Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Ionic adjective [ Latin Ionicus , Greek ..., from ... Ionia.]


1. Of or pertaining to Ionia or the Ionians.

2. (Architecture) Pertaining to the Ionic order of architecture, one of the three orders invented by the Greeks, and one of the five recognized by the Italian writers of the sixteenth century. Its distinguishing feature is a capital with spiral volutes. See Illust. of Capital .

Ionic dialect (Gr. Gram.) , a dialect of the Greek language, used in Ionia. The Homeric poems are written in what is designated old Ionic , as distinguished from new Ionic , or Attic , the dialect of all cultivated Greeks in the period of Athenian prosperity and glory. -- Ionic foot . (Pros.) See Ionic , noun , 1. -- Ionic , or Ionian , mode (Mus.) , an ancient mode, supposed to correspond with the modern major scale of C. -- Ionic sect , a sect of philosophers founded by Thales of Miletus, in Ionia. Their distinguishing tenet was, that water is the original principle of all things. -- Ionic type , a kind of heavy- faced type (as that of the following line).

» This is Nonpareil Ionic.

Ionic noun
1. (Pros.) (a) A foot consisting of four syllables: either two long and two short, -- that is, a spondee and a pyrrhic, in which case it is called the greater Ionic ; or two short and two long, -- that is, a pyrrhic and a spondee, in which case it is called the smaller Ionic . (b) A verse or meter composed or consisting of Ionic feet.

2. The Ionic dialect; as, the Homeric Ionic .

3. (Print.) Ionic type.

Ionidium noun [ New Latin Confer Iodine .] (Botany) A genus of violaceous plants, chiefly found in tropical America, some species of which are used as substitutes for ipecacuanha.

Ionize transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Ionized ; present participle & verbal noun Ionizing .] (Elec. Chem.) To separate (a compound) into ions, esp. by dissolving in water. -- I`on*i*za"tion noun

Ioqua shell [ From the native name.] (Zoology) The shell of a large Dentalium ( D. pretiosum ), formerly used as shell money, and for ornaments, by the Indians of the west coast of North America.

Iota noun [ Latin , from Greek 'iw^ta . See Jot .]


1. The ninth letter of the Greek alphabet (ι) corresponding with the English i .

2. A very small quantity or degree; a jot; a particle.

They never depart an iota from the authentic formulas of tyranny and usurpation.
Burke.

Iota subscript (Gr. Gram.) , iota written beneath a preceding vowel, as a, , h, , w, , -- done when iota is silent.

Iotacism (i*ō"tȧ*sĭz'm) noun [ Greek 'iotakismo`s a laying too much stress upon the iota (ι): confer French iotacisme . See Iota .] The frequent use of the sound of iota (that of English e in be ), as among the modern Greeks; also, confusion from sounding ε, ι, η, υ, ει, etc., like ι. Littré.

Iowas noun plural ; sing. Iowa . (Ethnol.) A tribe of Indians which formerly occupied the region now included in the State of Iowa.

Ipecac (ĭp"e*kăk) noun An abbreviation of Ipecacuanha , and in more frequent use.

Ipecacuanha (ĭp`e*kăk`u*ăn"ȧ) noun [ Portuguese ipecacuanha (cf. Spanish ipecacuana ); from Braz. ipe-kaa-guena , prop., a creeping plant that causes vomiting.] (Med. & Bot.) The root of a Brazilian rubiaceous herb ( Cephaëlis Ipecacuanha ), largely employed as an emetic; also, the plant itself; also, a medicinal extract of the root. Many other plants are used as a substitutes; among them are the black or Peruvian ipecac ( Psychotria emetica ), the white ipecac ( Ionidium Ipecacuanha ), the bastard or wild ipecac ( Asclepias Curassavica ), and the undulated ipecac ( Richardsonia scabra ).

Ipocras noun Hippocras. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Ipomœa (ĭp`o*mē"ȧ) noun [ New Latin "Named, according to Linnæus, from Greek 'i`ps , 'ipo`s , a bindweed [ which it is not], and "o`moios like." Gray. ] (Botany) A genus of twining plants with showy monopetalous flowers, including the morning-glory, the sweet potato, and the cypress vine.

Ipomœic adjective (Chemistry) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid obtained by the oxidation of convolvulin (obtained from jalap, the tubers of Ipomœa purga ), and identical in most of its properties with sebacic acid.

Ir- A form of the prefix in -. See In- .

Iracund adjective [ Latin iracundus , from ira anger.] Irascible; choleric. " Iracund people." Carlyle.

Irade (e*rä"da) noun [ Turk.] A decree of the Sultan.

Iran (ē`rän") noun [ Mod. Persian Irān . Confer Aryan .] The native name of Persia.

Iranian adjective Of or pertaining to Iran. -- noun A native of Iran; also, the Iranian or Persian language, a division of the Aryan family of languages.

Iranic adjective Iranian.

Irascibility noun [ Confer French irascibilité .] The quality or state of being irascible; irritability of temper; irascibleness.

Irascible adjective [ Latin irascibilis , from irasci to be angry, ira anger: confer French irascible . See Ire .] Prone to anger; easily provoked or inflamed to anger; choleric; irritable; as, an irascible man; an irascible temper or mood. -- I*ras"ci*ble*ness , noun -- I*ras"ci*bly , adverb

Irate adjective [ Latin iratus , from irasci to be angry. See Ire .] Angry; incensed; enraged. [ Recent]

The irate colonel . . . stood speechless.
Thackeray.

