Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Babylonic, Babylonical adjective
1. Pertaining to Babylon, or made there; as, Babylonic garments, carpets, or hangings.

2. Tumultuous; disorderly. [ Obsolete] Sir J. Harrington.

Babylonish adjective
1. Of or pertaining to, or made in, Babylon or Babylonia. "A Babylonish garment." Josh. vii. 21.

2. Pertaining to the Babylon of Revelation xiv. 8.

3. Pertaining to Rome and papal power. [ Obsolete]

The . . . injurious nickname of Babylonish . Gage.

4. Confused; Babel-like.

Babyroussa Bab`y*rus"sa noun (Zoology) See Babiroussa .

Babyship noun The quality of being a baby; the personality of an infant.

Bac noun [ French See Back a vat.]
1. A broad, flat-bottomed ferryboat, usually worked by a rope.

2. A vat or cistern. See 1st Back .

Baccalaureate noun [ New Latin baccalaureatus , from Late Latin baccalaureus a bachelor of arts, from baccalarius , but as if from Latin bacca lauri bayberry, from the practice of the bachelor's wearing a garland of bayberries. See Bachelor .]
1. The degree of bachelor of arts (B.A. or A.B.), the first or lowest academical degree conferred by universities and colleges.

2. A baccalaureate sermon. [ U.S.]

Baccalaureate adjective Pertaining to a bachelor of arts.

Baccalaureate sermon , in some American colleges, a sermon delivered as a farewell discourse to a graduating class.

Baccara, Baccarat noun [ French] A French game of cards, played by a banker and punters.

Baccare, Backare interj. Stand back! give place! -- a cant word of the Elizabethan writers, probably in ridicule of some person who pretended to a knowledge of Latin which he did not possess.

Baccare ! you are marvelous forward.
Shak.

Baccate adjective [ Latin baccatus , from Latin bacca berry.] (Botany) Pulpy throughout, like a berry; -- said of fruits. Gray.

Baccated adjective
1. Having many berries.

2. Set or adorned with pearls. [ Obsolete]

Bacchanal (băk"kȧ*n a l) adjective [ Latin Bacchanalis . See Bacchanalia .]
1. Relating to Bacchus or his festival.

2. Engaged in drunken revels; drunken and riotous or noisy.

Bacchanal noun
1. A devotee of Bacchus; one who indulges in drunken revels; one who is noisy and riotous when intoxicated; a carouser. "Tipsy bacchanals ." Shak.

2. plural The festival of Bacchus; the bacchanalia.

3. Drunken revelry; an orgy.

4. A song or a dance in honor of Bacchus.

Bacchanalia (-nā"lĭ*ȧ) noun plural [ Latin Bacchanal a place devoted to Bacchus; in the plural Bacchanalia a feast of Bacchus, from Bacchus the god of wine, Greek Ba`kchos .]


1. (Myth.) A feast or an orgy in honor of Bacchus.

2. Hence: A drunken feast; drunken revels; an orgy.

Bacchanalian (-nā"lĭ* a n; 106) adjective Of or pertaining to the festival of Bacchus; relating to or given to reveling and drunkenness.

Even bacchanalian madness has its charms.
Cowper.

Bacchanalian noun A bacchanal; a drunken reveler.

Bacchanalianism noun The practice of bacchanalians; bacchanals; drunken revelry.

Bacchant noun ; plural English Bacchants , Latin Bacchantes . [ Latin bacchans , -antis , present participle of bacchari to celebrate the festival of Bacchus.]
1. A priest of Bacchus.

2. A bacchanal; a reveler. Croly.

Bacchant adjective Bacchanalian; fond of drunken revelry; wine-loving; reveling; carousing. Byron.

Bacchante noun ; Latin plural Bacchantes .
1. A priestess of Bacchus.

2. A female bacchanal.

Bacchantic adjective Bacchanalian.

Bacchic, Bacchical adjective [ Latin Bacchicus , Greek Bakchiko`s .] Of or relating to Bacchus; hence, jovial, or riotous, with intoxication.

Bacchius noun ; plural Bacchii [ Latin Bacchius pes, Greek "o Bakchei^os (sc. poy`s foot).] (Pros.) A metrical foot composed of a short syllable and two long ones; according to some, two long and a short.

Bacchus noun [ Latin , from Greek Ba`kchos .] (Myth.) The god of wine, son of Jupiter and Semele.

Bacciferous adjective [ Latin baccifer ; bacca berry + ferre to bear.] Producing berries. " Bacciferous trees." Ray.

Bacciform adjective [ Latin bacca berry + -form .] Having the form of a berry.

Baccivorous adjective [ Latin bacca berry + vorare to devour.] (Zoology) Eating, or subsisting on, berries; as, baccivorous birds.

Bace noun , adjective , & v. See Base . [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Bacharach, Backarack noun A kind of wine made at Bacharach on the Rhine.

