves green through the winter.

» In England, the name wintergreen is applied to the species of Pyrola which in America are called English wintergreen , and shin leaf (see Shin leaf, under Shin .) In America, the name wintergreen is given to Gaultheria procumbens , a low evergreen aromatic plant with oval leaves clustered at the top of a short stem, and bearing small white flowers followed by red berries; -- called also checkerberry , and sometimes, though improperly, partridge berry .

Chickweed wintergreen , a low perennial primulaceous herb ( Trientalis Americana ); -- also called star flower . -- Flowering wintergreen , a low plant ( Polygala paucifolia ) with leaves somewhat like those of the wintergreen ( Gaultheria ), and bearing a few showy, rose-purple blossoms. -- Spotted wintergreen , a low evergreen plant ( Chimaphila maculata ) with ovate, white-spotted leaves.

Winterkill transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Winterkilled ; present participle & verbal noun Winterkilling .] To kill by the cold, or exposure to the inclemency of winter; as, the wheat was winterkilled . [ U. S.]

Winterkill intransitive verb To die as the result of exposure to the cold of winter; as, the tree winterkills easily.

Winterly adjective Like winter; wintry; cold; hence, disagreeable, cheerless; as, winterly news. [ R.] Shak.

The sir growing more winterly in the month of April.
Camden.

Wintertide noun Winter time. Tennyson.

Winterweed noun (Botany) A kind of speedwell ( Veronica hederifolia ) which spreads chiefly in winter. Dr. Prior.

Wintery adjective Wintry.

Wintry adjective [ Anglo-Saxon wintrig .] Suitable to winter; resembling winter, or what belongs to winter; brumal; hyemal; cold; stormy; wintery.

Touch our chilled hearts with vernal smile,
Our wintry course do thou beguile.
Keble.

Winy adjective Having the taste or qualities of wine; vinous; as, grapes of a winy taste. Dampier.

Winze noun (Mining.) A small shaft sunk from one level to another, as for the purpose of ventilation.

Wipe noun [ Confer Swedish vipa , Danish vibe , the lapwing.] (Zoology) The lapwing. [ Prov. Eng.]

Wipe transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Wiped ; present participle & verbal noun Wiping .] [ Middle English vipen , Anglo-Saxon wīpian ; confer LG. wiep a wisp of straw, Swedish vepa to wrap up, to cuddle one's self up, vepa a blanket; perhaps akin to English whip .]


1. To rub with something soft for cleaning; to clean or dry by rubbing; as, to wipe the hands or face with a towel.

Let me wipe thy face.
Shak.

I will wipe Jerusalem as a man wipeth a dish, wiping it, and turning it upside down.
2 Kings xxi. 13.

2. To remove by rubbing; to rub off; to obliterate; -- usually followed by away , off or out . Also used figuratively. "To wipe out our ingratitude." Shak.

Some natural tears they dropped, but wiped them soon.
Milton.

3. To cheat; to defraud; to trick; -- usually followed by out . [ Obsolete] Spenser.

If they by coveyne [ covin] or gile be wiped beside their goods.
Robynson (More's Utopia)

To wipe a joint (Plumbing) , to make a joint, as between pieces of lead pipe, by surrounding the junction with a mass of solder, applied in a plastic condition by means of a rag with which the solder is shaped by rubbing. -- To wipe the nose of , to cheat. [ Old Slang]

Wipe noun
1. Act of rubbing, esp. in order to clean.

2. A blow; a stroke; a hit; a swipe. [ Low]

3. A gibe; a jeer; a severe sarcasm. Swift.

4. A handkerchief. [ Thieves' Cant or Slang]

5. Stain; brand. [ Obsolete] "Slavish wipe ." Shak.

Wiper noun
1. One who, or that which, wipes.

2. Something used for wiping, as a towel or rag.

3. (Machinery) A piece generally projecting from a rotating or swinging piece, as an axle or rock shaft, for the purpose of raising stampers, lifting rods, or the like, and leaving them to fall by their own weight; a kind of cam.

4. (Firearms) A rod, or an attachment for a rod, for holding a rag with which to wipe out the bore of the barrel.

Wirble intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Wirbled ; present participle & verbal noun Wirbling .] [ Confer Warble , Whirl .] To whirl; to eddy. [ R.]

The waters went wirbling above and around.
Owen. Meredith.

Wirche intransitive verb & t. To work [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Wire noun [ Middle English wir , Anglo-Saxon wir ; akin to Icelandic vīrr , Danish vire , LG. wir , wire ; confer Old High German wiara fine gold; perhaps akin to English withy . ............ .]


