Webster's Dictionary, 1913
Spoil transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Spoiled
; present participle & verbal noun Spoiling
.] [ French spolier
, Old French espoilelier
, from Latin spoliare
, from spolium
spoil. Confer Despoil
.] 1. To plunder; to strip by violence; to pillage; to rob; -- with of before the name of the thing taken; as, to spoil one of his goods or possession.
"Ye shall spoil
the Egyptians." Ex. iii. 22.
My sons their old, unhappy sire despise, Pope. 2. To seize by violence;; to take by force; to plunder.
Spoiled of his kingdom, and deprived of eues.
No man can enter into a strong man's house, and spoil his goods, except he will first bind the strong man. Mark iii. 27. 3. To cause to decay and perish; to corrput; to vitiate; to mar.
Spiritual pride spoils many graces. Jer. Taylor. 4. To render useless by injury; to injure fatally; to ruin; to destroy; as, to spoil paper; to have the crops spoiled by insects; to spoil the eyes by reading.
Spoil intransitive verb 1. To practice plunder or robbery.
Outlaws, which, lurking in woods, used to break forth to rob and spoil . Spenser. 2. To lose the valuable qualities; to be corrupted; to decay; as, fruit will soon spoil in warm weather.
[ Confer Old French espoille
, Latin spolium
.] 1. That which is taken from another by violence; especially, the plunder taken from an enemy; pillage; booty.
Gentle gales, Milton. 2. Public offices and their emoluments regarded as the peculiar property of a successful party or faction, to be bestowed for its own advantage; -- commonly in the plural; as to the victor belong the spoils .
Fanning their odoriferous wings, dispense
Native perfumes, and whisper whence they stole
Those balmy spoils .
From a principle of gratitude I adhered to the coalition; my vote was counted in the day of battle, but I was overlooked in the division of the spoil . Gibbon. 3. That which is gained by strength or effort.
each science and each art his spoil . Bentley. 4. The act or practice of plundering; robbery; aste.
The man that hath no music in himself, Shak. 5. Corruption; cause of corruption.
Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds,
Is fit for treason, stratagems, and spoil .
Villainous company hath been the spoil of me. Shak. 6. The slough, or cast skin, of a serpent or other animal.
[ Obsolete] Bacon. Spoil bank
, a bank formed by the earth taken from an excavation, as of a canal.
-- The spoils system
, the theory or practice of regarding public and their emoluments as so much plunder to be distributed among their active partisans by those who are chosen to responsible offices of administration.
Spoilable adjective Capable of being spoiled.
1. One who spoils; a plunderer; a pillager; a robber; a despoiler. 2. One who corrupts, mars, or renders useless.
Spoilfive noun A certain game at cards in which, if no player wins three of the five tricks possible on any deal, the game is said to be spoiled .
Spoilful adjective Wasteful; rapacious. [ Poetic]
; plural Spoilsmen One who serves a cause or a party for a share of the spoils; in United States politics, one who makes or recognizes a demand for public office on the ground of partisan service; also, one who sanctions such a policy in appointments to the public service.
Spoilsmonger noun One who promises or distributes public offices and their emoluments as the price of services to a party or its leaders.
Spoke imperfect of Speak .
[ Middle English spoke
, AS, spāca
; akin to Dutch speek
, LG. speke
, Old High German speihha
, German speiche
. √170. Confer Spike
a nail.] 1. The radius or ray of a wheel; one of the small bars which are inserted in the hub, or nave, and which serve to support the rim or felly. 2. (Nautical) A projecting handle of a steering wheel. 3. A rung, or round, of a ladder. 4. A contrivance for fastening the wheel of a vehicle, to prevent it from turning in going down a hill. To put a spoke in one's wheel
, to thwart or obstruct one in the execution of some design.
Spoke transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Spoked
; present participle & verbal noun Spoking
.] To furnish with spokes, as a wheel.
[ past participle of Speak
.] 1. Uttered in speech; delivered by word of mouth; oral; as, a spoken narrative; the spoken word. 2. Characterized by a certain manner or style in speaking; -- often in composition; as, a pleasant- spoken man.
Methinks you 're better spoken . Shak.
Spokeshave noun A kind of drawing knife or planing tool for dressing the spokes of wheels, the shells of blocks, and other curved work.
; plural Spokesmen
. [ Speak
.] One who speaks for another.
He shall be thy spokesman unto the people. Ex. iv. 16.
Spoliate transitive verb & i.
[ imperfect & past participle Spoliated
; present participle & verbal noun Spoliating
.] [ Latin spoliatus
, past participle of spoliare
spoil. See Spoil
, transitive verb
] To plunder; to pillage; to despoil; to rob.
[ Latin spoliatio
; confer French spoliation
. See Spoil
, transitive verb
] 1. The act of plundering; robbery; deprivation; despoliation.
Legal spoliation , which will impoverish one part of the community in order to corrupt the remainder. Sir G. C. Lewis. 2. Robbery or plunder in war; especially, the authorized act or practice of plundering neutrals at sea. 3. (Eccl. Law) (a) The act of an incumbent in taking the fruits of his benefice without right, but under a pretended title. Blackstone. (b) A process for possession of a church in a spiritual court. 4. (Law) Injury done to a document.