Bachelor (băch"e*lẽr) noun [ Old French bacheler young man, French bachelier (cf. Pr. bacalar , Spanish bachiller , Portuguese bacharel , Italian baccalare ), Late Latin baccalarius the tenant of a kind of farm called baccalaria , a soldier not old or rich enough to lead his retainers into battle with a banner, a person of an inferior academical degree aspiring to a doctorate. In the latter sense, it was afterward changed to baccalaureus. See Baccalaureate , noun ]
1. A man of any age who has not been married.

As merry and mellow an old bachelor as ever followed a hound.
W. Irving.

2. An unmarried woman. [ Obsolete] B. Jonson.

3. A person who has taken the first or lowest degree in the liberal arts, or in some branch of science, at a college or university; as, a bachelor of arts.

4. A knight who had no standard of his own, but fought under the standard of another in the field; often, a young knight.

5. In the companies of London tradesmen, one not yet admitted to wear the livery; a junior member. [ Obsolete]

6. (Zoology) A kind of bass, an edible fresh-water fish ( Pomoxys annularis ) of the southern United States.

Bachelor's button (Botany) A plant with flowers shaped like buttons; especially, several species of Ranunculus , and the cornflower ( Centaurea cyanus ) and globe amaranth ( Gomphrena ).

» Bachelor's buttons , a name given to several flowers "from their similitude to the jagged cloathe buttons, anciently worne in this kingdom," according to Johnson's Gerarde, p. 472 (1633) ; but by other writers ascribed to "a habit of country fellows to carry them in their pockets to divine their success with their sweethearts." Dr. Prior.

Bachelordom (băch"e*lẽr*dŭm) noun The state of bachelorhood; the whole body of bachelors.

Bachelorhood (-hod) noun The state or condition of being a bachelor; bachelorship.

Bachelorism (-ĭz'm) noun Bachelorhood; also, a manner or peculiarity belonging to bachelors. W. Irving.

Bachelorship noun The state of being a bachelor.

Bachelry noun [ Old French bachelerie .] The body of young aspirants for knighthood. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Bacillar adjective [ Latin bacillum little staff.] (Biol.) Shaped like a rod or staff.

Bacillar adjective (Biol.) Pertaining to, or produced by, the organism bacillus; bacillary.

Bacillariæ noun plural [ New Latin , from Latin bacillum , dim. of baculum stick.] (Biol.) See Diatom .

Bacillary adjective Of or pertaining to little rods; rod-shaped.

Bacillary adjective (Biol.) Of or pertaining to bacilli; produced by, or containing, bacilli; bacillar; as, a bacillary disease.

Bacilliform adjective [ Latin bacillum little staff + -form .] Rod-shaped.

Bacillus noun ; plural Bacilli [ New Latin , for Latin bacillum . See Bacillarle .] (Biol.) A variety of bacterium; a microscopic, rod-shaped vegetable organism.

Back (băk) noun [ French bac : confer Arm. bag , bak a bark, Dutch bak tray, bowl.]
1. A large shallow vat; a cistern, tub, or trough, used by brewers, distillers, dyers, picklers, gluemakers, and others, for mixing or cooling wort, holding water, hot glue, etc.

Hop back , Jack back , the cistern which receives the infusion of malt and hops from the copper. -- Wash back , a vat in which distillers ferment the wort to form wash. -- Water back , a cistern to hold a supply of water; esp. a small cistern at the back of a stove, or a group of pipes set in the fire box of a stove or furnace, through which water circulates and is heated.

2. A ferryboat. See Bac , 1.

Back (băk) noun [ Anglo-Saxon bæc , bac ; akin to Icelandic , Swedish , & LG. bak , Danish bag ; confer Old High German bahho ham, Sanskrit bhaj to turn, OSlav. bēgŭ flight. Confer Bacon .]
1. In human beings, the hinder part of the body, extending from the neck to the end of the spine; in other animals, that part of the body which corresponds most nearly to such part of a human being; as, the back of a horse, fish, or lobster.

2. An extended upper part, as of a mountain or ridge.

[ The mountains] their broad bare backs upheave
Into the clouds.
Milton.

3. The outward or upper part of a thing, as opposed to the inner or lower part; as, the back of the hand, the back of the foot, the back of a hand rail.

Methought Love pitying me, when he saw this,
Gave me your hands, the backs and palms to kiss.
Donne.

4. The part opposed to the front; the hinder or rear part of a thing; as, the back of a book; the back of an army; the back of a chimney.

5. The part opposite to, or most remote from, that which fronts the speaker or actor; or the part out of sight, or not generally seen; as, the back of an island, of a hill, or of a village.

6. The part of a cutting tool on the opposite side from its edge; as, the back of a knife, or of a saw.

7. A support or resource in reserve.

This project
Should have a back or second, that might hold,
If this should blast in proof.
Shak.

8. (Nautical) The keel and keelson of a ship.

9. (Mining) The upper part of a lode, or the roof of a horizontal underground passage.

10. A garment for the back; hence, clothing. [ Obsolete]

A bak to walken inne by daylight.
Chaucer.

