Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Policeman noun ; plural Policemen A member of a body of police; a constable.

Policial adjective Relating to the police. [ R.]

Policied adjective Policed. [ Obsolete] Bacon.

Policy noun ; plural Policies . [ Latin politia , Greek ...; confer French police , Of. police . See Police , noun ]
1. Civil polity. [ Obsolete]

2. The settled method by which the government and affairs of a nation are, or may be, administered; a system of public or official administration, as designed to promote the external or internal prosperity of a state.

3. The method by which any institution is administered; system of management; course.

4. Management or administration based on temporal or material interest, rather than on principles of equity or honor; hence, worldly wisdom; dexterity of management; cunning; stratagem.

5. Prudence or wisdom in the management of public and private affairs; wisdom; sagacity; wit.

The very policy of a hostess, finding his purse so far above his clothes, did detect him.

6. Motive; object; inducement. [ Obsolete]

What policy have you to bestow a benefit where it is counted an injury?
Sir P. Sidney.

Syn. -- See Polity .

Policy transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Policied ; present participle & verbal noun Policying .] To regulate by laws; to reduce to order. [ Obsolete] " Policying of cities." Bacon.

Policy noun [ French police ; confer Pr. polissia , Spanish pólizia , Italian pólizza ; of uncertain origin; confer Latin pollex thumb (as being used in pressing the seal), in Late Latin also, seal; or confer Late Latin politicum , poleticum , polecticum , Latin polyptychum , account book, register, from Greek ... having many folds or leaves; ... many + ... fold, leaf, from ... to fold; or confer Late Latin apodixa a receipt.]
1. A ticket or warrant for money in the public funds.

2. The writing or instrument in which a contract of insurance is embodied; an instrument in writing containing the terms and conditions on which one party engages to indemnify another against loss arising from certain hazards, perils, or risks to which his person or property may be exposed. See Insurance .

3. A method of gambling by betting as to what numbers will be drawn in a lottery; as, to play policy .

Interest policy , a policy that shows by its form that the assured has a real, substantial interest in the matter insured. -- Open policy , one in which the value of the goods or property insured is not mentioned. -- Policy book , a book to contain a record of insurance policies. -- Policy holder , one to whom an insurance policy has been granted. -- Policy shop , a gambling place where one may bet on the numbers which will be drawn in lotteries. -- Valued policy , one in which the value of the goods, property, or interest insured is specified. -- Wager policy , a policy that shows on the face of it that the contract it embodies is a pretended insurance, founded on an ideal risk, where the insured has no interest in anything insured.

Poling noun [ From Pole a stick.]
1. The act of supporting or of propelling by means of a pole or poles; as, the poling of beans; the poling of a boat.

2. (Gardening) The operation of dispersing worm casts over the walks with poles.

3. One of the poles or planks used in upholding the side earth in excavating a tunnel, ditch, etc.

Polish adjective [ From Pole a Polander.] Of or pertaining to Poland or its inhabitants. - - noun The language of the Poles.

Polish transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Polished ; present participle & verbal noun Polishing .] [ French polir , Latin polire . Confer Polite , -ish ]
1. To make smooth and glossy, usually by friction; to burnish; to overspread with luster; as, to polish glass, marble, metals, etc.

2. Hence, to refine; to wear off the rudeness, coarseness, or rusticity of; to make elegant and polite; as, to polish life or manners. Milton.

To polish off , to finish completely, as an adversary. [ Slang] W. H. Russell.

Polish intransitive verb To become smooth, as from friction; to receive a gloss; to take a smooth and glossy surface; as, steel polishes well. Bacon.

Polish noun
1. A smooth, glossy surface, usually produced by friction; a gloss or luster.

Another prism of clearer glass and better polish .
Sir I. Newton.

2. Anything used to produce a gloss.

3. Fig.: Refinement; elegance of manners.

This Roman polish and this smooth behavior.

Polishable adjective Capable of being polished.

Polished adjective Made smooth and glossy, as by friction; hence, highly finished; refined; polite; as, polished plate; polished manners; polished verse.

Polishedness noun The quality of being polished.

Polisher noun One who, or that which, polishes; also, that which is used in polishing. Addison.

Polishing adjective & noun from Polish .

Polishing iron , an iron burnisher; esp., a small smoothing iron used in laundries. -- Polishing slate . (a) A gray or yellow slate, found in Bohemia and Auvergne, and used for polishing glass, marble, and metals . (b) A kind of hone or whetstone; hone slate. -- Polishing snake , a tool used in cleaning lithographic stones. -- Polishing wheel , a wheel or disk coated with, or composed of, abrading material, for polishing a surface.

Polishment noun The act of polishing, or the state of being polished. [ R.]

Polissoir noun [ French]
1. A polishing or grinding implement or instrument.

2. (Glass Making) A tool consisting of a flat wooden block with a long iron handle, used for flattening out split cylinders of blown glass.

Polite adjective [ Compar. Politer ; superl. Politest .] [ Latin politus , past participle of polire to polish: confer French poli . See Polish , v. ]
1. Smooth; polished. [ Obsolete]

Rays of light falling on a polite surface.
Sir I. Newton.

