Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Keel (kēl) transitive verb & i. [ Anglo-Saxon cēlan to cool, from cōl cool. See Cool .] To cool; to skim or stir. [ Obsolete]

While greasy Joan doth keel the pot.
Shak.

Keel noun A brewer's cooling vat; a keelfat.

Keel noun [ Confer Anglo-Saxon ceól ship; akin to D. & German kiel keel, Old High German chiol ship, Icelandic kjōll , and perhaps to Greek gay^los a round-built Phœnician merchant vessel, gaylo`s bucket; confer Sanskrit gōla ball, round water vessel. But the meaning of the English word seems to come from Icelandic kjölr keel, akin to Swedish köl , Danish kjöl .]
1. (Shipbuilding) A longitudinal timber, or series of timbers scarfed together, extending from stem to stern along the bottom of a vessel. It is the principal timber of the vessel, and, by means of the ribs attached on each side, supports the vessel's frame. In an iron vessel, a combination of plates supplies the place of the keel of a wooden ship. See Illust. of Keelson .

2. Fig.: The whole ship.

3. A barge or lighter, used on the Tyne for carrying coal from Newcastle; also, a barge load of coal, twenty-one tons, four cwt. [ Eng.]

4. (Botany) The two lowest petals of the corolla of a papilionaceous flower, united and inclosing the stamens and pistil; a carina. See Carina .

5. (Nat. Hist.) A projecting ridge along the middle of a flat or curved surface.

Bilge keel (Nautical) , a keel peculiar to ironclad vessels, extending only a portion of the length of the vessel under the bilges. Ham. Nav. Encyc. -- False keel . See under False . -- Keel boat . (a) A covered freight boat, with a keel, but no sails, used on Western rivers . [ U. S.] (b) A low, flat-bottomed freight boat. See Keel , noun , 3. -- Keel piece , one of the timbers or sections of which a keel is composed. -- On even keel , in a level or horizontal position, so that the draught of water at the stern and the bow is the same. Ham. Nav. Encyc.

Keel intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Keeled ; present participle & verbal noun Keeling .]
1. To traverse with a keel; to navigate.

2. To turn up the keel; to show the bottom.

To keel over , to upset; to capsize. [ Colloq.]

Keel noun (Aëronautics) In a dirigible, a construction similar in form and use to a ship's keel; in an aëroplane, a fin or fixed surface employed to increase stability and to hold the machine to its course.

Keelage noun [ Confer French guillage , from guille keel; of German or Scand origin. See 3d Keel .] The right of demanding a duty or toll for a ship entering a port; also, the duty or toll. Bouvier. Wharton.

Keeled adjective
1. (Botany) Keel-shaped; having a longitudinal prominence on the back; as, a keeled leaf.

2. (Zoology) Having a median ridge; carinate; as, a keeled scale.

Keeler noun [ See 3d Keel .]
1. One employed in managing a Newcastle keel; -- called also keelman .

2. A small or shallow tub; esp., one used for holding materials for calking ships, or one used for washing dishes, etc.

Keelfat noun [ Keel to cool + fat a large tub, a vat.] (Brewing) A cooler; a vat for cooling wort, etc. [ Written also keelvat .] Johnson.

Keelhaul intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Keelhauled ; present participle & verbal noun Keelhauling .] [ 3d keel + haul : confer LG. & Dutch kielhalen , German kielholen . ] [ Written also keelhale .] (Nautical) To haul under the keel of a ship, by ropes attached to the yardarms on each side. It was formerly practiced as a punishment in the Dutch and English navies. Totten.

Keeling noun [ Confer Icelandic keila , Swedish kolja , Danish kulle .] (Zoology) A cod.

Keelivine noun [ Confer Gael. cil ruddle.] A pencil of black or red lead; -- called also keelyvine pen . [ Scot.] Sir W. Scott.

Keelman noun ; plural - men See Keeler , 1.

