Webster's Dictionary, 1913
[ Akin to LG. dune
, Icelandic dūnn
, Swedish dun
, Danish duun
, German daune
, confer Dutch dons
; perhaps akin to English dust
.] 1. Fine, soft, hairy outgrowth from the skin or surface of animals or plants, not matted and fleecy like wool
; esp.: (a) (Zoology) The soft under feathers of birds. They have short stems with soft rachis and bards and long threadlike barbules, without hooklets. (b) (Botany) The pubescence of plants; the hairy crown or envelope of the seeds of certain plants, as of the thistle. (c) The soft hair of the face when beginning to appear.
And the first down begins to shade his face. Dryden. 2. That which is made of down, as a bed or pillow; that which affords ease and repose, like a bed of down
When in the down I sink my head, Tennyson.
Sleep, Death's twin brother, times my breath.
Thou bosom softness, down of all my cares! Southern. Down tree (Botany)
, a tree of Central America ( Ochroma Lagopus ), the seeds of which are enveloped in vegetable wool.
Down (doun") transitive verb To cover, ornament, line, or stuff with down. [ R.] Young.
[ Middle English dun
, Anglo-Saxon dūn
; of Celtic origin; confer Ir. dūn
hill, fortified hill, Gael. dun
heap, hillock, hill, W. din
a fortified hill or mount; akin to English town
. See Town
, and confer Down
, adverb & preposition
.] 1. A bank or rounded hillock of sand thrown up by the wind along or near the shore; a flattish-topped hill; -- usually in the plural.
Hills afford prospects, as they must needs acknowledge who have been on the downs of Sussex. Ray.
She went by dale, and she went by down . Tennyson. 2. A tract of poor, sandy, undulating or hilly land near the sea, covered with fine turf which serves chiefly for the grazing of sheep; -- usually in the plural.
Seven thousand broad-tailed sheep grazed on his downs . Sandys. 3. plural A road for shipping in the English Channel or Straits of Dover, near Deal, employed as a naval rendezvous in time of war.
On the 11th [ June, 1771] we run up the channel . . . at noon we were abreast of Dover, and about three came to an anchor in the Downs , and went ashore at Deal. Cook (First Voyage). 4. plural
[ From the adverb.] A state of depression; low state; abasement.
It the downs of life too much outnumber the ups. M. Arnold.
[ For older adown
, Anglo-Saxon ad...n
, prop., from or off the hill. See 3d Down
, and confer Adown
, and confer Adown
.] 1. In the direction of gravity or toward the center of the earth; toward or in a lower place or position; below; - - the opposite of up . 2.
Hence, in many derived uses, as: (a) From a higher to a lower position, literally or figuratively; in a descending direction; from the top of an ascent; from an upright position; to the ground or floor; to or into a lower or an inferior condition; as, into a state of humility, disgrace, misery, and the like; into a state of rest; -- used with verbs indicating motion.
It will be rain to-night. Let it come down . Shak.
I sit me down beside the hazel grove. Tennyson.
And that drags down his life. Tennyson.
There is not a more melancholy object in the learned world than a man who has written himself down . Addison.
The French . . . shone down [ i. e., outshone ] the English. Shak. (b) In a low or the lowest position, literally or figuratively; at the bottom of a descent; below the horizon; on the ground; in a condition of humility, dejection, misery, and the like; in a state of quiet.
I was down and out of breath. Shak.
The moon is down ; I have not heard the clock. Shak.
He that is down needs fear no fall. Bunyan. 3. From a remoter or higher antiquity.
Venerable men! you have come down to us from a former generation. D. Webster. 4. From a greater to a less bulk, or from a thinner to a thicker consistence; as, to boil down in cookery, or in making decoctions. Arbuthnot.
is sometimes used elliptically, standing for go down
, come down
, tear down
, take down
, put down
, haul down
, pay down
, and the like, especially in command or exclamation.
Down , therefore, and beg mercy of the duke. Shak.
If he be hungry more than wanton, bread alone will down . Locke. Down
is also used intensively; as, to be loaded down
; to fall down
; to hang down
; to drop down
; to pay down
The temple of Herè at Argos was burnt down . Jowett (Thucyd. ). Down
, as well as up
, is sometimes used in a conventional sense; as, down
Persons in London say down to Scotland, etc., and those in the provinces, up to London. Stormonth. Down helm (Nautical)
, an order to the helmsman to put the helm to leeward.
-- Down on
(joined with a verb indicating motion, as go
), to attack, implying the idea of threatening power.
