Copy of `The Bridge Centre - Sexual health glossary`

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The Bridge Centre - Sexual health glossary
Category: Health and Medicine > Fertility and sexual health
Date & country: 15/01/2011, UK
Words: 383


IUD (Intrauterine Device)
A device placed into the uterus to prevent pregnancy.

Kallman's Syndrome
A congenital hypothalamus dysfunction which has multiple symptoms including the failure to complete puberty.

Karyotype
A complete set of human chromosomes.

Karyotyping
A test performed to analyse chromosomes for the presence of genetic defects.

Klinefelter's Syndrome
A genetic abnormality characterised by having one Y (male) and two X (female) chromosomes. May cause fertility problems.

Laparoscope
A small telescope that can be inserted into a hole in the abdominal wall for viewing the internal organs and to perform a laparoscopy for diagnosis and treatment of a number of fertility problems including endometriosis, abdominal adhesions and polycystic ovaries. Also used in egg retrieval for IVF.

Laparoscopy
Examination of the pelvic region by using a small telescope called a laparoscope.

Laparotomy
Major abdominal surgery for the correction of reproductive organ abnormalities such as tubal repairs and the removal of adhesions and fertility restoration.

Leiomyomata
See Fibroid.

Leydig Cell
The testicular cell that produces testosterone, the male hormone. The Leydig cell is stimulated by LH from the pituitary gland.

Liquefaction
The process by which ejaculate turns from a jelly-like consistency to liquid.

Live Birth
A birth in which a fetus is delivered with signs of life after complete expulsion or extraction from its mother, beyond 20 completed weeks of gestational age.

Live Birth Delivery Rate
The number of live birth deliveries expressed per 100 initiated cycles, aspiration cycles or embryo transfer cycles. When delivery rates are given, the denominator (initiated, aspirated, or embryo transfer cycles) must be specified. The delivery of a singleton, twin, or other multiple birth is registered as one delivery.

Luteal Phase
Post-ovulatory phase of a woman's cycle. The corpus luteum produces progesterone, which causes the uterine lining to thicken to support the implantation and growth of the embryo.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
A pituitary hormone that stimulates the gonads. In the man LH is necessary for spermatogenesis (Sertoli cell function) and for the production of testosterone (Leydig cell function). In the woman LH is necessary for the production of estrogen.

Malformation Rate
Includes all structural, functional, genetic and chromosomal abnormalities identified in aborted tissue or diagnosed before or after birth.

MAR
Mixed Agglutination Reaction, a test to check for the presence or absence of antisperm antibodies.

Masturbation
Manual stimulation of the penis leading to ejaculation - a technique used to collect semen for analysis and for artificial insemination.

Maturation Arrest
A testicular condition in which all sperm development halts throughout all testicular tubules. May result in oligospermia or azoospermia.

Meiosis
The cell division, peculiar to reproductive cells, which allows genetic material to divide in half. Each new cell will contain twenty-three chromosomes. The spermatids and eggs each contain twenty-three chromosomes so, when fertilisation takes place, the baby will have a normal complement of forty-six.

Menarche
A girl`s first period.

Menogon
A fertility drug given by injection and consists of FSH and LH.

Menopause
A condition when the ovaries ran out of eggs. It is usually characterised by absence of periods, hot flushes, sweating and mood changes. The usual age for menopause is around 52.

Menorrhagia
Heavy or prolonged menstrual flow.

Menstrual cycle
A series of cyclical changes that occur in the female genital system each month.

Menstruation
The cyclical shedding of the uterine lining in response to stimulation from estrogen and progesterone.

Metrodine (Pure FSH)
An injectable form of Follicle Stimulating Hormone used to stimulate ovulation.

Micromanipulation
The use of special micromanipulative technology that allows operative procedures to be performed on the oocyte, sperm or embryo.

Miscarriage
The spontaneous loss of an embryo or fetus from the womb.

Mitosis
The division of a cell into two identical cells in which all forty-six human chromosomes are duplicated.

Mittleschmerz
The discomfort felt on one side of the lower abdomen at the time of ovulation.

Monozygotic
Means single. In monozygotic twins one fertilised egg separates into two identical zygotes.

Morula
The fertilised egg after a few days of development when it forms a ball of cells.

Motility
The percentages of all moving sperm in a semen sample.

Multiple Birth
Birth of more than one baby from a pregnancy.

Mycoplasma
See Ureaplasma.

Myomectomy
Surgery performed to remove fibroid tumors.

Myometrium
The middle muscular layer of the womb.

Necrozoospermia
All sperm in the ejaculate are dead.

Neonatal Death
A death within 28 days of birth.

Normegon
A fertility drug given by injection. It consists of FSH and LH.

Nucleus
The part of the cell that contains the genetic material DNA.

Oligomenorrhea
Infrequent menstrual periods.

Oligoovulation
Infrequent ovulation.

Oligozoospermia
A low sperm count (below 20 million) which is low enough to cause a fertility problem.

Oocyte Donation
A fertility treatment procedure performed with third-party oocytes.

Oophorectomy
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.

Orgafol
A fertility drug given by injection. It consists of highly purified FSH.

Orgasm
The psychological and physical sensation that accompanies sexual climax.

Ovarian Cyst
A fluid-filled sac inside the ovary often found in conjunction with ovulation disorders, tumors of the ovary, and endometriosis.

Ovarian Failure
The failure of the ovary, diagnosed by elevated FSH in the blood, to respond to FSH stimulation from the pituitary because of damage to or malformation of the ovary.

Ovaries
The two female sex glands which produce eggs and hormones.

Ovulation
The release of the egg from the ovarian follicle.

Ovulation Induction
Medical treatment performed to initiate ovulation.