Spoliative adjective [ Confer French spoliatif .] Serving to take away, diminish, or rob; esp. (Medicine) , serving to diminish sensibily the amount of blood in the body; as, spoliative bloodletting.
Spoliator noun One who spoliates; a spoiler.
Spoliatory adjective Tending to spoil; destructive; spoliative.
Spondaic, Spondaical adjective [ Latin spondaicus , spondiacus , Greek ...: confer French spondaïque .]
1. Or of pertaining to a spondee; consisting of spondees. 2. Containing spondees in excess; marked by spondees; as, a spondaic hexameter, i. e. , one which has a spondee instead of a dactyl in the fifth foot.
Spondee noun [ Latin spondeus , Greek ... (sc. ...), from ... a drink offering, libation, from ... to pour out, make a libation: confer French spondée . So called because at libations slow, solemn melodies were used, chiefly in this meter.] (pros.) A poetic foot of two long syllables, as in the Latin word lēgēs .
Spondulics noun Money. [ Slang, U.S.] Bartlett.
Spondyl, Spondyle noun [ Latin spondylus , Greek ..., ...: confer French spondyle .] (Anat.) A joint of the backbone; a vertebra.
Spong noun [ Etymol. uncertain.] An irregular, narrow, projecting part of a field. [ Prov. Eng.]
[ Old French esponge
, French éponge
, Latin spongia
, Greek ..., .... Confer Fungus
.] [ Formerly written also spunge
.] 1. (Zoology) Any one of numerous species of Spongiæ, or Porifera. See Illust. and Note under Spongiæ . 2. The elastic fibrous skeleton of many species of horny Spongiæ (keratosa), used for many purposes, especially the varieties of the genus Spongia . The most valuable sponges are found in the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, and on the coasts of Florida and the West Indies. 3.
Fig.: One who lives upon others; a pertinaceous and indolent dependent; a parasite; a sponger. 4. Any spongelike substance.
Specifically: (a) Dough before it is kneaded and formed into loaves, and after it is converted into a light, spongy mass by the agency of the yeast or leaven. (b) Iron from the puddling furnace, in a pasty condition. (c) Iron ore, in masses, reduced but not melted or worked. 5. (Gun.) A mop for cleaning the bore of a cannon after a discharge. It consists of a cylinder of wood, covered with sheepskin with the wool on, or cloth with a heavy looped nap, and having a handle, or staff. 6. (Far.) The extremity, or point, of a horseshoe, answering to the heel. Bath sponge
, any one of several varieties of coarse commercial sponges, especially Spongia equina .
-- Cup sponge
, a toilet sponge growing in a cup- shaped form.
-- Glass sponge
. See Glass- sponge , in the Vocabulary.
-- Glove sponge
, a variety of commercial sponge ( Spongia officinalis , variety tubulufera ), having very fine fibers, native of Florida, and the West Indies.
-- Grass sponge
, any one of several varieties of coarse commercial sponges having the surface irregularly tufted, as Spongia graminea , and S. equina , variety cerebriformis , of Florida and the West Indies.
-- Horse sponge
, a coarse commercial sponge, especially Spongia equina .
-- Platinum sponge
. (Chemistry) See under Platinum .
-- Pyrotechnical sponge
, a substance made of mushrooms or fungi, which are boiled in water, dried, and beaten, then put in a strong lye prepared with saltpeter, and again dried in an oven. This makes the black match, or tinder, brought from Germany.
-- Sheep's-wool sponge
, a fine and durable commercial sponge ( Spongia equina , variety gossypina ) found in Florida and the West Indies. The surface is covered with larger and smaller tufts, having the oscula between them.
-- Sponge cake
, a kind of sweet cake which is light and spongy.
-- Sponge lead
, or Spongy lead (Chemistry)
, metallic lead brought to a spongy form by reduction of lead salts, or by compressing finely divided lead; -- used in secondary batteries and otherwise.
-- Sponge tree (Botany)
, a tropical leguminous tree ( Acacia Farnesiana ), with deliciously fragrant flowers, which are used in perfumery.
-- Toilet sponge
, a very fine and superior variety of Mediterranean sponge ( Spongia officinalis , variety Mediterranea ); -- called also turkish sponge .
-- To set a sponge (Cookery)
, to leaven a small mass of flour, to be used in leavening a larger quantity.
- - To throw up the sponge
, to give up a contest; to acknowledge defeat; -- from a custom of the prize ring, the person employed to sponge a pugilist between rounds throwing his sponge in the air in token of defeat.
[ Cant or Slang] "He was too brave a man to throw up the sponge
to fate." Lowell.
-- Vegetable sponge
. (Botany) See Loof .
-- Velvet sponge
, a fine, soft commercial sponge ( Spongia equina , variety meandriniformis ) found in Florida and the West Indies.
-- Vitreous sponge
. See Glass-sponge .
- - Yellow sponge
, a common and valuable commercial sponge ( Spongia agaricina , variety corlosia ) found in Florida and the West Indies.