Keelrake transitive verb (Nautical) Same as Keelhaul .

Keels noun plural Ninepins. See Kayles .

Keelson noun [ Akin to Swedish kölsvin , Danish kjölsviin , German kielschwein ; apparently compounded of the words keel and swine ; but confer Norweg. kjölsvill , where svill is akin to English sill , noun ] (Shipbuilding) A piece of timber in a ship laid on the middle of the floor timbers over the keel, and binding the floor timbers to the keel; in iron vessels, a structure of plates, situated like the keelson of a timber ship.

Cross keelson , a similar structure lying athwart the main keelson, to support the engines and boilers.

Keelvat (kēl"văt`) noun See Keelfat .

Keen (kēn) adjective [ Compar. Keener (-ẽr); superl. Keenest .] [ Middle English kene sharp, bold, Anglo-Saxon cēne bold; akin to Dutch koen , Old High German kuoni , German kühn , OSw. kyn , kön , Icelandic kænn , for kœnn wise; perhaps akin to English ken , can to be able. √45. ]
1. Sharp; having a fine edge or point; as, a keen razor, or a razor with a keen edge.

A bow he bare and arwes [ arrows] bright and kene .
Chaucer.

That my keen knife see not the wound it makes.
Shak.

2. Acute of mind; sharp; penetrating; having or expressing mental acuteness; as, a man of keen understanding; a keen look; keen features.

To make our wits more keen .
Shak.

Before the keen inquiry of her thought.
Cowper.

3. Bitter; piercing; acrimonious; cutting; stinging; severe; as, keen satire or sarcasm.

Good father cardinal, cry thou amen
To my keen curses.
Shak.

4. Piercing; penetrating; cutting; sharp; -- applied to cold, wind, etc.; as, a keen wind; the cold is very keen .

Breasts the keen air, and carols as he goes.
Goldsmith.

5. Eager; vehement; fierce; as, a keen appetite. "Of full kene will." Piers Plowman.

So keen and greedy to confound a man.
Shak.

» Keen is often used in the composition of words, most of which are of obvious signification; as, keen -edged, keen -eyed, keen -sighted, keen -witted, etc.

Syn. -- Prompt; eager; ardent; sharp; acute; cutting; penetrating; biting; severe; sarcastic; satirical; piercing; shrewd.

Keen transitive verb To sharpen; to make cold. [ R.]

Cold winter keens the brightening flood.
Thomson.

Keen noun [ Ir. caoine .] A prolonged wail for a deceased person. Confer Coranach . [ Ireland] Froude.

Keen intransitive verb To wail as a keener does. [ Ireland]

Keener noun A professional mourner who wails at a funeral. [ Ireland]

Keenly adverb In a keen manner.

Keenness noun The quality or state of being keen.

Keep (kēp) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Kept (kĕpt); present participle & verbal noun Keeping .] [ Middle English kēpen , Anglo-Saxon cēpan to keep, regard, desire, await, take, betake; confer Anglo-Saxon copenere lover, Middle English copnien to desire.]
1. To care; to desire. [ Obsolete]

I kepe not of armes for to yelp [ boast].
Chaucer.

2. To hold; to restrain from departure or removal; not to let go of; to retain in one's power or possession; not to lose; to retain; to detain.

If we lose the field,
We can not keep the town.
Shak.

That I may know what keeps me here with you.
Dryden.

If we would weigh and keep in our minds what we are considering, that would instruct us.
Locke.

3. To cause to remain in a given situation or condition; to maintain unchanged; to hold or preserve in any state or tenor.

His loyalty he kept , his love, his zeal.
Milton.

Keep a stiff rein, and move but gently on.
Addison.

» In this sense it is often used with prepositions and adverbs, as to keep away , to keep down , to keep from , to keep in , out , or off , etc. "To keep off impertinence and solicitation from his superior." Addison.