Ovulatory Cycle
A series of cyclical changes that occur within the ovary each month and result in the release of an egg.

Ovulatory Failure (Anovulation)
The failure to ovulate.

Ovum
The egg; the reproductive cell from the ovary; the female gamete.

Ovum Induction
The use of fertility drugs to stimulate ovulation if the woman is not producing eggs properly. The aim is to restore physiological ovulation (single follicle). The aim of superovulation is to override and stimulate multiple follicle development.

Panbypopituitarism
Total pituitary gland failure.

Patent
The condition of being `open`, as with tubes that form part of the reproductive organs.

PCT
Post-coital test, a microscopic examination of a woman`s cervical mucus after intercourse to check the number and motility of sperm in the mucus.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
An infection of the pelvic organs that causes severe illness and extreme pain which may lead to tubal blockage and pelvic adhesions.

Penile Implant
A device surgically inserted into the penis to provide rigidity for intercourse.

Penis
The male organ that becomes enlarged and erect for the purpose of depositing semen in the woman's vagina.

Pergonal (HMG)
A medication used to replace the pituitary hormones, LH and FSH frequently used with women who do not produce estrogen because of a pituitary gland or hypothalamic malfunction. May also be used with men to stimulate sperm production.

Pergoveris
A fertility drug given by injection. It contains 150 IU recombinant FSH and 75 IU recombinant LH.

Perinatal Death Rate
The number of stillbirths and first week deaths per 1,000 delivered.

PESA
Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration. This involves retrieving sperm directly from the epididymis using a needle.

Petri Dish
A shallow glass or plastic cylindrical lidded dish that embryologists use to fertilise eggs with sperm and also used by biologists to culture cells. It is named after German bacteriologist, Julius Richard Petri.

Pituitary Gland
The master gland that is stimulated by the hypothalamus and controls all hormonal functions. Located at the base of the brain just below the hypothalamus, this gland controls many major hormonal factories throughout the body including the gonads, the adrenal glands and the thyroid gland.

Placenta
The embryonic tissue that invades the uterine wall and provides a mechanism for exchanging the baby's waste products for the mother's nutrients and oxygen. The baby is connected to the placenta by the umbilical cord.

Polar Body
The discarded genetic material resulting from female germ cell division.

Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome (PCOS)
A condition found in women who don't ovulate, characterised by excessive production of androgens and the presence of cysts in the ovaries. Though PCOS can be without symptoms, some cases include weight gain, acne and excessive hair growth.

Polyp
A small growth, usually benign, protruding from the endometrium and dangle into the cavity of the womb. It may interfere with embryo implantation by acting like a coil. Polyps are usually removed surgically.

Post Coital Test (PCT)
A microscopic examination of the cervical mucus best performed twelve or more hours after intercourse to determine compatibility between the woman's mucus and the man's semen and used to detect sperm-mucus interaction problems, the presence of sperm antibodies and the quality of the cervical mucus.

Post-testicular System
The ducts that store and deliver the sperm to the opening of the penis, including the glands that produce seminal fluids.

Preclinical Abortion
An abortion that takes place before clinical or ultrasound evidence of pregnancy.

Preclinical Pregnancy
Evidence of conception based only on biochemical data in serum or urine before ultrasound evidence of a gestational sac.

Pregnancy rate per cycle
The number of pregnancies achieved from every 100 treatment cycle commenced.

Pregnyl
A fertility drug given by injection and consists of human chorionic gonadotropin.

Premature Menopause
A condition in which menopause occurs before the age of 40. It affects approximately 1% of women. In most cases there is no identifiable cause. The only effective treatment for infertility is IVF with donated eggs.

Premature Ovarian Failure
A condition where the ovary runs out of follicles before the normal age associated with menopause.

Preterm Birth
A birth that takes place after at least 20, but less than 37, completed weeks of gestation. This includes both live births and stillbirths.

Pretesticular System
The male hormonal system responsible for stimulating sperm production and the development of male secondary sex characteristics.

Profasi
A fertility drug given by injection and consists of human chorionic gonadotropin.

Progesterone
The hormone produced by the corpus luteum during the second half of a woman's cycle. It thickens the lining of the uterus to prepare it to accept implantation of a fertilised egg.

Progesterone Withdrawal
A diagnostic procedure used to analyse menstrual irregularity and amenorrhea – prior to ovulation induction therapy, progesterone withdrawal may be used to induce a menstrual period.

Prolactin
The hormone that stimulates the production of milk in breastfeeding women – excessive levels when not breastfeeding may result in infertility.

Pronucleate Stage
An early stage of fertilisation when the sperm and egg pronuclei are visible under the microscope.

Prostaglandin
A hormone secreted by the uterine lining. It is possible that prostaglandins secreted by active, young endometrial implants may interfere with the reproductive organs by causing muscular contractions or spasms.

Prostap
A long-acting GnRh agonist drug used to induce pituitary down-regulation.

Prostate Gland
A gland in the male reproductive system that produces a portion of the semen including a chemical that liquefies the coagulated semen.

Prostatitis
Inflammation of the prostate gland usually as a result of infection.

Puberty
The time of life when the body starts to produce adult levels of sex hormones - (estrogen or testosterone) and adult body characteristics develop.

Puregon
A recombinant follicle stimulating hormone fertility drug.

PZD
Partial Zona Dissection, a micromanipulation procedure to help sperm penetrate the zona pellucida.

Radiotherapy
The use of radiation and radioactive substances to treat cancer.

Recipient
The woman who receives an oocyte or an embryo from another woman.

Recto electro-ejaculation
A technique used to obtain an ejaculate from spinal injured or otherwise impotent men, where a spinal probe is inserted into the rectum to stimulate the seminal vesicles.

Resistant Ovary
An ovary that cannot respond to FSH stimulation.