2. Smooth and refined in behavior or manners; well bred; courteous; complaisant; obliging; civil.

He marries, bows at court, and grows polite .

3. Characterized by refinement, or a high degree of finish; as, polite literature. Macaulay.

Syn. -- Polished; refined; well bred; courteous; affable; urbane; civil; courtly; elegant; genteel.

Polite transitive verb To polish; to refine; to render polite. [ Obsolete] Ray.

Politely adverb
1. In a polished manner; so as to be smooth or glossy. [ Obsolete] Milton.

2. In a polite manner; with politeness.

Politeness noun
1. High finish; smoothness; burnished elegance. [ R.] Evelyn.

2. The quality or state of being polite; refinement of manners; urbanity; courteous behavior; complaisance; obliging attentions.

Syn. -- Courtesy; good breeding; refinement; urbanity; courteousness; affability; complaisance; civility; gentility; courtliness. -- Politeness , Courtesy . Politeness denotes that ease and gracefulness of manners which first sprung up in cities, connected with a desire to please others by anticipating their wants and wishes, and studiously avoiding whatever might give them pain. Courtesy is, etymologically, the politeness of courts. It displays itself in the address and manners; it is shown more especially in receiving and entertaining others, and is a union of dignified complaisance and kindness.

Politesse noun [ French] Politeness.

Politic adjective [ Latin politicus political, Greek ... belonging to the citizens or to the state, from ... citizen: confer French politique . See Police , and confer ePolitical .]
1. Of or pertaining to polity, or civil government; political; as, the body politic . See under Body .

He with his people made all but one politic body.
Sir P. Sidney.

2. Pertaining to, or promoting, a policy, especially a national policy; well-devised; adapted to its end, whether right or wrong; -- said of things; as, a politic treaty. "Enrich'd with politic grave counsel." Shak.

3. Sagacious in promoting a policy; ingenious in devising and advancing a system of management; devoted to a scheme or system rather than to a principle; hence, in a good sense, wise; prudent; sagacious; and in a bad sense, artful; unscrupulous; cunning; -- said of persons.

Politic with my friend, smooth with mine enemy.

Syn. -- Wise; prudent; sagacious; discreet; provident; wary; artful; cunning.

Politic noun A politician. [ Archaic] Bacon.

Swiftly the politic goes; is it dark? he borrows a lantern;
Slowly the statesman and sure, guiding his feet by the stars.

Political adjective
1. Having, or conforming to, a settled system of administration. [ R.] "A political government." Evelyn.

2. Of or pertaining to public policy, or to politics; relating to affairs of state or administration; as, a political writer. "The political state of Europe." Paley.

3. Of or pertaining to a party, or to parties, in the state; as, his political relations were with the Whigs.

4. Politic; wise; also, artful. [ Obsolete] Sterne.

Political economy , that branch of political science or philosophy which treats of the sources, and methods of production and preservation, of the material wealth and prosperity of nations.

Politicalism noun Zeal or party spirit in politics.

Politically adverb
1. In a political manner.

2. Politicly; artfully. [ Obsolete] Knolles.

Politicaster noun [ Confer Italian politicastro .] A petty politician; a pretender in politics. Milton.

Politician noun [ Confer French politicien .]

1. One versed or experienced in the science of government; one devoted to politics; a statesman.

While empiric politicians use deceit.

2. One primarily devoted to his own advancement in public office, or to the success of a political party; -- used in a depreciatory sense; one addicted or attached to politics as managed by parties (see Politics , 2); a schemer; an intriguer; as, a mere politician .

Like a scurvy politician , seem
To see the things thou dost not.

The politician . . . ready to do anything that he apprehends for his advantage.

Politician adjective Cunning; using artifice; politic; artful. "Ill-meaning politician lords." Milton.

Politicist noun A political writer. [ R.]

Politicly adverb In a politic manner; sagaciously; shrewdly; artfully. Pope.

Politics noun [ Confer French politique , Greek ... (sc....). See Politic .]
1. The science of government; that part of ethics which has to do with the regulation and government of a nation or state, the preservation of its safety, peace, and prosperity, the defense of its existence and rights against foreign control or conquest, the augmentation of its strength and resources, and the protection of its citizens in their rights, with the preservation and improvement of their morals.

2. The management of a political party; the conduct and contests of parties with reference to political measures or the administration of public affairs; the advancement of candidates to office; in a bad sense, artful or dishonest management to secure the success of political candidates or parties; political trickery.

When we say that two men are talking politics , we often mean that they are wrangling about some mere party question.
F. W. Robertson.

Politize intransitive verb To play the politician; to dispute as politicians do. [ Obsolete] Milton.

Politure noun [ Latin politura , from polire to polish. See Polish , v. ] Polish; gloss. [ Obsolete] Donne .

Polity noun ; plural Polities . [ Latin politia , Greek ...: confer French politie . See 1st Policy , Police .]
1. The form or constitution of the civil government of a nation or state; the framework or organization by which the various departments of government are combined into a systematic whole. Blackstone. Hooker.