4. To have in custody; to have in some place for preservation; to take charge of.

The crown of Stephanus, first king of Hungary, was always kept in the castle of Vicegrade.
Knolles.

5. To preserve from danger, harm, or loss; to guard.

Behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee.
Gen. xxviii. 15.

6. To preserve from discovery or publicity; not to communicate, reveal, or betray, as a secret.

Great are thy virtues . . . though kept from man.
Milton.

7. To attend upon; to have the care of; to tend.

And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden, to dress it and to keep it.
Gen. ii. 15.

In her girlish age, she kept sheep on the moor.
Carew.

8. To record transactions, accounts, or events in; as, to keep books, a journal, etc.; also, to enter (as accounts, records, etc. ) in a book.

9. To maintain, as an establishment, institution, or the like; to conduct; to manage; as, to keep store.

Like a pedant that keeps a school.
Shak.

Every one of them kept house by himself.
Hayward.

10. To supply with necessaries of life; to entertain; as, to keep boarders.

11. To have in one's service; to have and maintain, as an assistant, a servant, a mistress, a horse, etc.

I keep but three men and a boy.
Shak.

12. To have habitually in stock for sale.

13. To continue in, as a course or mode of action; not to intermit or fall from; to hold to; to maintain; as, to keep silence; to keep one's word; to keep possession.

Both day and night did we keep company.
Shak.

Within this portal as I kept my watch.
Smollett.

14. To observe; to adhere to; to fulfill; not to swerve from or violate; to practice or perform, as duty; not to neglect; to be faithful to.

I have kept the faith.
2 Tim. iv. 7.

Him whom to love is to obey, and keep
His great command.
Milton.

15. To confine one's self to; not to quit; to remain in; as, to keep one's house, room, bed, etc.; hence, to haunt; to frequent. Shak.

'Tis hallowed ground;
Fairies, and fawns, and satyrs do it keep .
J. Fletcher.

16. To observe duly, as a festival, etc.; to celebrate; to solemnize; as, to keep a feast.

I went with them to the house of God . . . with a multitude that kept holyday.
Ps. xlii. 4.

To keep at arm's length . See under Arm , noun -- To keep back . (a) To reserve; to withhold . "I will keep nothing back from you." Jer. xlii. 4. (b) To restrain; to hold back. " Keep back thy servant also from presumptuous sins." Ps. xix. 13. -- To keep company with . (a) To frequent the society of; to associate with; as, let youth keep company with the wise and good. (b) To accompany; to go with; as, to keep company with one on a voyage; also, to pay court to, or accept attentions from, with a view to marriage . [ Colloq.] -- To keep counsel . See under Counsel , noun -- To keep down . (a) To hold in subjection; to restrain; to hinder . (b) (Fine Arts) To subdue in tint or tone, as a portion of a picture, so that the spectator's attention may not be diverted from the more important parts of the work. -- To keep good (or bad ) hours , to be customarily early (or late) in returning home or in retiring to rest. -- To keep house . (a) To occupy a separate house or establishment, as with one's family, as distinguished from boarding ; to manage domestic affairs . (b) (Eng. Bankrupt Law) To seclude one's self in one's house in order to evade the demands of creditors. -- To keep one's hand in , to keep in practice. -- To keep open house , to be hospitable. -- To keep the peace (Law) , to avoid or to prevent a breach of the peace. -- To keep school , to govern, manage and instruct or teach a school, as a preceptor. -- To keep a stiff upper lip , to keep up one's courage. [ Slang] -- To keep term . (a) (Eng. Universities) To reside during a term . (b) (Inns of Court) To eat a sufficient number of dinners in hall to make the term count for the purpose of being called to the bar . [ Eng.] Mozley & W. -- To keep touch . See under Touch , noun -- To keep under , to hold in subjection; hence, to oppress. -- To keep up . (a) To maintain; to prevent from falling or diminution; as, to keep up the price of goods; to keep up one's credit . (b) To maintain; to continue; to prevent from ceasing . "In joy, that which keeps up the action is the desire to continue it." Locke.