Come down upon us with a mighty power. Shak.
-- Down with
, take down, throw down, put down; -- used in energetic command.
" Down with
the palace; fire it." Dryden.
-- To be down on
, to dislike and treat harshly.
[ Slang, U.S.] -- To cry down
. See under Cry , transitive verb
-- To cut down
. See under Cut , transitive verb
-- Up and down
, with rising and falling motion; to and fro; hither and thither; everywhere.
"Let them wander up and down
." Ps. lix. 15.
[ From Down
] 1. In a descending direction along; from a higher to a lower place upon or within; at a lower place in or on; as, down a hill; down a well. 2. Hence: Towards the mouth of a river; towards the sea; as, to sail or swim down a stream; to sail down the sound. Down the country
, toward the sea, or toward the part where rivers discharge their waters into the ocean.
-- Down the sound
, in the direction of the ebbing tide; toward the sea.
Down transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Downed
(dound); present participle & verbal noun Downing
.] To cause to go down; to make descend; to put down; to overthrow, as in wrestling; hence, to subdue; to bring down.
[ Archaic or Colloq.] "To down
proud hearts." Sir P. Sidney.
I remember how you downed Beauclerk and Hamilton, the wits, once at our house. Madame D'Arblay.
Down intransitive verb To go down; to descend. Locke.
Down adjective Down draught , a downward draft, as in a flue, chimney, shaft of a mine, etc. -- Down in the mouth , chopfallen; dejected.
1. Downcast; as, a down look. [ R.] 2. Downright; absolute; positive; as, a down denial. [ Obsolete] Beau. & Fl. 3. Downward; going down; sloping; as, a down stroke; a down grade; a down train on a railway.
Down-share noun A breastplow used in paring off turf on downs. [ Eng.] Knight.
Down-wind adverb With the wind.
Downbear transitive verb To bear down; to depress.
(doun"kȧst`) adjective Cast downward; directed to the ground, from bashfulness, modesty, dejection, or guilt.
'T is love, said she; and then my downcast eyes, Dryden.
And guilty dumbness, witnessed my surprise.
Downcast noun 1. Downcast or melancholy look.
That downcast of thine eye. Beau. & Fl. 2. (mining) A ventilating shaft down which the air passes in circulating through a mine.
Downcome (-kŭm) noun
1. Sudden fall; downfall; overthrow. Milton. 2. (Iron Manuf.) A pipe for leading combustible gases downward from the top of the blast furnace to the hot-blast stoves, boilers, etc., where they are burned.
Downcomer noun A pipe to conduct something downwards; specif.: (a) (Iron Manuf.) A pipe for leading the hot gases from the top of a blast furnace downward to the regenerators, boilers, etc. (b) (Steam Engin.) In some water-tube boilers, a tube larger in diameter than the water tubes to conduct the water from each top drum to a bottom drum, thus completing the circulation.
(-fal`) noun 1. A sudden fall; a body of things falling.
Those cataracts or downfalls aforesaid. Holland.
Each downfall of a flood the mountains pour. Dryden. 2. A sudden descent from rank or state, reputation or happiness; destruction; ruin.
Dire were the consequences which would follow the downfall of so important a place. Motley.
Downfallen (-fal`'n) adjective Fallen; ruined. Carew.
Downfalling adjective Falling down.
Downgyved adjective Hanging down like gyves or fetters. [ Poetic & Rare] Shak.
Downhaul noun (Nautical) A rope to haul down, or to assist in hauling down, a sail; as, a staysail downhaul ; a trysail downhaul .
Downhearted adjective Dejected; low-spirited.
Downhill adverb Towards the bottom of a hill; as, water runs downhill .
Downhill adjective Declivous; descending; sloping. "A downhill greensward." Congrewe.
Downhill noun Declivity; descent; slope.
On th' icy downhills of this slippery life. Du Bartas (Trans. ).
Downiness noun The quality or state of being downy.
Downlooked adjective Having a downcast countenance; dejected; gloomy; sullen. [ R.] Dryden.
Downlying noun The time of retiring to rest; time of repose. Cavendish. At the downlying , at the travail in childbirth. [ Scot.]
Downpour noun A pouring or streaming downwards; esp., a heavy or continuous shower.
Downright adverb 1. Straight down; perpendicularly. 2. In plain terms; without ceremony.
We shall chide downright , if I longer stay. Shak. 3. Without delay; at once; completely.
She fell downright into a fit. Arbuthnot.
