Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Indent transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Indented ; present participle & verbal noun Indenting .] [ Middle English endenten to notch, fit in, Old French endenter , Late Latin indentare , from Latin in + dens , dentis , tooth. See Tooth , and confer Indenture .]


1. To notch; to jag; to cut into points like a row of teeth; as, to indent the edge of paper.

2. To dent; to stamp or to press in; to impress; as, indent a smooth surface with a hammer; to indent wax with a stamp.

3. [ Confer Indenture .] To bind out by indenture or contract; to indenture; to apprentice; as, to indent a young man to a shoemaker; to indent a servant.

4. (Print.) To begin (a line or lines) at a greater or less distance from the margin; as, to indent the first line of a paragraph one em; to indent the second paragraph two ems more than the first. See Indentation , and Indention .

5. (Mil.) To make an order upon; to draw upon, as for military stores. [ India] Wilhelm.

Indent intransitive verb
1. To be cut, notched, or dented.

2. To crook or turn; to wind in and out; to zigzag.

3. To contract; to bargain or covenant. Shak.

To indent and drive bargains with the Almighty.
South.

Indent noun
1. A cut or notch in the margin of anything, or a recess like a notch. Shak.

2. A stamp; an impression. [ Obsolete]

3. A certificate, or intended certificate, issued by the government of the United States at the close of the Revolution, for the principal or interest of the public debt. D. Ramsay. A. Hamilton.

4. (Mil.) A requisition or order for supplies, sent to the commissariat of an army. [ India] Wilhelm.

Indentation noun
1. The act of indenting or state of being indented.

2. A notch or recess, in the margin or border of anything; as, the indentations of a leaf, of the coast, etc.

3. A recess or sharp depression in any surface.

4. (Print.) (a) The act of beginning a line or series of lines at a little distance within the flush line of the column or page, as in the common way of beginning the first line of a paragraph. (b) The measure of the distance; as, an indentation of one em, or of two ems.

Hanging , or Reverse , indentation , indentation of all the lines of a paragraph except the first, which is a full line.

Indented adjective
1. Cut in the edge into points or inequalities, like teeth; jagged; notched; stamped in; dented on the surface.

2. Having an uneven, irregular border; sinuous; undulating. Milton. Shak.

3. (Her.) Notched like the part of a saw consisting of the teeth; serrated; as, an indented border or ordinary.

4. Bound out by an indenture; apprenticed; indentured; as, an indented servant.

5. (Zoology) Notched along the margin with a different color, as the feathers of some birds.

Indented line (Fort.) , a line with alternate long and short faces, with salient and receding angles, each face giving a flanking fire along the front of the next.

Indentedly adverb With indentations.

Indenting noun Indentation; an impression like that made by a tooth.

Indention noun (Print.) Same as Indentation , 4.

Indentment noun Indenture. [ Obsolete]

Indenture noun [ Middle English endenture , Old French endenture , Late Latin indentura a deed in duplicate, with indented edges. See the Note below. See Indent .]


1. The act of indenting, or state of being indented.

2. (Law) A mutual agreement in writing between two or more parties, whereof each party has usually a counterpart or duplicate; sometimes in the plural , a short form for indentures of apprenticeship , the contract by which a youth is bound apprentice to a master.

The law is the best expositor of the gospel; they are like a pair of indentures : they answer in every part.
C. Leslie.

» Indentures were originally duplicates, laid together and indented by a notched cut or line, or else written on the same piece of parchment and separated by a notched line so that the two papers or parchments corresponded to each other. But indenting has gradually become a mere form, and is often neglected, while the writings or counterparts retain the name of indentures .

Indenture transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Indentured ; present participle & verbal noun Indenturing .]


1. To indent; to make hollows, notches, or wrinkles in; to furrow.

Though age may creep on, and indenture the brow.
Woty.

2. To bind by indentures or written contract; as, to indenture an apprentice.

Indenture intransitive verb To run or wind in and out; to be cut or notched; to indent. Heywood.

Independence noun [ Confer French indépendance .]


1. The state or quality of being independent; freedom from dependence; exemption from reliance on, or control by, others; self-subsistence or maintenance; direction of one's own affairs without interference.

Let fortune do her worst, . . . as long as she never makes us lose our honesty and our independence .
Pope.

2. Sufficient means for a comfortable livelihood.

Declaration of Independence (Amer. Hist.) , the declaration of the Congress of the Thirteen United States of America, on the 4th of July, 1776, by which they formally declared that these colonies were free and independent States, not subject to the government of Great Britain.

Independence Day In the United States, a holiday, the 4th of July, commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on that day in 1776.

Independency noun
1. Independence.

"Give me," I cried (enough for me),
"My bread, and independency !"
Pope.

2. (Eccl.) Doctrine and polity of the Independents.