Mr. Jaggers suddenly became most irate .
Dickens.

Ire noun [ French, from Latin ira .] Anger; wrath. [ Poet.]

Syn. -- Anger; passion; rage; fury. See Anger .

Ireful adjective Full of ire; angry; wroth. "The ireful bastard Orleans." Shak. -- Ire"ful*ly , adverb

Irefulness noun Wrathfulness. Wyclif.

Irenarch noun [ Latin irenarcha , irenarches , Greek ...; ... peace + ... to rule.] (Gr. Antiq.) An officer in the Greek empire having functions corresponding to those of a justice of the peace. [ Written also eirenarch .]

Irenic, Irenical adjective [ Greek ....] Fitted or designed to promote peace; pacific; conciliatory; peaceful. Bp. Hall.

Irenicon noun [ New Latin , from Greek ... peaceful, from ... peace.] A proposition or device for securing peace, especially in the church. South.

Irenics noun (Eccl.) That branch of Christian science which treats of the methods of securing unity among Christians or harmony and union among the churches; -- called also Irenical theology . Schaff- Herzog.

Irestone noun (Mining) Any very hard rock.

Irian adjective Of or pertaining to the iris. " Irian nerves." Dunglison.

Iricism noun Irishism. [ R.] Jeffrey.

Iridaceous, Irideous adjective [ From New Latin Iris , Iridis , the Iris.] (Botany) Pertaining to, or resembling, a large natural order of endogenous plants ( Iridaceæ ), which includes the genera Iris , Ixia , Crocus , Gladiolus , and many others.

Iridal adjective [ Latin iris , iridis , rainbow. See Iris .] Of or pertaining to the iris or rainbow; prismatic; as, the iridal colors. Whewell.

Iridectomy noun [ Greek ..., ..., iris + ... cutting out; ... out + te`mnein to cut.] (Surg.) The act or process of cutting out a portion of the iris in order to form an artificial pupil.

Iridescence noun [ See Iridescent .] Exhibition of colors like those of the rainbow; the quality or state of being iridescent; a prismatic play of color; as, the iridescence of mother-of-pearl.

Iridescent adjective [ Latin iris , iridis , the rainbow: confer French iridescent .] Having colors like the rainbow; exhibiting a play of changeable colors; nacreous; prismatic; as, iridescent glass.

Iridian adjective Of or pertaining to the iris or rainbow.

Iridiated adjective Iridescent.

Iridic adjective Of or pertaining to the iris of the eye.

Iridic adjective (Chemistry) Of or pertaining to iridium; -- said specifically of those compounds in which iridium has a relatively high valence.

Iridioscope noun [ See Iris , and -scope .] A kind of ophthalmoscope.

Iridious (i*rĭd"ĭ*ŭs) adjective (Chemistry) Of or pertaining to iridium; -- applied specifically to compounds in which iridium has a low valence.

Iridium (i*rĭd"ĭ*ŭm) noun [ New Latin , from Latin iris , iridis , the rainbow. So called from the iridescence of some of its solutions. See Iris .] (Chemistry) A rare metallic element, of the same group as platinum, which it much resembles, being silver-white, but harder, and brittle, and indifferent to most corrosive agents. With the exception of osmium, it is the heaviest substance known, its specific gravity being 22.4. Symbol Ir. Atomic weight 192.5.

» Iridium usually occurs as a native alloy with osmium ( iridosmine or osmiridium ), which may occur alone or with platinum. Iridium, as an alloy with platinum, is used in bushing the vents of heavy ordnance. It is also used for the points of gold pens, and in a finely powdered condition ( iridium black ), for painting porcelain black.

Iridize transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Iridized ; present participle & verbal noun Iridizing .]


1. To point or tip with iridium, as a gold pen.

2. To make iridescent; as, to iridize glass.

Iridoline noun [ Irid escent + Latin ol eum oil.] (Chemistry) A nitrogenous base C 10 H 9 N, extracted from coal-tar naphtha, as an oily liquid. It is a member of the quinoline series, and is probably identical with lepidine .

Iridosmine, Iridosmium noun [ Irid ium + osmium .] (Min.) The native compound of iridium and osmium. It is found in flattened metallic grains of extreme hardness, and is often used for pointing gold pens.

Iris noun ; plural English Irises , Latin Irides . [ Latin iris , iridis , the goddess, Greek ..., ..., the rainbow, iris of the eye, the plant Iris. Confer Orris .]
1. (Class. Myth.) The goddess of the rainbow, and swift-footed messenger of the gods. Shak.

2. The rainbow. Sir T. Browne.

3. An appearance resembling the rainbow; a prismatic play of colors. Tennyson.

4. (Anat.) The contractile membrane perforated by the pupil, and forming the colored portion of the eye. See Eye .

5. (Botany) A genus of plants having showy flowers and bulbous or tuberous roots, of which the flower-de- luce ( fleur-de-lis ), orris, and other species of flag are examples. See Illust. of Flower-de-luce .

6. (Her.) See Fleur-de-lis , 2.

Iris noun (Zoology) Inner circle of an oscillated color spot.

Iris diaphragm An adjustable diaphragm, suggesting the iris of the eye in its action, for regulating the aperture of a lens, consisting of a number of thin pieces fastened to a ring. It is used in cameras and microscopes.