Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Involvement noun The act of involving, or the state of being involved. Lew Wallace.

Invulgar transitive verb [ Prefix in- in + vulgar .] To cause to become or appear vulgar. [ Obsolete] Daniel.

Invulgar adjective [ Prefix in- not + vulgar .] Not vulgar; refined; elegant. [ Obsolete] Drayton.

Invulnerability noun [ Confer French invulnérabilité .] Quality or state of being invulnerable.

Invulnerable adjective [ Latin invulnerabilis : confer French invulnérable . See In- not, and Vulnerable .]


1. Incapable of being wounded, or of receiving injury.

Neither vainly hope
To be invulnerable in those bright arms.
Milton.

2. Unanswerable; irrefutable; that can not be refuted or convinced; as, an invulnerable argument.

Invulnerableness noun Invulnerability.

Invulnerate adjective [ Latin invulneratus unwounded.] Invulnerable.

Inwall (ĭn*wal") transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Inwalled (-wald"); present participle & verbal noun Inwalling .] To inclose or fortify as with a wall. Spenser.

Inwall (ĭn"wal`) noun An inner wall; specifically (Metal.) , the inner wall, or lining, of a blast furnace.

Inward (ĭn*wẽrd) adjective [ Anglo-Saxon inweard , inneweard , innanweard , from innan , inne , within (fr. in in; see In ) + the suffix -weard , English -ward .]


1. Being or placed within; inner; interior; - - opposed to outward . Milton.

2. Seated in the mind, heart, spirit, or soul. " Inward beauty." Shak.

3. Intimate; domestic; private. [ Obsolete]

All my inward friends abhorred me.
Job xix. 19.

He had had occasion, by one very inward with him, to know in part the discourse of his life.
Sir P. Sidney.

Inward noun
1. That which is inward or within; especially, in the plural, the inner parts or organs of the body; the viscera. Jer. Taylor.

Then sacrificing, laid the inwards and their fat.
Milton.

2. The mental faculties; -- usually plural [ Obsolete]

3. An intimate or familiar friend or acquaintance. [ Obsolete] "I was an inward of his." Shak.

Inward, Inwards adverb [ Anglo-Saxon inweard . The ending -s is prop. a genitive ending. See Inward , adjective , -wards .]


1. Toward the inside; toward the center or interior; as, to bend a thing inward .

2. Into, or toward, the mind or thoughts; inwardly; as, to turn the attention inward .

So much the rather, thou Celestial Light,
Shine inward .
Milton.

Inwardly adverb [ Anglo-Saxon inweardlice .]


1. In the inner parts; internally.

Let Benedick, like covered fire,
Consume away in sighs, waste inwardly .
Shak.

2. Toward the center; inward; as, to curve inwardly .

3. In the heart or mind; mentally; privately; secretly; as, he inwardly repines.

4. Intimately; thoroughly. [ Obsolete]

I shall desire to know him more inwardly .
Beau. & Fl.

Inwardness noun
1. Internal or true state; essential nature; as, the inwardness of conduct.

Sense can not arrive to the inwardness
Of things.
Dr. H. More.

2. Intimacy; familiarity. [ Obsolete] Shak.

3. Heartiness; earnestness.

What was wanted was more inwardness , more feeling.
M. Arnold.

Inwards adverb See Inward .

Inweave transitive verb To weave in or together; to intermix or intertwine by weaving; to interlace.

Down they cast
Their crowns, inwove with amaranth and gold.
Milton.

Inwheel transitive verb To encircle. [ R.] Beau. & Fl.

Inwit noun Inward sense; mind; understanding; conscience. [ Obsolete] Wyclif.

Inwith preposition Within. [ Obsolete]

This purse hath she inwith her bosom hid.
Chaucer.

Inwork transitive verb & i. [ Prefix in- + work . Confer Inwrought .] To work in or within.

Inworn p. adjective Worn, wrought, or stamped in. [ R.] Milton.

Inwrap transitive verb [ Written also enwrap .]


1. To cover by wrapping; to involve; to infold; as, to inwrap in a cloak, in smoke, etc.

2. To involve, as in difficulty or perplexity; to perplex. [ R.] Bp. Hall.

Inwreathe transitive verb To surround or encompass as with a wreath. [ Written also enwreathe .]

Resplendent locks, inwreathed with beams.
Milton.

Inwrought past participle or adjective [ Prefix in- + wrought . Confer Inwork .] Wrought or worked in or among other things; worked into any fabric so as to from a part of its texture; wrought or adorned, as with figures.

His mantle hairy, and his bonnet sedge,
Inwrought with figures dim.
Milton.

Io noun ; plural Ios . [ Latin ; confer Greek "iw` .] An exclamation of joy or triumph; -- often interjectional.

Io moth (?; 115). (Zoology) A large and handsome American moth ( Hyperchiria Io ), having a large, bright-colored spot on each hind wing, resembling the spots on the tail of a peacock. The larva is covered with prickly hairs, which sting like nettles.

Iod- (Chemistry) See Iodo- .

Iodal (ī"o*d a l) noun [ Iod- + al cohol.] (Chemistry) An oily liquid, CI 3 .CHO, analogous to chloral and bromal.

Iodate (ī"o*dat) noun (Chemistry) A salt of iodic acid.

Iodhydrin noun [ Iod- + chlor hydrin .] (Chemistry) One of a series of compounds containing iodine, and analogous to the chlorhydrins.

Iodic adjective [ Confer French iodique . See Iodine .] (Chemistry) Pertaining to, or containing, iodine; specif., denoting those compounds in which it has a relatively high valence; as, iodic acid.

Iodic acid , a monobasic acid, consisting of iodine with three parts of oxygen and one of hydrogen.

