Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Abandonedly adverb Unrestrainedly.

Abandonee (ȧ*băn`dŭn*ē") noun (Law) One to whom anything is legally abandoned.

Abandoner (ȧ*băn"dŭn*ẽr) noun One who abandons. Beau. & Fl.

Abandonment (-m e nt) noun [ Confer French abandonnement .]
1. The act of abandoning, or the state of being abandoned; total desertion; relinquishment.

The abandonment of the independence of Europe.
Burke.

2. (Mar. Law) The relinquishment by the insured to the underwriters of what may remain of the property insured after a loss or damage by a peril insured against.

3. (Com. Law) (a) The relinquishment of a right, claim, or privilege, as to mill site, etc. (b) The voluntary leaving of a person to whom one is bound by a special relation, as a wife, husband, or child; desertion.

4. Careless freedom or ease; abandon. [ R.] Carlyle.

Abandum (ȧ*băn"dŭm) noun [ Late Latin See Abandon .] (Law) Anything forfeited or confiscated.

Abanet (ăb"ȧ*nĕt) noun See Abnet .

Abanga (ȧ*băn"gȧ) noun [ Name given by the negroes in the island of St. Thomas.] A West Indian palm; also the fruit of this palm, the seeds of which are used as a remedy for diseases of the chest.

Abannation (ăb`ăn*nā"shŭn), Ab`an*nition (ăb`ăn*nĭsh"ŭn) noun [ Late Latin abannatio ; ad + Late Latin bannire to banish.] (Old Law) Banishment. [ Obsolete] Bailey.

Abarticulation (acr/b`är*tĭk`u*lā"shŭn) noun [ Latin ab + English articulation : confer French abarticulation . See Article .] (Anat.) Articulation, usually that kind of articulation which admits of free motion in the joint; diarthrosis. Coxe.

Abase (ȧ*bās") transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Abased (ȧ*bāst"); present participle & verbal noun Abasing .] [ French abaisser , Late Latin abassare , abbassare ; ad + bassare , from bassus low. See Base , adjective ]
1. To lower or depress; to throw or cast down; as, to abase the eye. [ Archaic] Bacon.

Saying so, he abased his lance.
Shelton.

2. To cast down or reduce low or lower, as in rank, office, condition in life, or estimation of worthiness; to depress; to humble; to degrade.

Whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased .
Luke xiv. ll.

Syn. -- To Abase , Debase , Degrade . These words agree in the idea of bringing down from a higher to a lower state. Abase has reference to a bringing down in condition or feelings; as, to abase the proud, to abase one's self before God. Debase has reference to the bringing down of a thing in purity, or making it base . It is, therefore, always used in a bad sense, as, to debase the coin of the kingdom, to debase the mind by vicious indulgence, to debase one's style by coarse or vulgar expressions. Degrade has reference to a bringing down from some higher grade or from some standard. Thus, a priest is degraded from the clerical office. When used in a moral sense, it denotes a bringing down in character and just estimation; as, degraded by intemperance, a degrading employment, etc. "Art is degraded when it is regarded only as a trade."

Abased (ȧ*bāst") adjective
1. Lowered; humbled.

2. (Her.) [ French abaissé .] Borne lower than usual, as a fess; also, having the ends of the wings turned downward towards the point of the shield.

Abasedly (ȧ*bās"ĕd*lȳ) adverb Abjectly; downcastly.

Abasement (ȧ*bās"m e nt) noun [ Confer French abaissement .] The act of abasing, humbling, or bringing low; the state of being abased or humbled; humiliation.

Abaser (ȧ*bās"ẽr) noun He who, or that which, abases.

Abash (ȧ*băsh") transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Abashed (ȧ*băsht"); present participle & verbal noun Abashing .] [ Middle English abaissen , abaisshen , abashen , Old French esbahir , French ébahir , to astonish, from Latin ex + the interjection bah , expressing astonishment. In Middle English somewhat confused with abase . Confer Finish .] To destroy the self-possession of; to confuse or confound, as by exciting suddenly a consciousness of guilt, mistake, or inferiority; to put to shame; to disconcert; to discomfit.

Abashed , the devil stood,
And felt how awful goodness is.
Milton.

He was a man whom no check could abash .
Macaulay.

Syn. -- To confuse; confound; disconcert; shame. -- To Abash , Confuse, Confound . Abash is a stronger word than confuse , but not so strong as confound . We are abashed when struck either with sudden shame or with a humbling sense of inferiority; as, Peter was abashed by the look of his Master. So a modest youth is abashed in the presence of those who are greatly his superiors. We are confused when, from some unexpected or startling occurrence, we lose clearness of thought and self- possession. Thus, a witness is often confused by a severe cross- examination; a timid person is apt to be confused in entering a room full of strangers. We are confounded when our minds are overwhelmed, as it were, by something wholly unexpected, amazing, dreadful, etc., so that we have nothing to say. Thus, a criminal is usually confounded at the discovery of his guilt.

Satan stood
Awhile as mute, confounded what to say.
Milton.

Abashedly (-ĕd*lȳ) adverb In an abashed manner.

