Copy of `The Bridge Centre - Sexual health glossary`

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The Bridge Centre - Sexual health glossary
Category: Health and Medicine > Fertility and sexual health
Date & country: 15/01/2011, UK
Words: 383

Also called `German Measles`, it is caused by an infectious virus and is characterised by general rashes and swollen glands. If infection occurs during the first few months of pregnancy, it may cause severe congenital abnormalities.

Surgical removal of the fallopian tube.

Inflammation of the fallopian tubes caused by infection.

Surgery performed to remove adhesions that restrict the movement and function of reproductive organs.

Surgical repair of the fallopian tubes.

The bag of skin and muscle surrounding the man's testicles.

Secondary Infertility
The inability of a couple which has successfully achieved pregnancy to achieve another, including couples for whom the pregnancy did not go to term.

Selective Fetal Reduction
The process in which one or more normal fetus in a normal in a multiple pregnancy are destroyed.

The fluid portion of the ejaculate consisting of secretions from the seminal vesicles, prostate gland and several other glands in the male reproductive tract which provides nourishment and protection for the sperm and a medium in which the sperm can travel to the woman's vagina.

Semen Analysis
A laboratory test used to assess semen quality, sperm quantity, concentration, morphology, and motility.

Semen Viscosity
The liquid flow or consistency of the semen.

Seminal Fluid (semen)
The milky fluid that is ejaculated at orgasm. It contains fluid from the seminal vesicles, the prostate and the bulbourethral glands, in addition to sperm.

Seminal Plasma
Fluid in which the sperm is ejaculated.

Seminal Vesicles
Glands in the male reproductive system which produce much of the semen volume, including fructose for nourishing the sperm.

Seminiferous Tubes
The testicular tubules in which the sperm mature and move toward the epididymis.

Septate Uterus
A uterus divided into right and left halves by a wall of tissue (septum). Women with a septate uterus have an increased chance of early pregnancy loss.

A wall that divides a cavity in half, such as the uterine septum.

Sertoli Cell
A testicular cell responsible for nurturing the spermatids (immature sperm). Secretes inhibin, a feedback hormone, which regulates FSH production by the pituitary gland.

Sexually Transmitted Disease
Also known as `venereal disease` – any disease transmitted by sexual intercourse such as gonorrhoea and chlamydia.

Sheehan's Syndrome
A condition caused by profuse hemorrhage at the time of delivery.

Short Luted Phase
A condition frequently found with women undergoing ovulation induction treatment in which the corpus luteum deteriorates prematurely, causing the menstrual period to begin approximately ten days (instead of fourteen) after ovulation.

Sonogram (Ultrasound)
Use of high-frequency sound waves to create an image of internal body parts and to detect and count follicle growth in fertility treatment. Also used to detect and monitor pregnancy.

The male reproductive cell that carries the male`s genetic information to the female's egg.

Sperm Agglutination
Sperm clumping caused by antibody reactions or by infection.

Sperm Antibodies
Antibodies that attack and maim sperm formed by either the man against his own sperm or by the woman against her husband's sperm.

Sperm Bank
A place where sperm are kept frozen in liquid nitrogen for use in fertility treatment.

Sperm Capacitation
The chemical changes in the sperm that increase its ability to penetrate and fertilise and egg.

Sperm Count
The number of sperm in the ejaculate and given as the number of sperm per millilitre.

Sperm Maturation
A process during which the sperm grow and gain their ability to swim. Sperm take about ninety days to reach maturity.

Sperm Morphology
A semen analysis factor that indicates the number or percentage of sperm in the sample that appear to have been formed normally.

Sperm Motility
The ability of sperm to swim. Poor motility means the sperm have a difficult time reaching the egg.

Sperm Penetration
The ability of a sperm to penetrate the egg so it can deposit the genetic material during fertilisation.

An immature sperm cell.

Sperm production in the testicles.

The stretchability of cervical mucus; the stringy quality that occurs at midcycle under the influence of estrogen.

Split Ejaculate
A method used to concentrate the sperm for insemination; separating the semen into two portions – the first portion, which is rich in sperm and the second which mostly contains seminal fluid.

Stein-Leventhal Disease
Another name for polycystic ovaries.

An irreversible condition that prevents conception.

The death of a fetus between the twentieth week of gestation and birth.

Stimulated Cycle
A treatment cycle in which fertility drugs are used to produce more eggs than usual in the woman`s monthly cycle.

Term used to describe any impairment of fertility without implying permanent infertility.

Stimulation of multiple ovulation with fertility drugs; also known as controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH).