Behind one's back , when one is absent; without one's knowledge; as, to ridicule a person behind his back . -- Full back , Half back , Quarter back (Football) , players stationed behind those in the front line. -- To be or lie on one's back , to be helpless. -- To put , or get , one's back up , to assume an attitude of obstinate resistance (from the action of a cat when attacked). [ Colloq.] -- To see the back of , to get rid of. -- To turn the back , to go away; to flee. -- To turn the back on one , to forsake or neglect him.

Back adjective
1. Being at the back or in the rear; distant; remote; as, the back door; back settlements.

2. Being in arrear; overdue; as, back rent.

3. Moving or operating backward; as, back action.

Back charges , charges brought forward after an account has been made up. -- Back filling (Architecture) , the mass of materials used in filling up the space between two walls, or between the inner and outer faces of a wall, or upon the haunches of an arch or vault. -- Back pressure . (Steam Engine) See under Pressure . -- Back rest , a guide attached to the slide rest of a lathe, and placed in contact with the work, to steady it in turning. -- Back slang , a kind of slang in which every word is written or pronounced backwards; as, nam for man . -- Back stairs , stairs in the back part of a house; private stairs. Also used adjectively. See Back stairs , Backstairs , and Backstair , in the Vocabulary. -- Back step (Mil.) , the retrograde movement of a man or body of men, without changing front. -- Back stream , a current running against the main current of a stream; an eddy. -- To take the back track , to retrace one's steps; to retreat. [ Colloq.]

Back transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Backed ; present participle & verbal noun Backing .]


1. To get upon the back of; to mount.

I will back him [ a horse] straight.
Shak.

2. To place or seat upon the back. [ R.]

Great Jupiter, upon his eagle backed ,
Appeared to me.
Shak.

3. To drive or force backward; to cause to retreat or recede; as, to back oxen.

4. To make a back for; to furnish with a back; as, to back books.

5. To adjoin behind; to be at the back of.

A garden . . . with a vineyard backed .
Shak.

The chalk cliffs which back the beach.
Huxley.

6. To write upon the back of; as, to back a letter; to indorse; as, to back a note or legal document.

7. To support; to maintain; to second or strengthen by aid or influence; as, to back a friend. "The Parliament would be backed by the people." Macaulay.

Have still found it necessary to back and fortify their laws with rewards and punishments.
South.

The mate backed the captain manfully.
Blackw. Mag.

8. To bet on the success of; -- as, to back a race horse.

To back an anchor (Nautical) , to lay down a small anchor ahead of a large one, the cable of the small one being fastened to the crown of the large one. -- To back the field , in horse racing, to bet against a particular horse or horses, that some one of all the other horses, collectively designated "the field", will win. -- To back the oars , to row backward with the oars. -- To back a rope , to put on a preventer. -- To back the sails , to arrange them so as to cause the ship to move astern. -- To back up , to support; to sustain; as, to back up one's friends. -- To back a warrant (Law) , is for a justice of the peace, in the county where the warrant is to be executed, to sign or indorse a warrant, issued in another county, to apprehend an offender. -- To back water (Nautical) , to reverse the action of the oars, paddles, or propeller, so as to force the boat or ship backward.

Back intransitive verb
1. To move or go backward; as, the horse refuses to back .

2. (Nautical) To change from one quarter to another by a course opposite to that of the sun; -- used of the wind.

3. (Sporting) To stand still behind another dog which has pointed; -- said of a dog. [ Eng.]

To back and fill , to manage the sails of a ship so that the wind strikes them alternately in front and behind, in order to keep the ship in the middle of a river or channel while the current or tide carries the vessel against the wind. Hence: (Fig.) To take opposite positions alternately; to assert and deny. [ Colloq.] -- To back out , To back down , to retreat or withdraw from a promise, engagement, or contest; to recede. [ Colloq.]

Cleon at first . . . was willing to go; but, finding that he [ Nicias] was in earnest, he tried to back out .
Jowett (Thucyd. )

Back adverb [ Shortened from aback .]
1. In, to, or toward, the rear; as, to stand back ; to step back .

2. To the place from which one came; to the place or person from which something is taken or derived; as, to go back for something left behind; to go back to one's native place; to put a book back after reading it.

3. To a former state, condition, or station; as, to go back to private life; to go back to barbarism.

4. (Of time) In times past; ago. "Sixty or seventy years back ." Gladstone.

5. Away from contact; by reverse movement.

The angel of the Lord . . . came, and rolled back the stone from the door.
Matt. xxviii. 2.

6. In concealment or reserve; in one's own possession; as, to keep back the truth; to keep back part of the money due to another.

7. In a state of restraint or hindrance.

The Lord hath kept thee back from honor.
Numb. xxiv. 11.

8. In return, repayment, or requital.

What have I to give you back ?
Shak.

9. In withdrawal from a statement, promise, or undertaking; as, he took back the offensive words.

10. In arrear; as, to be back in one's rent. [ Colloq.]

Back and forth , backwards and forwards; to and fro. -- To go back on , to turn back from; to abandon; to betray; as, to go back on a friend; to go back on one's professions. [ Colloq.]

Back door A door in the back part of a building; hence, an indirect way. Atterbury.