Downright adjective 1. Plain; direct; unceremonious; blunt; positive; as, he spoke in his downright way.
A man of plain, downright character. Sir W. Scott. 2. Open; artless; undisguised; absolute; unmixed; as, downright atheism.
The downright impossibilities charged upon it. South.
Gloomy fancies which in her amounted to downright insanity. Prescott.
Downsitting noun The act of sitting down; repose; a resting.
Thou knowest my downsitting and my uprising. Ps. cxxxix. 2.
Downstairs adverb Down the stairs; to a lower floor. -- adjective Below stairs; as, a downstairs room.
Downsteepy adjective Very steep. [ Obsolete] Florio.
Downstream adverb Down the stream; as, floating downstream .
Downstroke noun (Penmanship) A stroke made with a downward motion of the pen or pencil.
Downthrow noun (Geol.) The sudden drop or depression of the strata of rocks on one side of a fault. See Throw , noun
Downtrod, Downtrodden adjective Trodden down; trampled down; abused by superior power. Shak.
Downward adjective 1. Moving or extending from a higher to a lower place; tending toward the earth or its center, or toward a lower level; declivous.
With downward force Dryden. 2. Descending from a head, origin, or source; as, a downward line of descent. 3. Tending to a lower condition or state; depressed; dejected; as, downward thoughts. Sir P. Sidney.
That drove the sand along he took his way.
Downward, Downwards adverb
[ Anglo-Saxon ad...nweard
. See Down
, and -ward
.] 1. From a higher place to a lower; in a descending course; as, to tend, move, roll, look, or take root, downward or downwards .
Their heads they downward bent. Drayton. 2. From a higher to a lower condition; toward misery, humility, disgrace, or ruin.
And downward fell into a groveling swine. Milton. 3. From a remote time; from an ancestor or predecessor; from one to another in a descending line.
A ring the county wears, Shak.
That downward hath descended in his house,
From son to son, some four or five descents.
Downweed noun (Botany) Cudweed, a species of Gnaphalium .
(-wā") transitive verb To weigh or press down.
A different sin downweighs them to the bottom. Longfellow.
(-ȳ) adjective 1. Covered with down, or with pubescence or soft hairs.
Plants that . . . have downy or velvet rind upon their leaves. Bacon. 2. Made of, or resembling, down. Hence, figuratively: Soft; placid; soothing; quiet.
Time steals on with downy feet. Young. 3. Cunning; wary.
[ Slang, Eng.] Latham.
Dowral adjective Of or relating to a dower. [ R.]
Dowress noun A woman entitled to dower. Bouvier.
; plural Dowries
. [ Contr. from dowery
; confer Late Latin dotarium
. See Dower
.] 1. A gift; endowment.
[ Obsolete] Spenser. 2. The money, goods, or estate, which a woman brings to her husband in marriage; a bride's portion on her marriage. See Note under Dower . Shak. Dryden. 3. A gift or presents for the bride, on espousal. See Dower .
Ask me never so much dowry and gift, and I will give . . .; but give me the damsel to wife. Gen. xxxiv. 12.
Dowse transitive verb
[ Confer 1st Douse
.] 1. To plunge, or duck into water; to immerse; to douse. 2.
[ Confer OD. doesen
to strike, Norw. dusa
to break.] To beat or thrash.
[ Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.
Dowse intransitive verb To use the dipping or divining rod, as in search of water, ore, etc.
Adams had the reputation of having dowsed successfully for more than a hundred wells. Eng. Cyc.
Dowse noun A blow on the face. [ Low] Colman.
1. A divining rod used in searching for water, ore, etc., a dowsing rod. [ Colloq.] 2. One who uses the dowser or divining rod. Eng. Cyc.
Dowst noun A dowse. [ Obsolete] Beau. & Fl.
Dowve noun A dove. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.
Doxological adjective Pertaining to doxology; giving praise to God. Howell.
Doxologize intransitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Doxologized
; present participle & verbal noun Doxologizing
.] To give glory to God, as in a doxology; to praise God with doxologies.
; plural Doxologies
. [ Late Latin doxologia
, Greek ..., from ... praising, giving glory; ... opinion, estimation, glory, praise (from ... to think, imagine) + ... to speak: confer French doxologie
. See Dogma
, and Legend
.] In Christian worship: A hymn expressing praise and honor to God; a form of praise to God designed to be sung or chanted by the choir or the congregation.
David breaks forth into these triumphant praises and doxologies . South.