Syn. -- To retain; detain; reserve; preserve; hold; restrain; maintain; sustain; support; withhold. -- To Keep . Retain , Preserve . Keep is the generic term, and is often used where retain or preserve would too much restrict the meaning; as, to keep silence, etc. Retain denotes that we keep or hold things, as against influences which might deprive us of them, or reasons which might lead us to give them up; as, to retain vivacity in old age; to retain counsel in a lawsuit; to retain one's servant after a reverse of fortune. Preserve denotes that we keep a thing against agencies which might lead to its being destroyed or broken in upon; as, to preserve one's health; to preserve appearances.

Keep intransitive verb
1. To remain in any position or state; to continue; to abide; to stay; as, to keep at a distance; to keep aloft; to keep near; to keep in the house; to keep before or behind; to keep in favor; to keep out of company, or out reach.

2. To last; to endure; to remain unimpaired.

If the malt be not thoroughly dried, the ale it makes will not keep .
Mortimer.

3. To reside for a time; to lodge; to dwell. [ Now disused except locally or colloquially.]

Knock at his study, where, they say, he keeps .
Shak.

4. To take care; to be solicitous; to watch. [ Obsolete]

Keep that the lusts choke not the word of God that is in us.
Tyndale.

5. To be in session; as, school keeps to-day. [ Colloq.]

To keep from , to abstain or refrain from. -- To keep in with , to keep on good terms with; as, to keep in with an opponent. -- To keep on , to go forward; to proceed; to continue to advance. -- To keep to , to adhere strictly to; not to neglect or deviate from; as, to keep to old customs; to keep to a rule; to keep to one's word or promise. -- To keep up , to remain unsubdued; also, not to be confined to one's bed.

Keep noun
1. The act or office of keeping; custody; guard; care; heed; charge. Chaucer.

Pan, thou god of shepherds all,
Which of our tender lambkins takest keep .
Spenser.

2. The state of being kept; hence, the resulting condition; case; as, to be in good keep .

3. The means or provisions by which one is kept; maintenance; support; as, the keep of a horse.

Grass equal to the keep of seven cows.
Carlyle.

I performed some services to the college in return for my keep .
T. Hughes.

4. That which keeps or protects; a stronghold; a fortress; a castle; specifically, the strongest and securest part of a castle, often used as a place of residence by the lord of the castle, especially during a siege; the donjon. See Illust. of Castle .

The prison strong,
Within whose keep the captive knights were laid.
Dryden.

The lower chambers of those gloomy keeps .
Hallam.

I think . . . the keep , or principal part of a castle, was so called because the lord and his domestic circle kept , abode, or lived there.
M. A. Lower.

5. That which is kept in charge; a charge. [ Obsolete]

Often he used of his keep
A sacrifice to bring.
Spenser.

6. (Machinery) A cap for retaining anything, as a journal box, in place.

To take keep , to take care; to heed. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Keeper noun
1. One who, or that which, keeps; one who, or that which, holds or has possession of anything.

2. One who retains in custody; one who has the care of a prison and the charge of prisoners.

3. One who has the care, custody, or superintendence of anything; as, the keeper of a park, a pound, of sheep, of a gate, etc.; the keeper of attached property; hence, one who saves from harm; a defender; a preserver.

The Lord is thy keeper .
Ps. cxxi. 6.

4. One who remains or keeps in a place or position.

Discreet; chaste; keepers at home.
Titus ii. 5.

5. A ring, strap, clamp, or any device for holding an object in place; as: (a) The box on a door jamb into which the bolt of a lock protrudes, when shot. (b) A ring serving to keep another ring on the finger. (c) A loop near the buckle of a strap to receive the end of the strap.

