Copy of `Dorland's Medical Dictionary`

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Dorland's Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: He/al/th a, US
Words: 39130

(strә-bot´ә-me) cutting of an ocular tendon in treatment of strabismus.

Strachan syndrome
(strawn) Strachan-Scott syndrome a nutritional polyneuropathy of unknown etiology found in impoverished areas of Jamaica and other countries, possibly due to a deficiency in dietary thiamine or riboflavin; characterized by amblyopia, paresthesias, dizziness, glossitis, stomatitis, lesions of the sensory pathways, a...

straight arteries of kidney
straight arterioles of kidney branches of the arcuate arteries of the kidney arising from the efferent glomerular arterioles and passing down to the renal pyramids.

straight back syndrome
a skeletal deformity characterized by loss of the anterior concavity of the vertebral column in the upper thoracic region, with consequent reduction in the anteroposterior diameter of the thorax and compression of the heart between the dorsal spine and the sternum.

straight sinus
one of the venous sinuses of the dura mater, formed by junction of the great cerebral vein and inferior sagittal sinus, and ending in the confluence of sinuses.

straight tubule
a part of a renal or seminiferous tubule that follows a comparatively straight course.

straight venules of kidney
venules that drain the papillary part of the kidney and empty into the arcuate veins.

(strān) to overexercise. excessive effort or exercise. an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature. to filter or separate. a group of organisms within a species or variety, characterized by some particular quality, as rough or smooth strains of...

(strāt) a narrow passage. straits of the pelvis the pelvic inlet(superior pelvic strait) and pelvic outlet(inferior pelvic strait).

(strāt´jak″әt) a device for restraining the limbs, especially the arms, of a violently disturbed person; it consists of a canvas jacket with long sleeves that can be fastened behind the back of the patient.

(strand) a thread or fiber or a structure resembling one. antisense strand the strand of a double-stranded nucleic acid that is complementary to the sense strand; in DNA it is the template on which the mRNA is synthesized. coding strand , sense strand ...

(strang´gәl) choke (def. 1).

(strang´gu-lāt´әd) congested by reason of constriction or hernial restriction, as strangulated hernia.

strangulated hernia
one that is tightly constricted. As any hernia progresses and bulges out through the weak point in its containing wall, the opening in the wall tends to close behind it and form a narrow neck; if the neck becomes so pinched that the blood supply is cut off, the hernia will swell and become strangulated, and gangrene is po...

(strang″gu-la´shәn) choke (def. 2). impairment of blood supply to a part by mechanical constriction of the vessels; see also hemostasis (def. 2).

(strang´gu-re) slow and painful discharge of urine.

(strap) a band or strip, as of adhesive tape, used in attaching parts to each other. to bind down tightly. Montgomery straps straps made of lengths of adhesive tape folded back on themselves at one end, with a hole that allows insertion of a tape tie; they are appli...

strap cell
a racquet-shaped rhabdomyoblast with an elongated cytoplasmic tail; called also tadpole cell.

(strap´ing) the application of strips of adhesive tape, one overlapping the other, to cover and exert pressure on a limb or other area of the body.

strategic therapy
a directive form of psychotherapy in which the therapist helps couples or families to change their interactions and behavior by noticing where maladaptive patterns are occurring, then eliminating them by demanding deliberate attempts to behave in ways that, paradoxically, would normally be expected to cause them instead.

(strat″ĭ-fĭ-ka´shәn) arrangement in layers.

stratified epithelium
epithelium made up of cells arranged in layers.

stratified random sample
one in which the population is divided into several groups that are alike in certain ways and a random sample is taken from each group.

stratified squamous epithelium
epithelium such as that of typical skin, having a basal layer of cuboidal cells and overlying layers of squamous cells.

(strat´ĭ-form) having a layered structure.

(strә-tig´rә-fe) tomography.

