Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Polarily adverb In a polary manner; with polarity. [ R.] Sir T. Browne.

Polarimeter noun [ Polar + -meter .] (Opt.) An instrument for determining the amount of polarization of light, or the proportion of polarized light, in a partially polarized ray.

Polarimetry noun (Opt.) The art or process of measuring the polarization of light.

Polaris noun [ New Latin See Polar .] (Astron.) The polestar. See North star , under North .

Polariscope noun [ Polar + -scope .] (Opt.) An instrument consisting essentially of a polarizer and an analyzer, used for polarizing light, and analyzing its properties.

Polariscopic adjective (Opt.) Of or pertaining to the polariscope; obtained by the use of a polariscope; as, polariscopic observations.

Polariscopy noun (Opt.) The art or rocess of making observations with the polariscope.

Polaristic adjective Pertaining to, or exhibiting, poles; having a polar arrangement or disposition; arising from, or dependent upon, the possession of poles or polar characteristics; as, polaristic antagonism.

Polarity noun [ Confer French polarité .]
1. (Physics) That quality or condition of a body in virtue of which it exhibits opposite, or contrasted, properties or powers, in opposite, or contrasted, parts or directions; or a condition giving rise to a contrast of properties corresponding to a contrast of positions, as, for example, attraction and repulsion in the opposite parts of a magnet, the dissimilar phenomena corresponding to the different sides of a polarized ray of light, etc.

2. (Geom.) A property of the conic sections by virtue of which a given point determines a corresponding right line and a given right line determines a corresponding point. See Polar , noun

Polarizable adjective Susceptible of polarization.

Polarization noun [ Confer French polarisation .]


1. The act of polarizing; the state of being polarized, or of having polarity.

2. (Opt.) A peculiar affection or condition of the rays of light or heat, in consequence of which they exhibit different properties in different directions.

» If a beam of light, which has been reflected from a plate of unsilvered glass at an angle of about 56°, be received upon a second plate of glass similar to the former, and at the same angle of incidence, the light will be readily reflected when the two planes of incidence are parallel to each other, but will not be reflected when the two planes of incidence are perpendicular to each other. The light has, therefore, acquired new properties by reflection from the first plate of glass, and is called polarized light , while the modification which the light has experienced by this reflection is called polarization . The plane in which the beam of light is reflected from the first mirror is called the plane of polarization . The angle of polarization is the angle at which a beam of light must be reflected, in order that the polarization may be the most complete. The term polarization was derived from the theory of emission, and it was conceived that each luminous molecule has two poles analogous to the poles of a magnet; but this view is not now held. According to the undulatory theory, ordinary light is produced by vibrations transverse or perpendicular to the direction of the ray, and distributed as to show no distinction as to any particular direction. But when, by any means, these, vibrations are made to take place in one plane, the light is said to be plane polarized . If only a portion of the vibrations lie in one plane the ray is said to be partially polarized . Light may be polarized by several methods other than by reflection, as by refraction through most crystalline media, or by being transmitted obliquely through several plates of glass with parallel faces. If a beam of polarized light be transmitted through a crystal of quartz in the direction of its axis, the plane of polarization will be changed by an angle proportional to the thickness of the crystal. This phenomenon is called rotatory polarization . A beam of light reflected from a metallic surface, or from glass surfaces under certain peculiar conditions, acquires properties still more complex, its vibrations being no longer rectilinear, but circular, or elliptical. This phenomenon is called circular or elliptical polarization .

3. (Electricity) An effect produced upon the plates of a voltaic battery, or the electrodes in an electrolytic cell, by the deposition upon them of the gases liberated by the action of the current. It is chiefly due to the hydrogen, and results in an increase of the resistance, and the setting up of an opposing electro- motive force, both of which tend materially to weaken the current of the battery, or that passing through the cell.

Polarize transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Polarized ; present participle & verbal noun Polarizing .] [ Confer French polariser .] To communicate polarity to.

Polarizer noun (Physics) That which polarizes; especially, the part of a polariscope which receives and polarizes the light. It is usually a reflecting plate, or a plate of some crystal, as tourmaline, or a doubly refracting crystal.

Polary adjective Tending to a pole; having a direction toward a pole. [ R.] Sir T. Browne.

Polatouche noun [ French] (Zoology) A flying squirrel ( Sciuropterus volans ) native of Northern Europe and Siberia; -- called also minene .

Polder noun [ D.] A tract of low land reclaimed from the sea by of high embankments. [ Holland & Belgium]

Poldway noun [ Confer Poledavy .] A kind of coarse bagging, -- used for coal sacks. Weale.

Pole noun [ Confer German Pole a Pole, Polen Poland.] A native or inhabitant of Poland; a Polander.

