Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Vaishnavism noun The worship of Vishnu.

Vaisya noun [ Sanskrit vaiçya .] The third of the four great original castes among the Hindus, now either extinct or partially represented by the mercantile class of Banyas. See the Note under Caste , 1.

Vaivode noun [ Confer French vayvode . See Waywode .] See Waywode .

Vakeel noun [ Arabic wakīl .] A native attorney or agent; also, an ambassador. [ India]

Valance noun [ Perhaps from Old French avalant descending, hanging down, present participle of avaler to go down, let down, descent (cf. Avalanche ); but probably from the town of Valence in France.]


1. Hanging drapery for a bed, couch, window, or the like, especially that which hangs around a bedstead, from the bed to the floor. [ Written also valence .]

Valance of Venice gold in needlework.
Shak.

2. The drooping edging of the lid of a trunk. which covers the joint when the lid is closed.

Valance transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Valanced ; present participle & verbal noun Valancing .] To furnish with a valance; to decorate with hangings or drapery.

His old fringed chair valanced around with party- colored worsted bobs.
Sterne.

Vale noun [ Middle English val , French val , Latin vallis ; perhaps akin to Greek ... low ground, marsh meadow. Confer Avalanche , Vail to lower, Valley .] A tract of low ground, or of land between hills; a valley. " Make me a cottage in the vale ." Tennyson.

Beyond this vale of tears there is a life above.
Montgomery.

In those fair vales , by nature formed to please.
Harte.

» Vale is more commonly used in poetry, and valley in prose and common discourse.

Syn. -- Valley; dingle; dell; dale.

Vale noun See 2d Vail , 3.

Valediction noun [ Latin , valedicere , valedictum , to say farewell; vale farewell (imperative of valere to be strong or well) + dicere to say. See Valiant , Diction .] A farewell; a bidding farewell. Donne.

Valedictorian noun One who pronounces a valedictory address; especially, in American colleges, the student who pronounces the valedictory of the graduating class at the annual commencement, usually the student who ranks first in scholarship.

Valedictory adjective Bidding farewell; suitable or designed for an occasion of leave-taking; as, a valedictory oration.

Valedictory noun ; plural Valedictories A valedictory oration or address spoken at commencement in American colleges or seminaries by one of the graduating class, usually by the leading scholar.

Valence noun [ From Latin valens , - entis , present participle of valere to have power, to be strong. See Valiant .] (Chemistry) The degree of combining power of an atom (or radical) as shown by the number of atoms of hydrogen (or of other monads, as chlorine, sodium, etc.) with which it will combine, or for which it can be substituted, or with which it can be compared; thus, an atom of hydrogen is a monad, and has a valence of one; the atoms of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon are respectively dyads, triads, and tetrads, and have a valence respectively of two, three, and four.

» The valence of certain elements varies in different compounds. Valence in degree may extend as high as seven or eight, as in the cases of iodine and osmium respectively. The doctrine of valence has been of fundamental importance in distinguishing the equivalence from the atomic weight, and is an essential factor in explaining the chemical structures of compounds.

Valencia noun [ Perhaps from Valence in France.] A kind of woven fabric for waistcoats, having the weft of wool and the warp of silk or cotton. [ Written also valentia .]

Valenciennes lace [ F.; -- so called after the town of Valenciennes .] A rich kind of lace made at Valenciennes, in France. Each piece is made throughout, ground and pattern, by the same person and with the same thread, the pattern being worked in the net.

Valency noun ; plural Valencies (Chemistry) (a) See Valence . (b) A unit of combining power; a so-called bond of affinity.

Valentia noun See Valencia .

Valentine noun
1. A sweetheart chosen on St. Valentine's Day.

2. A letter containing professions of love, or a missive of a sentimental, comic, or burlesque character, sent on St. Valentine's Day.

St. Valentine's Day , a day sacred to St. Valentine; the 14th of February. It was a very old notion, alluded to by Shakespeare, that on this day birds begin to mate. Hence, perhaps, arose the custom of sending love tokens at that time.

Valentinian noun (Eccl. Hist.) One of a school of Judaizing Gnostics in the second century; -- so called from Valentinus , the founder.

Valeramide noun [ Valer ic + amide .] (Chemistry) The acid amide derivative of valeric acid, obtained as a white crystalline substance.

Valerate noun (Chemistry) A salt of valeric acid.

Valerian noun [ Late Latin valeriana , perhaps from some person named Valerius , or from Latin valere to be strong. powerful, on account of its medicinal virtues: confer French valériane .] (Botany) Any plant of the genus Valeriana . The root of the officinal valerian ( V. officinalis ) has a strong smell, and is much used in medicine as an antispasmodic.

Greek valerian (Botany) , a plant ( Polemonium cæruleum ) with blue or white flowers, and leaves resembling those of the officinal valerian.

Valerianaceous adjective (Botany) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, plants of a natural order ( Valerianaccæ ) of which the valerian is the type. The order includes also the corn salads and the oriental spikenard.

Valerianate noun (Chemistry) A valerate.

Valerianic adjective (Chemistry) Performance to, or obtained from, valerian root; specifically, designating an acid which is usually called valeric acid .