Iodide noun (Chemistry) A binary compound of iodine, or one which may be regarded as binary; as, potassium iodide .

Iodine (ī"o*dĭn or -dēn; 104) noun [ Greek 'iw`dhs violetlike; 'i`on a violet + e'i^dos form: confer French iode , iodine . The name was given from the violet color of its vapor. See Violet , Idyl .] (Chemistry) A nonmetallic element, of the halogen group, occurring always in combination, as in the iodides. When isolated it is in the form of dark gray metallic scales, resembling plumbago, soft but brittle, and emitting a chlorinelike odor. Symbol I. Atomic weight 126.5. If heated, iodine volatilizes in beautiful violet vapors.

» Iodine was formerly obtained from the ashes of seaweed ( kelp or varec ), but is now also extracted from certain natural brines. In the free state, iodine, even in very minute quantities, colors starch blue. Iodine and its compounds are largely used in medicine (as in liniments, antisyphilitics, etc.), in photography, in the preparation of aniline dyes, and as an indicator in titration.

Iodine green , an artificial green dyestuff, consisting of an iodine derivative of rosaniline; -- called also night green . -- Iodine scarlet , a pigment of an intense scarlet color, consisting of mercuric iodide. -- Iodine yellow , a brilliant yellow pigment, consisting of plumbic iodide.

Iodism noun (Medicine) A morbid state produced by the use of iodine and its compounds, and characterized by palpitation, depression, and general emaciation, with a pustular eruption upon the skin.

Iodize transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Iodized ; present participle & verbal noun Iodizing .] To treat or impregnate with iodine or its compounds; as, to iodize a plate for photography. R. Hunt.

Iodizer noun One who, or that which, iodizes.

Iodo-, Iod- (Chemistry) A prefix, or combining from, indicating iodine as an ingredient; as, iodo form.

Iodocresol noun [ Iodo- + cresol .] (Org. Chem.) Any of several isomeric iodine derivatives of the cresols, C 6 H 3 I(CH 3 )OH, esp. one, an odorless amorphous powder, used in medicine as a substitute for iodoform.

Iodoform noun [ Iodo- + formyl. See Formyl , and confer Chloroform .] (Chemistry) A yellow, crystalline, volatile substance, CI 3 H, having an offensive odor and sweetish taste, and analogous to chloroform. It is used in medicine as a healing and antiseptic dressing for wounds and sores.

Iodoformogen noun [ Iodoform + -gen root of gi`gnesqai to be born.] (Pharm.) A light powder used as a substitute for iodoform. It is a compound of iodoform and albumin.

Iodol noun [ Iodo- + pyrr ol .] (Chemistry) A crystallized substance of the composition C 4 I 4 NH, technically tetra-iodo- pyrrol, used like iodoform.

Iodoquinine noun [ Iodo- + quinine .] (Chemistry) A iodide of quinine obtained as a brown substance. It is the base of herapathite. See Herapathite .

Iodothyrin noun [ Iodo- + thyro- + -in .] (Physiol. Chem.) A peculiar substance obtained from the thyroid gland, containing from nine to ten per cent of iodine.

» It is a very stable compound, and is believed to be active principle in thyroid extracts and in the internal secretion of the thyroid gland. It was originally called thyroiodin .

Iodous adjective (Chemistry) Pertaining to, or containing, iodine. See -ous (chemical suffix).

Iodous acid , a hypothetical acid, analogous to chlorous acid.

Ioduret noun (Chemistry) Iodide. [ Obsolete]

Iodyrite noun [ From Iodine .] (Min.) Silver iodide, a mineral of a yellowish color.

Iolite (ī"o*līt) noun [ Greek 'i`on a violet + -lite .] (Min.) A silicate of alumina, iron, and magnesia, having a bright blue color and vitreous luster; cordierite. It is remarkable for its dichroism, and is also called dichroite .

Ion (ī"ŏn) noun [ Greek 'io`n , neut, of 'iw`n , present participle of 'ie`nai to go.] (Elec. Chem.) One of the elements which appear at the respective poles when a body is subjected to electro-chemical decomposition. Confer Anion , Cation .

Ion noun
1. One of the electrified particles into which, according to the electrolytic dissociation theory, the molecules of electrolytes are divided by water and other solvents. An ion consists of one or more atoms and carries a unit charge of electricity, 3.4 x 10 -10 electrostatic units, or a multiple of this. Those which are positively electrified (hydrogen and the metals) are called cations ; negative ions (hydroxyl and acidic atoms or groups) are called anions . Thus, hydrochloric acid (HCl) dissociates, in aqueous solution, into the hydrogen ion, H + , and the chlorine ion, Cl - ; ferric nitrate, Fe(NO 3 ) 3 , yields the ferric ion, Fe +++ , and nitrate ions, NO3 - , NO3 - , NO3 - . When a solution containing ions is made part of an electric circuit, the cations move toward the cathode, the anions toward the anode. This movement is called migration , and the velocity of it differs for different kinds of ions. If the electromotive force is sufficient, electrolysis ensues: cations give up their charge at the cathode and separate in metallic form or decompose water, forming hydrogen and alkali; similarly, at the anode the element of the anion separates, or the metal of the anode is dissolved, or decomposition occurs.

2. One of the small electrified particles into which the molecules of a gas are broken up under the action of the electric current, of ultraviolet and certain other rays, and of high temperatures. To the properties and behavior of ions the phenomena of the electric discharge through rarefied gases and many other important effects are ascribed. At low pressures the negative ions appear to be electrons; the positive ions, atoms minus an electron. At ordinary pressures each ion seems to include also a number of attached molecules. Ions may be formed in a gas in various ways.

Ionian adjective [ Latin Ionius . See Ionic .] Of or pertaining to Ionia or the Ionians; Ionic. -- noun A native or citizen of Ionia.