Pole noun [ As. pāl , Latin palus , akin to pangere to make fast. Confer Pale a stake, Pact .]
1. A long, slender piece of wood; a tall, slender piece of timber; the stem of a small tree whose branches have been removed; as, specifically: (a) A carriage pole, a wooden bar extending from the front axle of a carriage between the wheel horses, by which the carriage is guided and held back. (b) A flag pole, a pole on which a flag is supported. (c) A Maypole. See Maypole . (d) A barber's pole, a pole painted in stripes, used as a sign by barbers and hairdressers. (e) A pole on which climbing beans, hops, or other vines, are trained.

2. A measuring stick; also, a measure of length equal to 5... yards, or a square measure equal to 30... square yards; a rod; a perch. Bacon.

Pole bean (Botany) , any kind of bean which is customarily trained on poles, as the scarlet runner or the Lima bean. -- Pole flounder (Zoology) , a large deep-water flounder ( Glyptocephalus cynoglossus ), native of the northern coasts of Europe and America, and much esteemed as a food fish; -- called also craig flounder , and pole fluke . -- Pole lathe , a simple form of lathe, or a substitute for a lathe, in which the work is turned by means of a cord passing around it, one end being fastened to the treadle, and the other to an elastic pole above. -- Pole mast (Nautical) , a mast formed from a single piece or from a single tree. -- Pole of a lens (Opt.) , the point where the principal axis meets the surface. -- Pole plate (Architecture) , a horizontal timber resting on the tiebeams of a roof and receiving the ends of the rafters. It differs from the plate in not resting on the wall.

Pole transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Poled ; present participle & verbal noun Poling .]
1. To furnish with poles for support; as, to pole beans or hops.

2. To convey on poles; as, to pole hay into a barn.

3. To impel by a pole or poles, as a boat.

4. To stir, as molten glass, with a pole.

Pole noun [ Latin polus , Greek ... a pivot or hinge on which anything turns, an axis, a pole; akin to ... to move: confer French pôle .]
1. Either extremity of an axis of a sphere; especially, one of the extremities of the earth's axis; as, the north pole .

2. (Spherics) A point upon the surface of a sphere equally distant from every part of the circumference of a great circle; or the point in which a diameter of the sphere perpendicular to the plane of such circle meets the surface. Such a point is called the pole of that circle; as, the pole of the horizon; the pole of the ecliptic; the pole of a given meridian.

3. (Physics) One of the opposite or contrasted parts or directions in which a polar force is manifested; a point of maximum intensity of a force which has two such points, or which has polarity; as, the poles of a magnet; the north pole of a needle.

4. The firmament; the sky. [ Poetic]

Shoots against the dusky pole .
Milton.

5. (Geom.) See Polarity , and Polar , noun

Magnetic pole . See under Magnetic . -- Poles of the earth , or Terrestrial poles (Geology) , the two opposite points on the earth's surface through which its axis passes. -- Poles of the heavens , or Celestial poles , the two opposite points in the celestial sphere which coincide with the earth's axis produced, and about which the heavens appear to revolve.

Poleax, Poleaxe noun [ Middle English pollax ; confer OD. pollexe . See Poll head, and Ax.] Anciently, a kind of battle-ax with a long handle; later, an ax or hatchet with a short handle, and a head variously patterned; -- used by soldiers, and also by sailors in boarding a vessel.

Polecat noun [ Probably from French poule hen, and originally, a poultry cat, because it feeds on poultry. See Poultry .] (Zoology) (a) A small European carnivore of the Weasel family ( Putorius fœtidus ). Its scent glands secrete a substance of an exceedingly disagreeable odor. Called also fitchet , foulmart , and European ferret . (b) The zorilla. The name is also applied to other allied species.

Poledavy noun [ Etymology uncertain.] A sort of coarse canvas; poldway. [ Obsolete] Howell.

Poleless adjective Without a pole; as, a poleless chariot.

Polemarch noun [ Greek ...; ... war + ... leader, from ... to be first.] (Gr. Antiq.) In Athens, originally, the military commanderin-chief; but, afterward, a civil magistrate who had jurisdiction in respect of strangers and sojourners. In other Grecian cities, a high military and civil officer.

Polemic adjective [ Greek ... warlike, from ... war: confer French polémique .]
1. Of or pertaining to controversy; maintaining, or involving, controversy; controversial; disputative; as, a polemic discourse or essay; polemic theology.

2. Engaged in, or addicted to, polemics, or to controversy; disputations; as, a polemic writer. South.

Polemic noun
1. One who writes in support of one opinion, doctrine, or system, in opposition to another; one skilled in polemics; a controversialist; a disputant.

The sarcasms and invectives of the young polemic .
Macaulay.