(strat´әm) (stra´tәm) a sheetlike mass of tissue; see also lamina and layer.

stratum basale
(strat´әm ba-za´le) the deepest layer, as of the epidermis or the endometrium. In the epidermis it is a single layer of cells. In the endometrium it provides the regenerative tissue after menstrual loss of the functional layer. Called also basal layer.

stratum compactum
(strat´әm kәm-pak´tәm) the sublayer of the stratum functionale facing the interior of the uterus and containing the necks of the uterine glands. Called also compact layer of endometrium.

stratum corneum
(strat´әm kor´ne-әm) the outer horny layer of the epidermis, consisting of cells that are dead and desquamating. Called also horny layer.

stratum corneum tryptic enzyme
an enzyme that is common in the outermost layer of the skin (stratum corneum). It is important in breaking down the junctions between dead skin cells so that they can be shed. When too much of this enzyme and too much of the protein cathelicidin are present, abnormal protein fragment is formed that causes the symptoms of rosace...

stratum functionale
(strat´әm funk″shә-na´le) the layer of endometrium facing the uterine lumen, overlying the stratum basale; subdivided into the stratum compactum and stratum spongiosum. Its cells are cast off at menstruation and parturition. It is called the decidua during pregnancy. Called also functional layer of endometri...

stratum germinativum
(strat´әm jur″mĭ-nә-ti´vәm) stratum basale. the stratum basale and stratum spinosum of the epidermis considered together. Called also germinative layer and malpighian layer.

stratum granulosum
(strat´әm gran″u-lo´sәm) the cell layer of the epidermis lying between the stratum lucidum and the stratum spinosum, containing keratohyalin granules. Called also granular layer. the layer of follicle cells lining the theca of the vesicular ovarian follicle. granular layer of cer...

stratum lucidum
(strat´әm loo´sĭ-dәm) the clear translucent layer of the epidermis, just beneath the stratum corneum, particularly noticeable on the palms and soles. Called also clear layer.

stratum spinosum
(strat´әm spi-no´sәm) the layer of the epidermis between the stratum granulosum and stratum basalis, marked by the presence of prickle cells; called also spinous layer and prickle-cell layer.

stratum spongiosum
(strat´әm spun″je-o´sәm) the sublayer of the stratum functionale underlying the stratum compactum; it contains the tortuous portions of the uterine glands. Called also spongy layer of endometrium:

Strauss sign
increase of fat following the use of fatty foods in chylous ascites.

strawberry hemangioma
a circumscribed capillary hemangioma, which may be present at birth or may appear soon after birth. These are most common on the head, neck, and trunk and appear as small macules that develop into raised purplish-red lobulated tumors. Most involute by age 2 to 3.

strawberry tongue
a tongue that is dark red colored and whose surface resembles the surface of a strawberry; seen in conditions such as Staphylococcus aureus infection, mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, and streptococcal pharyngitis. raspberry tongue.

(strēk) a line, stria, or stripe. angioid streaks red to black irregular bands in the ocular fundus running outward from the optic disk. primitive streak a faint white trace at the caudal end of the embryonic disc, formed by movement of cells at the on...

streak culture
a culture in which the surface of a solid medium is inoculated by drawing across it, in a zig-zag fashion, a wire inoculating loop carrying the inoculum.

(strēm) a current or flow, usually of a fluid; called also flumen. hair streams the lines along which the hairs of the body are arranged; called also flumina pilorum.

(strēm´ing) the movement of a current in a fluid. cytoplasmic streaming , protoplasmic streaming cyclosis.

street drugs
drugs illegally obtained for use in drug abuse.

street virus
virus from a naturally infected animal, as opposed to a laboratory-adapted strain of the virus.

Streeter dysplasia
congenital ringlike concentric bands on the limbs or trunk.

strength-duration curve
a graphic representation of the relationship between the intensity of an electric stimulus at the motor point of a muscle and the length of time it must flow to elicit a minimal contraction; see also chronaxie and rheobase. In cardiac pacing it is useful in determining characteristics of a particular pacing electrode and determ...

(stref″o-sim-bo´le-ә) a type of dyslexia consisting of confusion between similar but oppositely oriented letters (b-d, p-q), and a tendency to read backward. a perceptual disorder in which objects are perceived as mirror images.