Abashment (-m e nt) noun [ Confer French ébahissement .] The state of being abashed; confusion from shame.

Abasia noun [ New Latin ; Greek ...- not + ... a step.] (Medicine) Inability to coördinate muscular actions properly in walking. -- A*ba"sic adjective

Abassi (ȧ*băs"sĭ), A*bas"sis (ȧ*băs"sĭs) noun [ Arabic & Persian abāsī , belonging to Abas (a king of Persia).] A silver coin of Persia, worth about twenty cents.

Abatable (ȧ*bāt"ȧ*b'l) adjective Capable of being abated; as, an abatable writ or nuisance.

Abate (ȧ*bāt") transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Abated , present participle & verbal noun Abating .] [ Old French abatre to beat down, French abattre , Late Latin abatere ; ab or ad + batere , battere (popular form for Latin batuere to beat). Confer Bate , Batter .]
1. To beat down; to overthrow. [ Obsolete]

The King of Scots . . . sore abated the walls.
Edw. Hall.

2. To bring down or reduce from a higher to a lower state, number, or degree; to lessen; to diminish; to contract; to moderate; to cut short; as, to abate a demand; to abate pride, zeal, hope.

His eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated .
Deut. xxxiv. 7.

3. To deduct; to omit; as, to abate something from a price.

Nine thousand parishes, abating the odd hundreds.
Fuller.

4. To blunt. [ Obsolete]

To abate the edge of envy.
Bacon.

5. To reduce in estimation; to deprive. [ Obsolete]

She hath abated me of half my train.
Shak.

6. (Law) (a) To bring entirely down or put an end to; to do away with; as, to abate a nuisance, to abate a writ. (b) (Eng. Law) To diminish; to reduce. Legacies are liable to be abated entirely or in proportion, upon a deficiency of assets.

To abate a tax , to remit it either wholly or in part.

Abate (ȧ*bāt") intransitive verb [ See Abate , transitive verb ]
1. To decrease, or become less in strength or violence; as, pain abates , a storm abates .

The fury of Glengarry . . . rapidly abated .
Macaulay.

2. To be defeated, or come to naught; to fall through; to fail; as, a writ abates .

To abate into a freehold , To abate in lands (Law) , to enter into a freehold after the death of the last possessor, and before the heir takes possession. See Abatement , 4.

Syn. -- To subside; decrease; intermit; decline; diminish; lessen. -- To Abate , Subside . These words, as here compared, imply a coming down from some previously raised or excited state. Abate expresses this in respect to degrees, and implies a diminution of force or of intensity; as, the storm abates , the cold abates , the force of the wind abates ; or, the wind abates , a fever abates . Subside (to settle down) has reference to a previous state of agitation or commotion; as, the waves subside after a storm, the wind subsides into a calm. When the words are used figuratively, the same distinction should be observed. If we conceive of a thing as having different degrees of intensity or strength, the word to be used is abate . Thus we say, a man's anger abates , the ardor of one's love abates , "Winter's rage abates ". But if the image be that of a sinking down into quiet from preceding excitement or commotion, the word to be used is subside ; as, the tumult of the people subsides , the public mind subsided into a calm. The same is the case with those emotions which are tumultuous in their nature; as, his passion subsides , his joy quickly subsided , his grief subsided into a pleasing melancholy. Yet if, in such cases, we were thinking of the degree of violence of the emotion, we might use abate ; as, his joy will abate in the progress of time; and so in other instances.

Abate (ȧ*bāt") noun Abatement. [ Obsolete] Sir T. Browne.

Abatement (-m e nt) noun [ Old French abatement , French abattement .]
1. The act of abating, or the state of being abated; a lessening, diminution, or reduction; removal or putting an end to; as, the abatement of a nuisance is the suppression thereof.

2. The amount abated; that which is taken away by way of reduction; deduction; decrease; a rebate or discount allowed.

3. (Her.) A mark of dishonor on an escutcheon.

4. (Law) The entry of a stranger, without right, into a freehold after the death of the last possessor, before the heir or devisee. Blackstone.

Defense in abatement , Plea in abatement , (Law) , plea to the effect that from some formal defect (e.g. misnomer, want of jurisdiction) the proceedings should be abated.

Abater (-ẽr) noun One who, or that which, abates.

Abatis, Abattis (ăb"ȧ*tĭs; French ȧ`bȧ`tē") noun [ French abatis , abattis , mass of things beaten or cut down, from abattre . See Abate .] (Fort.) A means of defense formed by felled trees, the ends of whose branches are sharpened and directed outwards, or against the enemy.

Abatised (ăb"ȧ*tĭst) adjective Provided with an abatis.

Abator (ȧ*bāt"ẽr) noun (Law) (a) One who abates a nuisance. (b) A person who, without right, enters into a freehold on the death of the last possessor, before the heir or devisee. Blackstone.

Abattoir (ȧ`bȧt`twär") noun ; plural Abattoirs (- twärz"). [ French, from abattre to beat down. See Abate .] A public slaughterhouse for cattle, sheep, etc.

Abature (ȧb"ȧ*tur; 135) noun [ French abatture , from abattre . See Abate .] Grass and sprigs beaten or trampled down by a stag passing through them. Crabb.