Independent adjective [ Prefix in- not + dependent : confer French indépendant .]


1. Not dependent; free; not subject to control by others; not relying on others; not subordinate; as, few men are wholly independent .

A dry, but independent crust.
Cowper.

2. Affording a comfortable livelihood; as, an independent property.

3. Not subject to bias or influence; not obsequious; self-directing; as, a man of an independent mind.

4. Expressing or indicating the feeling of independence; free; easy; bold; unconstrained; as, an independent air or manner.

5. Separate from; exclusive; irrespective.

That obligation in general, under which we conceive ourselves bound to obey a law, independent of those resources which the law provides for its own enforcement.
R. P. Ward.

6. (Eccl.) Belonging or pertaining to, or holding to the doctrines or methods of, the Independents.

7. (Math.) Not dependent upon another quantity in respect to value or rate of variation; -- said of quantities or functions.

8. (U. S. Politics) Not bound by party; exercising a free choice in voting with either or any party.

Independent company (Mil.) , one not incorporated in any regiment. -- Independent seconds watch , a stop watch having a second hand driven by a separate set of wheels, springs, etc., for timing to a fraction of a second. -- Independent variable . (Math.) See Dependent variable , under Dependent .

Syn. -- Free; uncontrolled; separate; uncoerced; self- reliant; bold; unconstrained; unrestricted.

Independent noun
1. (Eccl.) One who believes that an organized Christian church is complete in itself, competent to self- government, and independent of all ecclesiastical authority.

» In England the name is often applied (commonly in the plural ) to the Congregationalists.

2. (Politics) One who does not acknowledge an obligation to support a party's candidate under all circumstances; one who exercises liberty in voting.

Independentism noun Independency; the church system of Independents. Bp. Gauden.

Independently adverb In an independent manner; without control.

Indeposable adjective Incapable of being deposed. [ R.]

Princes indeposable by the pope.
Bp. Stillingfleet.

Indepravate adjective [ Latin indepravatus .] Undepraved. [ R.] Davies (Holy Roode).

Indeprecable adjective [ Latin indeprecabilis . See In- not, and Deprecate .] Incapable or undeserving of being deprecated. Cockeram.

Indeprehensible adjective [ Latin indeprehensibilis . See In- not, and Deprehensible .] Incapable of being found out. Bp. Morton.

Indeprivable adjective Incapable of being deprived, or of being taken away.

Indescribable adjective Incapable of being described. -- In`de*scrib"a*bly , adverb

Indescriptive adjective Not descriptive.

Indesert noun Ill desert. [ R.] Addison.

Indesinent adjective [ Latin indesinens . See In- not, and Desinent .] Not ceasing; perpetual. [ Obsolete] Baxter. -- In*des"i*nent*ly , adverb [ Obsolete] Ray.

Indesirable adjective Undesirable.

Indestructibility noun [ Confer French indestructibilité .] The quality of being indestructible.

Indestructible adjective [ Prefix in- not + destructible : confer French indestructible .] Not destructible; incapable of decomposition or of being destroyed. -- In`de*struc"ti*ble*ness , noun -- In`de*struc"ti*bly , adverb

Indeterminable adjective [ Latin indeterminabilis : confer French indéterminable . See In- not, and Determine.] Not determinable; impossible to be determined; not to be definitely known, ascertained, defined, or limited. -- In`de*ter"mi*na*bly , adverb

Indeterminable noun An indeterminable thing or quantity. Sir T. Browne.

Indeterminate adjective [ Latin indeterminatus .] Not determinate; not certain or fixed; indefinite; not precise; as, an indeterminate number of years. Paley.

Indeterminate analysis (Math.) , that branch of analysis which has for its object the solution of indeterminate problems. -- Indeterminate coefficients (Math.) , coefficients arbitrarily assumed for convenience of calculation, or to facilitate some artifice of analysis. Their values are subsequently determined. -- Indeterminate equation (Math.) , an equation in which the unknown quantities admit of an infinite number of values, or sets of values. A group of equations is indeterminate when it contains more unknown quantities than there are equations. -- Indeterminate inflorescence (Botany) , a mode of inflorescence in which the flowers all arise from axillary buds, the terminal bud going on to grow and sometimes continuing the stem indefinitely; -- called also acropetal, botryose, centripetal, & indefinite inflorescence . Gray. -- Indeterminate problem (Math.) , a problem which admits of an infinite number of solutions, or one in which there are fewer imposed conditions than there are unknown or required results. -- Indeterminate quantity (Math.) , a quantity which has no fixed value, but which may be varied in accordance with any proposed condition. -- Indeterminate series (Math.) , a series whose terms proceed by the powers of an indeterminate quantity, sometimes also with indeterminate exponents, or indeterminate coefficients.

-- In`de*ter"mi*nate*ly adverb -- In`de*ter"mi*nate*ness , noun

Indetermination noun [ Prefix in- not + determination : confer indétermination .]