(strep″to-bә-sil´әs) a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. The organisms are found in the throat and nasopharynx of wild and laboratory rats, and they may cause rat-bite fever in humans. It contains a single species, S. multifor´mis.

(strep″to-bә-sil´әs) a group of rod-shaped bacteria that remain loosely attached end-to-end in long chains as a result of failure of daughter cells to separate after cell division. an organism of the genus Streptobacillus.

(strep″to-sәr-ki´ә-sis) infection with the nematode Dipetalonema streptocerca, seen in Central Africa. The microfilariae produce a pruritic rash resembling that of onchocerciasis; they are transmitted from animal to animal by the bite of small insects of the genus Culicoides.

(strep″to-kok-a´se-e) a family of gram-positive, usually nonmotile, facultative anaerobic cocci, occurring in pairs, chains, or tetrads.

streptococcal pharyngitis
a type of acute pharyngitis caused by infection with Streptococcus pyogenes; it occurs in epidemics and is usually spread by droplets or in air, although it can also be spread by direct contact and in food. Characteristics include intense local hyperemia, sometimes with enlargement of cervical lymph nodes and a yellow exu...

streptococcal pneumonia
pneumonia caused by a streptococcus other than S. pneumoniae, usually Streptococcus pyogenes; pleural effusion, with or without empyema, is particularly common.

streptococcal toxin
a mixture of exotoxins formed by Streptococcus pyogenes.

(strep″to-kok-se´me-ә) the presence of streptococci in the blood.

(strep″to-kŏ-ko´sis) infection with streptococci.

(strep″to-kok´әs) a genus of gram-positive, facultatively aerobic cocci (family Streptococcaceae) occurring in pairs or chains. It is separable into the pyogenic group, the viridans group, the enterococcus group, and the lactic group. The first group includes the beta-hemolytic human and animal pathoge...

(strep″to-kok´әs) a bacterium of the genus Streptococcus. adj., streptococ´cal, streptococ´cic., adj. hemolytic streptococcus any streptococcus capable of hemolyzing erythrocytes, classified as either α-hemolytic (or viridans type), which on blood agar produces a...

(strep″to-dor´nās) an enzyme produced by hemolytic streptococci that catalyzes the depolymerization of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). See streptokinase-streptodornase.

(strep″to-ki´nās) an enzyme produced by streptococci that catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin. It is administered intravenously as a thrombolytic agent for treatment of acute coronary arterial thrombosis, acute pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, and acute arterial thromboembolism or thrombosis...

(strep-tol´ĭ-sin) the hemolysin of hemolytic streptococci.

(strep″to-mi´sēz) a genus of bacteria; most species are soil forms, but a few may be parasitic on plants or animals. It is most notable as the source of various antibiotics, such as the tetracyclines.

(strep″to-mi´sin) an aminoglycosideantibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseus; its use is now limited because of the emergence of resistant strains. Ths sulfate salt is used in combination with other agents in the treatment of tuberculosis and certain other bacterial infections.

(strep″to-zo´sin) an antitumor antibiotic derived from Streptomyces achromogenes, now produced synthetically. It acts as an alkylating agent to inhibit DNA synthesis, and also as an inhibitor of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis; used primarily for treatment of islet cell tumors, as well as other endocrine tumors such...

(stres) forcibly exerted influence; pressure. in dentistry, the pressure of the upper teeth against the lower. a state of physiological or psychological strain caused by adverse stimuli (physical, mental, or emotional, internal or external), that tend to disturb the functioning of an organism...

stress alopecia
psychogenic alopecia.

stress fracture
a fracture caused by unusual or repeated stress on a bone, such as with soldiers or athletes. Called also fatigue or march fracture.

stress incontinence
urinary incontinence due to strain on the orifice of the bladder, as in coughing or sneezing.