1. A thread or slender rod of metal; a metallic substance formed to an even thread by being passed between grooved rollers, or drawn through holes in a plate of steel.

» Wire is made of any desired form, as round, square, triangular, etc., by giving this shape to the hole in the drawplate, or between the rollers.

2. A telegraph wire or cable; hence, an electric telegraph; as, to send a message by wire . [ Colloq.]

Wire bed , Wire mattress , an elastic bed bottom or mattress made of wires interwoven or looped together in various ways. -- Wire bridge , a bridge suspended from wires, or cables made of wire. -- Wire cartridge , a shot cartridge having the shot inclosed in a wire cage. -- Wire cloth , a coarse cloth made of woven metallic wire, -- used for strainers, and for various other purposes. -- Wire edge , the thin, wirelike thread of metal sometimes formed on the edge of a tool by the stone in sharpening it. -- Wire fence , a fence consisting of posts with strained horizontal wires, wire netting, or other wirework, between. -- Wire gauge or gage . (a) A gauge for measuring the diameter of wire, thickness of sheet metal, etc., often consisting of a metal plate with a series of notches of various widths in its edge. (b) A standard series of sizes arbitrarily indicated, as by numbers, to which the diameter of wire or the thickness of sheet metal in usually made, and which is used in describing the size or thickness. There are many different standards for wire gauges, as in different countries, or for different kinds of metal, the Birmingham wire gauges and the American wire gauge being often used and designated by the abbreviations B. W. G. and A. W. G. respectively. -- Wire gauze , a texture of finely interwoven wire, resembling gauze. -- Wire grass (Botany) , either of the two common grasses Eleusine Indica , valuable for hay and pasture, and Poa compressa , or blue grass. See Blue grass . -- Wire grub (Zoology) , a wireworm. -- Wire iron , wire rods of iron. -- Wire lathing , wire cloth or wire netting applied in the place of wooden lathing for holding plastering. -- Wire mattress . See Wire bed , above. -- Wire micrometer , a micrometer having spider lines, or fine wires, across the field of the instrument. -- Wire nail , a nail formed of a piece of wire which is headed and pointed. -- Wire netting , a texture of woven wire coarser than ordinary wire gauze. -- Wire rod , a metal rod from which wire is formed by drawing. -- Wire rope , a rope formed wholly, or in great part, of wires.

Wire transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Wired ; present participle & verbal noun Wiring .]
1. To bind with wire; to attach with wires; to apply wire to; as, to wire corks in bottling liquors.

2. To put upon a wire; as, to wire beads.

3. To snare by means of a wire or wires.

4. To send (a message) by telegraph. [ Colloq.]

Wire intransitive verb
1. To pass like a wire; to flow in a wirelike form, or in a tenuous stream. [ R.] P. Fletcher.

2. To send a telegraphic message. [ Colloq.]

Wire noun
1. Chiefly in plural The system of wires used to operate the puppets in a puppet show; hence (Chiefly Political Slang) , the network of hidden influences controlling the action of a person or organization; as, to pull the wires for office.

2. One who picks women's pockets. [ Thieves' Slang]

3. A knitting needle. [ Scot.]

4. A wire stretching across over a race track at the judges' stand, to mark the line at which the races end. [ Racing Cant]

Wire transitive verb (Croquet) To place (a ball) so that the wire of a wicket prevents a successful shot.

Wire gun = Wire-wound gun .

Wire tapper One that taps, or cuts in on, telegraph wires and intercepts messages; hence (Slang) , a swindler who pretends to tap wires or otherwise intercept advance telegraphic news for betting. -- Wire tapping .

Wire-drawer noun One who draws metal into wire.

Wire-heel noun (Far.) A disease in the feet of a horse or other beast.

Wiredraw transitive verb [ imperfect Wiredrew ; past participle Wiredrawn ; present participle & verbal noun Wiredrawing .]


1. To form (a piece of metal) into wire, by drawing it through a hole in a plate of steel.

2. Hence, to draw by art or violence.

My sense has been wiredrawn into blasphemy.
Dryden.

3. Hence, also, to draw or spin out to great length and tenuity; as, to wiredraw an argument.

Such twisting, such wiredrawing , was never seen in a court of justice.
Macaulay.

4. (Steam Engine) To pass, or to draw off, (as steam) through narrow ports, or the like, thus reducing its pressure or force by friction.