2. Hence: The form or constitution by which any institution is organized; the recognized principles which lie at the foundation of any human institution.

Nor is possible that any form of polity , much less polity ecclesiastical, should be good, unless God himself be author of it.

3. Policy; art; management. [ Obsolete] B. Jonson.

Syn. -- Policy. -- Polity , Policy . These two words were originally the same. Polity is now confined to the structure of a government; as, civil or ecclesiastical polity ; while policy is applied to the scheme of management of public affairs with reference to some aim or result; as, foreign or domestic policy . Policy has the further sense of skillful or cunning management.

Politzerization noun (Medicine) The act of inflating the middle ear by blowing air up the nose during the act of swallowing; -- so called from Prof. Politzer of Vienna, who first practiced it.

Polive noun A pulley. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Polka noun [ Pol. Polka a Polish woman: confer F. & German polka .]
1. A dance of Polish origin, but now common everywhere. It is performed by two persons in common time.

2. (Mus.) A lively Bohemian or Polish dance tune in 2-4 measure, with the third quaver accented.

Polka jacket , a kind of knit jacket worn by women.

Poll noun [ From Polly , The proper name.] A parrot; -- familiarly so called.

Poll noun [ Greek ... the many, the rabble.] One who does not try for honors, but is content to take a degree merely; a passman. [ Cambridge Univ., Eng.]

Poll noun [ Akin to LG. polle the head, the crest of a bird, the top of a tree, OD. pol , polle , Danish puld the crown of a hat.]
1. The head; the back part of the head. "All flaxen was his poll ." Shak.

2. A number or aggregate of heads; a list or register of heads or individuals.

We are the greater poll , and in true fear
They gave us our demands.

The muster file, rotten and sound, upon my life, amounts not to fifteen thousand poll .

3. Specifically, the register of the names of electors who may vote in an election.

4. The casting or recording of the votes of registered electors; as, the close of the poll .

All soldiers quartered in place are to remove . . . and not to return till one day after the poll is ended.

5. plural The place where the votes are cast or recorded; as, to go to the polls .

6. The broad end of a hammer; the but of an ax.

7. (Zoology) The European chub. See Pollard , 3 (a) .

Poll book , a register of persons entitled to vote at an election. -- Poll evil (Far.) , an inflammatory swelling or abscess on a horse's head, confined beneath the great ligament of the neck. -- Poll pick (Mining) , a pole having a heavy spike on the end, forming a kind of crowbar. -- Poll tax , a tax levied by the head, or poll; a capitation tax.

Poll transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Polled ; present participle & verbal noun Polling .]
1. To remove the poll or head of; hence, to remove the top or end of; to clip; to lop; to shear; as, to poll the head; to poll a tree.

When he [ Absalom] pollled his head.
2 Sam. xiv. 26.

His death did so grieve them that they polled themselves; they clipped off their horse and mule's hairs.
Sir T. North.

2. To cut off; to remove by clipping, shearing, etc.; to mow or crop; -- sometimes with off ; as, to poll the hair; to poll wool; to poll grass.

Who, as he polled off his dart's head, so sure he had decreed
That all the counsels of their war he would poll off like it.

3. To extort from; to plunder; to strip. [ Obsolete]

Which polls and pills the poor in piteous wise.

4. To impose a tax upon. [ Obsolete]

5. To pay as one's personal tax.

The man that polled but twelve pence for his head.

6. To enter, as polls or persons, in a list or register; to enroll, esp. for purposes of taxation; to enumerate one by one.

Polling the reformed churches whether they equalize in number those of his three kingdoms.

7. To register or deposit, as a vote; to elicit or call forth, as votes or voters; as, he polled a hundred votes more than his opponent.

And poll for points of faith his trusty vote.

8. (Law) To cut or shave smooth or even; to cut in a straight line without indentation; as, a polled deed. See Dee... poll . Burrill.

To poll a jury , to call upon each member of the jury to answer individually as to his concurrence in a verdict which has been rendered.

Poll intransitive verb To vote at an election. Beaconsfield.

Pollack noun [ Confer G. & Dutch pollack , and Gael. pollag a little pool, a sort of fish.] (Zoology) (a) A marine gadoid food fish of Europe ( Pollachius virens ). Called also greenfish , greenling , lait , leet , lob , lythe , and whiting pollack . (b) The American pollock; the coalfish.

Pollage noun A head or poll tax; hence, extortion. [ Obsolete] Foxe.

Pollan noun [ Confer Gael. pollag a kind of fish.] (Zoology) A lake whitefish ( Coregonus pollan ), native of Ireland. In appearance it resembles a herring.

Pollard noun [ From Poll the head.]
1. A tree having its top cut off at some height above the ground, that may throw out branches. Pennant.

2. A clipped coin; also, a counterfeit. [ Obsolete] Camden.

3. (Zoology) (a) A fish, the chub. (b) A stag that has cast its antlers. (c) A hornless animal (cow or sheep).

Pollard transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Pollarded ; present participle & verbal noun Pollarding .] To lop the tops of, as trees; to poll; as, to pollard willows. Evelyn.