Valeric adjective (Chemistry) Valerianic; specifically, designating any one of three metameric acids, of which the typical one (called also inactive valeric acid ), C 4 H 9 CO 2 H, is obtained from valerian root and other sources, as a corrosive, mobile, oily liquid, having a strong acid taste, and an odor of old cheese.

Active valeric acid , a metameric variety which turns the plane of polarization to the right, although formed by the oxidation of a levorotatory amyl alcohol.

Valeridine noun (Chemistry) A base, C 10 H 19 N, produced by heating valeric aldehyde with ammonia. It is probably related to the conine alkaloids.

Valerin noun [ Valer ic + glycer in .] (Chemistry) A salt of valeric acid with glycerin, occurring in butter, dolphin oil., and forming an forming an oily liquid with a slightly unpleasant odor.

Valeritrine noun [ Valer ic + iro pine + -ine .] (Chemistry) A base, C 15 H 27 N, produced together with valeridine, which it resembles.

Valero- (Chemistry) A combining form (also used adjectively) indicating derivation from , or relation to , valerian or some of its products , as valeric acid; as in valero lactone, a colorless oily liquid produced as the anhydride of an hydroxy valeric acid.

Valerone noun (Chemistry) A ketone of valeric acid obtained as an oily liquid.

Valeryl noun [ Valeric + - yl .] (Chemistry) The hypothetical radical C 5 H 9 O, regarded as the essential nucleus of certain valeric acid derivatives.

Valerylene noun (Chemistry) A liquid hydrocarbon, C 5 H 8 ; -- called also pentine .

Valet noun [ French valet , Old French vallet , varlet , vaslet . See Varlet , and Vassal .]


1. A male waiting servant; a servant who attends on gentleman's person; a body servant.

2. (Man.) A kind of goad or stick with a point of iron.

Valetudinarian adjective [ Latin valetudinarius , from valetudo state of health, health, ill health, from valere to be strong or well: confer French valétudinaire . See Valiant .] Of infirm health; seeking to recover health; sickly; weakly; infirm.

My feeble health and valetudinarian stomach.
Coleridge.

The virtue which the world wants is a healthful virtue, not a valetudinarian virtue.
Macaulay.

Valetudinarian noun A person of a weak or sickly constitution; one who is seeking to recover health.

Valetudinarians must live where they can command and scold.
Swift.

Valetudinarianism noun The condition of a valetudinarian; a state of feeble health; infirmity.

Valetudinary adjective Infirm; sickly; valetudinarian. -- Val`e*tu"di*na*ri*ness , noun

It renders the habit of society dangerously.
Burke.

Valetudinary noun A valetudinarian.

Valetudinous adjective Valetudinarian. [ Obsolete] "The valetudinous condition of King Edward." Fuller.

Valhalla noun [ Icelandic valhöll , literally, hall of the slain; valr the slain (akin to Anglo-Saxon wæl , Old High German wal battlefield, wuol defeat, slaughter, Anglo-Saxon wōl pestilence) + höll a royal hall. See Hall , and confer Walhalla .] [ Written also walhalla .]


1. (Scand. Myth.) The palace of immortality, inhabited by the souls of heroes slain in battle.

2. Fig.: A hall or temple adorned with statues and memorials of a nation's heroes; specifically, the Pantheon near Ratisbon, in Bavaria, consecrated to the illustrious dead of all Germany.

Valiance, Valiancy noun [ Confer French vaillance . See Valiant .] The quality or state of being valiant; bravery; valor. [ Obsolete] "His doughty valiance ." Spenser.

Valiant adjective [ Middle English valiant , French vaillant , Old French vaillant , valant , originally present participle of Old French & French valoir to be worth, Latin valere to be strong. See Wield , and confer Avail , Convalesce , Equivalent , Prevail , Valid .]


1. Vigorous in body; strong; powerful; as, a valiant fencer. [ Obsolete] Walton.

2. Intrepid in danger; courageous; brave.

A valiant and most expert gentleman.
Shak.

And Saul said to David . . . be thou valiant for me, and fight the Lord's battles.
1 Sam. xviii. 17.

3. Performed with valor or bravery; heroic. "Thou bearest the highest name for valiant acts." Milton.

[ The saints] have made such valiant confessions.
J. H. Newman.

-- Val"iant*ly , adverb -- Val"iant*ness , n .

Valid adjective [ French valide , French validus strong, from valere to be strong. See Valiant .]


1. Strong; powerful; efficient. [ Obsolete] "Perhaps more valid arms . . . may serve to better us." Milton.

2. Having sufficient strength or force; founded in truth; capable of being justified, defended, or supported; not weak or defective; sound; good; efficacious; as, a valid argument; a valid objection.

An answer that is open to no valid exception.
I. Taylor.

3. (Law) Having legal strength or force; executed with the proper formalities; incapable of being rightfully overthrown or set aside; as, a valid deed; a valid covenant; a valid instrument of any kind; a valid claim or title; a valid marriage.

Syn. -- Prevalent; available; efficacious; just; good; weighty; sufficient; sound; well-grounded.

Validate transitive verb [ See Valid .] To confirm; to render valid; to give legal force to.

The chamber of deputies . . . refusing to validate at once the election of an official candidate.
London Spectator.