Sponge transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Sponged
; present participle & verbal noun Sponging
.] 1. To cleanse or wipe with a sponge; as, to sponge a slate or a cannon; to wet with a sponge; as, to sponge cloth. 2. To wipe out with a sponge, as letters or writing; to efface; to destroy all trace of. Hooker. 3. Fig.: To deprive of something by imposition.
"How came such multitudes of our nation . . . to be sponged
of their plate and their money?" South. 4. Fig.: To get by imposition or mean arts without cost; as, to sponge a breakfast. Swift.
Sponge intransitive verb 1. To suck in, or imbile, as a sponge. 2. Fig.: To gain by mean arts, by intrusion, or hanging on; as, an idler sponges on his neighbor. E. Eggleston.
The fly is an intruder, and a common smell-feast, that sponges upon other people's trenchers. L'Estrange. 3. To be converted, as dough, into a light, spongy mass by the agency of yeast, or leaven.
[ See Spongious
.] Resembling sponge; having the nature or qualities of sponge.
1. One who sponges, or uses a sponge. 2. One employed in gathering sponges. 3. Fig.: A parasitical dependent; a hanger- on.
Spongida noun plural [ New Latin ] Spongiæ.
Spongiform adjective Resembling a sponge; soft and porous; porous.
Spongilla noun [ New Latin , dim. of spongia a sponge.] (Zoology) A genus of siliceous spongea found in fresh water.
Spongin noun (Physiol. Chem.) The chemical basis of sponge tissue, a nitrogenous, hornlike substance which on decomposition with sulphuric acid yields leucin and glycocoll.
Sponginess noun The quality or state of being spongy. Dr. H. More.
Sponging adjective & noun from Sponge , v. Sponging house (Eng. Law)
, a bailiff's or other house in which debtors are put before being taken to jail, or until they compromise with their creditors. At these houses extortionate charges are commonly made for food, lodging, etc.
Spongiole noun [ Latin spongiola a rose gall, small roots, dim. of spongia : confer French spongiole .] (Botany) A supposed spongelike expansion of the tip of a rootlet for absorbing water; -- called also spongelet .
Spongiolite noun [ Greek ... sponge + -lite .] (Paleon.) One of the microsporic siliceous spicules which occur abundantly in the texture of sponges, and are sometimes found fossil, as in flints.
Spongiopilin noun [ Greek ..., dim. of ... a sponge + ... felt.] (Medicine) A kind of cloth interwoven with small pieces of sponge and rendered waterproof on one side by a covering of rubber. When moistend with hot water it is used as a poultice.
Spongiose, Spongious adjective
[ Latin spongious
: confer French spongieux
. See Sponge
.] Somewhat spongy; spongelike; full of small cavities like sponge; as, spongious bones.
Spongiozoa noun plural
[ New Latin , Greek ... sponge + ... an animal.] (Zoology) See Sponglæ .
Spongiæ noun plural
[ See Sponge
.] (Zoology) The grand division of the animal kingdom which includes the sponges; -- called also Spongida , Spongiaria , Spongiozoa , and Porifera .
» In the Spongiæ, the soft sarcode of the body is usually supported by a skeleton consisting of horny fibers, or of silleceous or calcareous spicules. The common sponges contain larger and smaller cavities and canals, and numerous small ampullæ which which are lined with ciliated cells capable of taking in solid food. The outer surface usually has minute pores through which water enters, and large openings for its exit. Sponges produce eggs and spermatozoa, and the egg when fertilized undergoes segmentation to form a ciliated embryo.
Spongoblast noun [ Greek ... sponge + -blast .] (Zoology) One of the cells which, in sponges, secrete the spongin, or the material of the horny fibers.
Spongoid adjective [ Greek ... sponge + -oid .] Resembling sponge; like sponge.
Spongy adjective 1. Soft, and full of cavities; of an open, loose, pliable texture; as, a spongy excrescence; spongy earth; spongy cake; spongy bones. 2. Wet; drenched; soaked and soft, like sponge; rainy.
April." Shak. 3. Having the quality of imbibing fluids, like a sponge. Spongy lead (Chemistry)
, sponge lead. See under Sponge .
-- Spongy platinum
. See under Platinum .
[ Latin sponsalis
, from sponsus
a betrothal, from spondere
, to betroth. See Spouse
, and confer Esousal
.] Relating to marriage, or to a spouse; spousal.
Sponsible adjective [ Abbrev. from responsible .] responsible; worthy of credit. [ Prov. Eng. & Scot.]
Sponsion noun [ Latin sonsio , from spondere , sponsum , to promise solemnly.]
1. The act of becoming surety for another. 2. (Internat. Law) An act or engagement on behalf of a state, by an agent not specially authorized for the purpose, or by one who exceeds the limits of authority.
Sponsional adjective Of or pertaining to a pledge or agreement; responsible.
He is righteous even in that representative and sponsional person he put on. Abp. Leighton.
Sponson noun (Shipbuilding) (a) One of the triangular platforms in front of, and abaft, the paddle boxes of a steamboat. (b) One of the slanting supports under the guards of a steamboat. (c) One of the armored projections fitted with gun ports, used on modern war vessels.