Surrogate Mother
A woman who is artificially inseminated and carries to term a baby which will be raised by its genetic father and his partner.

Subzonal insemination – where a single sperm is injected under the zona of an egg.

The technique for separating sperm based on their ability to swim through a culture medium.

A venereal disease caused by spirochete. Acquired infection is transmitted by sexual contact. Congenital infection comes from a mother who has been infected during or shortly before pregnancy.

Testicular Sperm Aspiration – procedure in which spermatozoa are obtained directly from the testicle either by aspiration or surgical excision of testicular tissue.

Testicular Sperm Extraction – involves retrieving sperm directly from the testis.

Testicular Biopsy
A minor surgical procedure which takes a small sample of testicular tissue for microscopic examination to diagnose male fertility problems.

Testicular Enzyme Defect
A congenital enzyme defect that prevents the testes from responding to hormonal stimulation resulting in oligospermia or azoospermia.

Testicular Failure, Primary
A congenital, developmental, or genetic error resulting in a testicular malformation that prevents sperm production.

Testicular Failure, Secondary
Acquired testicular damage - for example, from drugs, prolonged exposure to toxic substances or a varicocoele.

Testicular Function
The ability of the testicles to produce sperm and testosterone.

Testicular Stress Pattern
A semen analysis result showing depressed sperm production, poor sperm motility, and poor sperm morphology consistent with secondary testicular failure or illness.

Testis (testicle)
Male gonad which produces both sperm and male hormones.

The male hormone necessary for spermatogenesis and responsible for the formation of secondary sex characteristics and for supporting the sex drive.

Tubal Embryo Transfer.

Thyroid Gland
The endocrine gland in the front of the neck that produces thyroid hormones to regulate the body's metabolism.

The twisting of the testis inside the scrotum, cutting off the blood supply and causing severe damage to the testicle. Torsion of the ovary may also occur in a woman suffering from hyperstimulation, a complication resulting from ovulation induction treatment.

A long-acting GnRh agonist drug to induce pituitary down-regulation.

The presence of three chromosomes of one type instead of the normal two.

Tubocornual Anastomosis
Surgery performed to remove a blocked portion of the fallopian tube and to reconnect the tube to the uterus. Tubouterine implantation may also be performed to remove fallopian tube blockage near the uterus and reimplant the tube in the uterus.

Surgical repair of damaged fallopian tube.

Tubotubal Anastomosis
Surgery performed to remove a diseased portion of the fallopian tube and reconnect the two ends.

Turner's Syndrome
The most common genetic defect contributing to female fertility problems. The ovaries fail to form and appear as slender threads of atrophic ovarian tissue, referred to as streak ovaries. Karyotyping will reveal that this woman has only one female (X) chromosome instead of two.

A test which uses sound waves to visualise the reproductive organs, for example, to monitor follicular development and to examine the tubes and uterus.

Umbilical Cord
Two arteries and one vein encased in a gelatinous tube leading from the baby to the placenta which exchange nutrients and oxygen from the mother for waste products from the baby.

Unicornuate Uterus
An abnormality in which the uterus is "one sided" and smaller than usual.

Ureaplasma (Mycoplasma)
An infection that may cause the formation of sperm antibodies and an inflammation of the uterine lining, either of which may interfere with implantation of the embryo.

The tube that allows urine to pass between the bladder and the outside of the body. In the man this tube also carries semen from the area of the prostate to the outside.

A doctor specialising in the genitourinary tract.

Uterine Septum
A band of tissue in the midsection of the uterus that divide the normal uterine cavity.

The hollow, muscular organ that houses and nourishes the fetus during pregnancy.

The canal leading from the cervix to the outside of the woman's body.

Vaginal spasm, inability to relax vaginal muscles before or during intercourse.

Infections of the vagina which may indicate the presence of pelvic adhesions and tubal blockage from other infections, such as Chlamydia and which may interfere with sperm penetration of the cervical mucus.

A dilation of the veins that carry blood out of the scrotum. The resulting swollen vessels surrounding the testicles create a pool of stagnant blood, which elevates the scrotal temperature and is a major cause of male infertility.

Vas Deferens
One of the tubes through which the sperm move from the testicles (epididymis) toward the seminal vesicles and prostate gland. These tubes are severed during a vasectomy performed for birth control.

The surgical separation of the vas a deferens – a procedure used for birth control.

An x-ray of the vas deferens.

Venereal Disease
Any infection that can be sexually transmitted, such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, ureaplasma and syphilis. Many of these diseases interfere with fertility.

Being able to perform sexually; having male secondary sex characteristics.

Thickening of the semen.