stress polycythemia
a chronic type of relative polycythemia, seen most often in middle-aged, mildly overweight males who are active, anxiety-prone, and hypertensive, occurring without the characteristic symptoms of polycythemia vera such as an enlarged spleen or excessive white blood cells or platelets in circulation. Called also stress erythrocyt...

stress reaction
any of the biological reactions to adverse stimuli, physical, mental, or emotional, internal or external, that tend to disturb the organism's equilibrium; should these compensating reactions, physiological or psychological, be inadequate or inappropriate, they may lead to disorders. See alarm reaction, acute stress reacti...

stress system
the parts of the neuroendocrine system that mediate the physiologic changes that occur in response to stress.

stress tests
any of various tests that assess cardiovascular health and function after application of a stress to the heart, usually exercise but sometimes others such as atrial pacing, the cold pressor test, or specific drugs. Subjects are monitored electrocardiographically, symptomatically, by blood pressure and heart rate, and ofte...

stress ulcer
a type of peptic ulcer, usually gastric, resulting from emotional stress.

stress urticaria
cholinergic urticaria caused by emotional stress.

(stres´әr) any factor that disturbs homeostasis, producing stress.

stretch receptor
a sense organ in a muscle or tendon that responds to elongation.

stretch reflex
reflex contraction of a muscle in response to passive longitudinal stretching.

(strech´әr) a portable couchlike or bedlike contrivance for carrying the sick or wounded; called also litter.

(strech´ing) increasing something in one of its dimensions; extending. See exercise.

stretching syncope
fainting when a person stretches the arms upward with the spine extended.

(stri´ә) pl. stri´ae Latin word meaning band, line, streak, or stripe. in anatomy, a longitudinal collection of nerve fibers in the brain.

stria diagonalis
(stri´ә di-ag″ә-na´lis) a band of nerve fibers that forms the caudal zone of the anterior perforated substance where it adjoins the optic tract.

striae atrophicae
(stri´e ә-tro´fĭ-se) striae distensae.

striae distensae
(stri´e dis-ten´se) atrophic, pink to purple, scarlike lesions usually found on the breasts, thighs, abdomen, or buttocks; in light-skinned persons they later change to a white color and are called lineae albicantes. They are due to weakening of elastic tissues, associated with pregnancy (striae gravidarum), obesity, ra...

striae gravidarum
(stri´e grav″ĭ-dah´rәm) striae distensae occurring in pregnancy.

striae medullares
(stri´e med″ә-lar´ēz) bundles of white fibers across the floor of the fourth ventricle.

(stri´āt) striated.

striate body
corpus striatum.

striate cortex
part of the occipital lobe that receives the fibers of the optic radiation and serves as the primary receiving area for vision. Called also first visual area.

(stri´āt-әd) having streaks or striae.

striated muscle
one whose fibers are divided by transverse bands into striations, including cardiac(striated involuntary muscle) and skeletal(striated involuntary muscle) muscles. The term is often used synonymously with the latter. Arrangement of thick and thin filaments of striated muscle, showing the A, H, I...

(stri-a´shәn) the quality of being streaked. a streak or scratch, or a series of streaks.

(stri″ә-to-ni´grәl) projecting from the corpus striatum to the substantia nigra.

striatonigral degeneration
a form of multiple system atrophy with nerve cell degeneration mainly in the region of the substantia nigra and the neostriatum. Symptoms are similar to those of parkinsonism, except that parkinsonian tremor is absent.

(strik´chәr) stenosis.

(strik´chәr-plas″te) a type of enteroplasty in which the caliber of a constricted segment of intestine is enlarged by means of longitudinal incision and transverse suturing of the stricture. See illustration. Strictureplasty. (A), Stricture; (B), longitudinal incision; ...

(strik″chәr-ĭ-za´shәn) the process of decreasing in caliber or of becoming narrowed or constricted.

(stri´dәr) a shrill, harsh sound, especially the respiratory sound heard during inhalation with a laryngeal obstruction. adj., strid´ulous., adj. laryngeal stridor that due to laryngeal obstruction. A congenital form, marked by stridor and dyspnea, is due to an infolding of...