1. Want of determination; an unsettled or wavering state, as of the mind. Jer. Taylor.

2. Want of fixed or stated direction. Abp. Bramhall.

Indetermined adjective Undetermined.

Indevirginate adjective [ See In- not, Devirginate .] Not devirginate. [ Obsolete] Chapman.

Indevote adjective [ Latin indevotus : confer French indévot . Confer Indevout .] Not devoted. [ Obsolete] Bentley. Clarendon.

Indevotion noun [ Latin indevotio : confer French indévotion .] Want of devotion; impiety; irreligion. "An age of indevotion ." Jer. Taylor.

Indevout adjective [ Prefix in- not + devout . Confer Indevote .] Not devout. -- In*de*vout"ly , adverb

Indew transitive verb To indue. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Index noun ; plural English Indexes , Latin Indices [ Latin : confer French index . See Indicate , Diction .]


1. That which points out; that which shows, indicates, manifests, or discloses.

Tastes are the indexes of the different qualities of plants.
Arbuthnot.

2. That which guides, points out, informs, or directs; a pointer or a hand that directs to anything, as the hand of a watch, a movable finger on a gauge, scale, or other graduated instrument. In printing, a sign [ »] used to direct particular attention to a note or paragraph; -- called also fist .

3. A table for facilitating reference to topics, names, and the like, in a book; -- usually alphabetical in arrangement, and printed at the end of the volume.

4. A prologue indicating what follows. [ Obsolete] Shak.

5. (Anat.) The second digit, that next to the pollex, in the manus, or hand; the forefinger; index finger.

6. (Math.) The figure or letter which shows the power or root of a quantity; the exponent. [ In this sense the plural is always indices .]

Index error , the error in the reading of a mathematical instrument arising from the zero of the index not being in complete adjustment with that of the limb, or with its theoretically perfect position in the instrument; a correction to be applied to the instrument readings equal to the error of the zero adjustment. -- Index expurgatorius . [ Latin ] See Index prohibitorius (below). -- Index finger . See Index , 5. -- Index glass , the mirror on the index of a quadrant, sextant, etc. -- Index hand , the pointer or hand of a clock, watch, or other registering machine; a hand that points to something. -- Index of a logarithm (Math.) , the integral part of the logarithm, and always one less than the number of integral figures in the given number. It is also called the characteristic . -- Index of refraction , or Refractive index (Opt.) , the number which expresses the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction. Thus the index of refraction for sulphur is 2, because, when light passes out of air into sulphur, the sine of the angle of incidence is double the sine of the angle of refraction. -- Index plate , a graduated circular plate, or one with circular rows of holes differently spaced; used in machines for graduating circles, cutting gear teeth, etc. -- Index prohibitorius [ Latin ], or Prohibitory index (R. C. Ch.) , a catalogue of books which are forbidden by the church to be read; the index expurgatorius [ Latin ], or expurgatory index , is a catalogue of books from which passages marked as against faith or morals must be removed before Catholics can read them. These catalogues are published with additions, from time to time, by the Congregation of the Index, composed of cardinals, theologians, etc., under the sanction of the pope. Hook. -- Index rerum [ Latin ], a tabulated and alphabetized notebook, for systematic preservation of items, quotations, etc.

Index transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Indexed ; present participle & verbal noun Indexing .] To provide with an index or table of references; to put into an index; as, to index a book, or its contents.

Index noun The ratio, or formula expressing the ratio, of one dimension of a thing to another dimension; as, the vertical index of the cranium.

Indexer noun One who makes an index.

Indexical adjective Of, pertaining to, or like, an index; having the form of an index.

Indexically adverb In the manner of an index.

Indexterity noun [ Prefix in- not + dexterity : confer French indextérité .] Want of dexterity or readiness, especially in the use of the hands; clumsiness; awkwardness. Harvey.

India noun [ See Indian .] A country in Southern Asia; the two peninsulas of Hither and Farther India; in a restricted sense, Hither India, or Hindostan.

India ink , a nearly black pigment brought chiefly from China, used for water colors. It is in rolls, or in square, and consists of lampblack or ivory black and animal glue. Called also China ink . The true India ink is sepia. See Sepia . -- India matting , floor matting made in China, India, etc., from grass and reeds; -- also called Canton, or China, matting . -- India paper , a variety of Chinese paper, of smooth but not glossy surface, used for printing from engravings, woodcuts, etc. -- India proof (Engraving) , a proof impression from an engraved plate, taken on India paper. - - India rubber . See Caoutchouc . -- India-rubber tree (Botany) , any tree yielding caoutchouc, but especially the East Indian Ficus elastica , often cultivated for its large, shining, elliptical leaves.

India rubber See Caoutchouc .

India steel Same as Wootz .