2. A polemic argument or controversy.

Polemical adjective Polemic; controversial; disputatious. -- Po*lem"ic*al*ly , adverb

Polemical and impertinent disputations.
Jer. Taylor.

Polemicist noun A polemic. [ R.]

Polemics noun [ Confer French polémique .] The art or practice of disputation or controversy, especially on religious subjects; that branch of theological science which pertains to the history or conduct of ecclesiastical controversy.

Polemist noun A polemic. [ R.]

Polemoniaceous adjective (Botany) Of or pertaining to a natural order of plants ( Polemoniaceæ ), which includes Polemonium , Phlox , Gilia , and a few other genera.

Polemonium noun [ New Latin , from Greek ... a kind of plant.] (Botany) A genus of gamopetalous perennial herbs, including the Jacob's ladder and the Greek valerian.

Polemoscope noun [ Greek ... war + -scope : confer French polémoscope .] An opera glass or field glass with an oblique mirror arranged for seeing objects do not lie directly before the eye; -- called also diagonal, or side, opera glass .

Polemy noun [ See Polemic .] Warfare; war; hence, contention; opposition. [ Obsolete]

Polenta noun [ Italian , from Latin polenta peeled barley.] Pudding made of Indian meal; also, porridge made of chestnut meal. [ Italy]

Poler noun One who poles.

Poler noun An extortioner. See Poller . [ Obsolete] Bacon.

Polestar noun
1. Polaris, or the north star. See North star , under North .

2. A guide or director.

Polewards adverb Toward a pole of the earth. "The regions further polewards ." Whewell.

Polewig noun [ Confer Polliwig .] (Zoology) The European spotted goby (Gobius minutus) ; -- called also pollybait . [ Prov. Eng.]

Poley noun (Botany) See Poly .

Poley adjective Without horns; polled. [ Prov. Eng.] "That poley heifer." H. Kingsley.

Polianite noun [ Greek ... to become gray.] (Min.) Manganese dioxide, occurring in tetragonal crystals nearly as hard as quartz.

Policate adjective (Zoology) Same as Pollicate .

Police noun [ French, from Latin politia the condition of a state, government, administration, Greek ..., from ... to be a citizen, to govern or administer a state, from ... citizen, from ... city; akin to Sanskrit pur , puri . Confer Policy polity, Polity .]
1. A judicial and executive system, for the government of a city, town, or district, for the preservation of rights, order, cleanliness, health, etc., and for the enforcement of the laws and prevention of crime; the administration of the laws and regulations of a city, incorporated town, or borough.

2. That which concerns the order of the community; the internal regulation of a state.

3. The organized body of civil officers in a city, town, or district, whose particular duties are the preservation of good order, the prevention and detection of crime, and the enforcement of the laws.

4. (Mil.) Military police, the body of soldiers detailed to preserve civil order and attend to sanitary arrangements in a camp or garrison.

5. The cleaning of a camp or garrison, or the state ... a camp as to cleanliness.

Police commissioner , a civil officer, usually one of a board, commissioned to regulate and control the appointment, duties, and discipline of the police. -- Police constable , or Police officer , a policeman. -- Police court , a minor court to try persons brought before it by the police. -- Police inspector , an officer of police ranking next below a superintendent. -- Police jury , a body of officers who collectively exercise jurisdiction in certain cases of police, as levying taxes, etc.; -- so called in Louisiana. Bouvier. -- Police justice , or Police magistrate , a judge of a police court. -- Police offenses (Law) , minor offenses against the order of the community, of which a police court may have final jurisdiction. -- Police station , the headquarters of the police, or of a section of them; the place where the police assemble for orders, and to which they take arrested persons.

Police transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Policed ; present participle & verbal noun Policing .]
1. To keep in order by police.

2. (Mil.) To make clean; as, to police a camp.

Police power (Law) The inherent power of a government to regulate its police affairs. The term police power is not definitely fixed in meaning. In the earlier cases in the United States it was used as including the whole power of internal government, or the powers of government inherent in every sovereignty to the extent of its dominions (11 Peters ( U. S. ) 102). The later cases have excepted from its domain the development and administration of private law. Modern political science defines the power as a branch of internal administration in the exercise of which the executive should move within the lines of general principles prescribed by the constitution or the legislature, and in the exercise of which the most local governmental organizations should participate as far as possible ( Burgess ). Under this limitation the police power, as affecting persons, is the power of the state to protect the public against the abuse of individual liberty, that is, to restrain the individual in the exercise of his rights when such exercise becomes a danger to the community. The tendency of judicial and popular usage is towards this narrower definition.

Policed adjective Regulated by laws for the maintenance of peace and order, enforced by organized administration. "A policed kingdom." Howell.