Abatvoix (ȧ`bȧ`vwä") noun [ French abattre to beat down + voix voice.] The sounding- board over a pulpit or rostrum.

Abawed (ăb*ad") past participle [ Perh. past participle of a verb from Old French abaubir to frighten, disconcert, from Latin ad + balbus stammering.] Astonished; abashed. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Abaxial (ăb*ăks"ĭ* a l), Ab*ax"ile (ăb*ăks"ĭl) adjective [ Latin ab + axis axle.] (Botany) Away from the axis or central line; eccentric. Balfour.

Abay (ȧ*bā") noun [ Old French abay barking.] Barking; baying of dogs upon their prey. See Bay . [ Obsolete]

Abb (ăb) noun [ Anglo-Saxon āweb , āb ; prefix a- + web . See Web .] Among weavers, yarn for the warp. Hence, abb wool is wool for the abb .

Abb wool (ăb" wol). See Abb .

Abba (ăb"bȧ) noun [ Syriac abbā father. See Abbot .] Father; religious superior; -- in the Syriac, Coptic, and Ethiopic churches, a title given to the bishops, and by the bishops to the patriarch.

Abbacy (ăb"bȧ*sȳ) noun ; plural Abbacies (-sĭz). [ Latin abbatia , from abbas , abbatis , abbot. See Abbey .] The dignity, estate, or jurisdiction of an abbot.

Abbatial (ăb*bā"sh a l) adjective [ Late Latin abbatialis : confer French abbatial .] Belonging to an abbey; as, abbatial rights.

Abbatical (ăb*băt"ĭ*k a l) adjective Abbatial. [ Obsolete]

Abbé (ȧb"ba`) noun [ French abbé . See Abbot .] The French word answering to the English abbot , the head of an abbey; but commonly a title of respect given in France to every one vested with the ecclesiastical habit or dress.

» After the 16th century, the name was given, in social parlance, to candidates for some priory or abbey in the gift of the crown. Many of these aspirants became well known in literary and fashionable life. By further extension, the name came to be applied to unbeneficed secular ecclesiastics generally. Littré.

Abbess (ăb"bĕs) noun [ Old French abaesse , abeesse , French abbesse , Latin abbatissa , fem. of abbas , abbatis , abbot. See Abbot .] A female superior or governess of a nunnery, or convent of nuns, having the same authority over the nuns which the abbots have over the monks. See Abbey .

Abbey (ăb"bȳ) noun ; plural Abbeys (-bĭz). [ Old French abaïe , abbaïe , French abbaye , Latin abbatia , from abbas abbot. See Abbot .]
1. A monastery or society of persons of either sex, secluded from the world and devoted to religion and celibacy; also, the monastic building or buildings.

» The men are called monks, and governed by an abbot; the women are called nuns, and governed by an abbess.

2. The church of a monastery.

In London, the Abbey means Westminster Abbey, and in Scotland, the precincts of the Abbey of Holyrood. The name is also retained for a private residence on the site of an abbey; as, Newstead Abbey , the residence of Lord Byron.

Syn. -- Monastery; convent; nunnery; priory; cloister. See Cloister .

Abbot noun [ Anglo-Saxon abbod , abbad , Latin abbas , abbatis , Greek 'abba^s , from Syriac abbā father. Confer Abba , Abbé .]


1. The superior or head of an abbey.

2. One of a class of bishops whose sees were formerly abbeys. Encyc. Brit.

Abbot of the people . a title formerly given to one of the chief magistrates in Genoa. -- Abbot of Misrule (or Lord of Misrule ), in mediæval times, the master of revels, as at Christmas; in Scotland called the Abbot of Unreason . Encyc. Brit.

Abbotship noun [ Abbot + - ship .] The state or office of an abbot.

Abbreviate transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Abbreviated ; present participle & verbal noun Abbreviating .] [ Latin abbreviatus , past participle of abbreviare ; ad + breviare to shorten, from brevis short. See Abridge .]
1. To make briefer; to shorten; to abridge; to reduce by contraction or omission, especially of words written or spoken.

It is one thing to abbreviate by contracting, another by cutting off.
Bacon.

2. (Math.) To reduce to lower terms, as a fraction.

Abbreviate adjective [ Latin abbreviatus , past participle ]
1. Abbreviated; abridged; shortened. [ R.] "The abbreviate form." Earle.

2. (Biol.) Having one part relatively shorter than another or than the ordinary type.

Abbreviate noun An abridgment. [ Obsolete] Elyot.

Abbreviated adjective Shortened; relatively short; abbreviate.

Abbreviation noun [ Late Latin abbreviatio : confer French abbréviation .]
1. The act of shortening, or reducing.

2. The result of abbreviating; an abridgment. Tylor.

3. The form to which a word or phrase is reduced by contraction and omission; a letter or letters, standing for a word or phrase of which they are a part; as, Gen. for Genesis ; U.S.A. for United States of America .

4. (Mus.) One dash, or more, through the stem of a note, dividing it respectively into quavers, semiquavers, or demi-semiquavers. Moore.