6. A fruit that keeps well; as, the Roxbury Russet is a good keeper . Downing.

Keeper of the forest (O. Eng. Law) , an officer who had the principal government of all things relating to the forest. -- Keeper of the great seal , a high officer of state, who has custody of the great seal. The office is now united with that of lord chancellor. [ Eng.] -- Keeper of the King's conscience , the lord chancellor; -- a name given when the chancellor was an ecclesiastic. [ Eng.] -- Keeper of the privy seal (styled also lord privy seal ), a high officer of state, through whose hands pass all charters, pardons, etc., before they come to the great seal. He is a privy councillor, and was formerly called clerk of the privy seal . [ Eng.] -- Keeper of a magnet , a piece of iron which connects the two poles, for the purpose of keeping the magnetic power undiminished; an armature.

Keepership noun The office or position of a keeper. Carew.

Keeping noun
1. A holding; restraint; custody; guard; charge; care; preservation.

His happiness is in his own keeping .
South.

2. Maintenance; support; provision; feed; as, the cattle have good keeping .

The work of many hands, which earns my keeping .
Milton.

3. Conformity; congruity; harmony; consistency; as, these subjects are in keeping with each other.

4. (Paint.) Harmony or correspondence between the different parts of a work of art; as, the foreground of this painting is not in keeping .

Keeping room , a family sitting room. [ New Eng. & Prov. Eng.]

Syn. -- Care; guardianship; custody; possession.

Keepsake noun Anything kept, or given to be kept, for the sake of the giver; a token of friendship.

Keesh noun See Kish .

Keeve noun [ Anglo-Saxon c...f , from Latin cupa a tub, cask; also, French cuve . Confer Kive , Coop .]
1. (Brewing) A vat or tub in which the mash is made; a mash tub. Ure.

2. (Bleaching) A bleaching vat; a kier.

3. (Mining) A large vat used in dressing ores.

Keeve transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Keeved ; present participle & verbal noun Keeving .]
1. To set in a keeve, or tub, for fermentation.

2. To heave; to tilt, as a cart. [ Prov. Eng.]

Keever noun See Keeve , noun

Keffe-kil noun (Min.) See Kiefekil .

Kefir noun An effervescent liquor like kumiss, made from fermented milk, used as a food and as a medicine in the northern Caucasus. -- Ke*fir"ic adjective

Kefir grains Small hard yellowish aggregations found in the Caucasus region, and containing various yeasts and bacteria. They are used as a ferment in preparing kefir.

Keg (kĕg) noun [ Earlier cag , Icelandic kaggi ; akin to Swedish kagge .] A small cask or barrel.

Keilhauite (kīl"hou*īt) noun (Min.) A mineral of a brownish black color, related to titanite in form. It consists chiefly of silica, titanium dioxide, lime, and yttria.

Keir noun See Kier .

Keitloa noun [ Native name.] (Zoology) A black, two-horned, African rhinoceros ( Atelodus keitloa ). It has the posterior horn about as long as the anterior one, or even longer.

Keld adjective [ Confer Cavl .] Having a kell or covering; webbed. [ Obsolete] Drayton.

Kele transitive verb [ See Keel to cool.] To cool. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Kell noun A kiln. [ Obsolete]

Kell noun [ A modification of kale .] A sort of pottage; kale. See Kale , 2. Ainsworth.

Kell noun [ Confer Caul .]
1. The caul; that which covers or envelops as a caul; a net; a fold; a film. [ Obsolete]

I'll have him cut to the kell .
Beau. & Fl.

2. The cocoon or chrysalis of an insect. B. Jonson.

Keloid adjective [ Greek ... tumor + - oid .] (Medicine) Applied to a variety of tumor forming hard, flat, irregular excrescences upon the skin. -- noun A keloid tumor.

Keloid adjective [ Greek ... crab's claw + -oid : confer French kéloïde , chéloïde .] (Medicine) Applied to a variety of tumor forming hard, flat, irregular excrescences upon the skin.

Keloid noun A keloid tumor.