Copy of `The Bridge Centre - Sexual health glossary`

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The Bridge Centre - Sexual health glossary
Category: Health and Medicine > Fertility and sexual health
Date & country: 15/01/2011, UK
Words: 383


Down`s Syndrome
A genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21.

Doxycycline
An antibiotic that inhibits many of the microorganisms infecting the reproductive tract which is used for treating ureaplasma infections.

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
An inherited sex-linked muscular disease.

Dysfunctional
Abnormal function.

Dysmenorrhea
Painful menstruation which may be a sign of endometriosis.

Dyspareunia
Painful coitus for either the man or the woman.

Early Neoneonatal Death
A death occurring within the first seven days after delivery.

Ectopic Pregnancy
A pregnancy outside of the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube which cannot be sustained. Methotrexate can be used to dissolve the pregnancy without causing major damage to the tube.

Egg Collection
A procedure used to obtain eggs from ovarian follicles for use in IVF. The procedure is performed during laparoscopy or by using a long needle and ultrasound to locate the follicle in the ovary.

Egg Donor
A woman who donates her eggs.

Egg Recipient
A woman who receives embryos created with donor eggs.

Ejaculate
The semen and sperm expelled during ejaculation.

Ejaculation
The physiological process by which the semen is propelled from the testicles, through the reproductive tract and out of the penis.

Ejaculatory Ducts
A pair of ducts, each formed by the joining of a seminal vesicle with a vas deferens.

Embryo
The early product of conception.

Embryo Donor
A couple who donate their spare embryos to either infertile couples or for research purposes.

Embryo Recipient
A woman who receives one or more embryos into the uterine cavity.

Empty Sella Syndrome
A condition that occurs when spinal fluid leaks into the chamber housing the pituitary gland which may adversely affect the ability to secrete LH and FSH.

Endometrial Biopsy
A procedure during which a sample of the uterine lining is collected for microscopic analysis to confirm ovulation and the proper preparation of the endometrium by estrogen and progesterone stimulation.

Endometriosis
The presence of small implants of endometrial tissue outside the uterus in abnormal locations.

Endometrium
The lining of the uterus which grows and sheds in response to estrogen and progesterone stimulation; the bed of tissue designed to nourish the implanted embryo.

Endorphins
Natural narcotics manufactured in the brain to reduce sensitivity to pain and stress which may contribute to stress-related fertility problems.

Epididymis
A tubular organ attached to the testicle where developing sperm complete their maturation.

Epididymitis
Inflammation of the epididymis.

Erection
The process during which the erectile tissue of the penis becomes engorged with blood, causing the penis to swell and become rigid.

Estrogens
The female sex hormones, a group of hormones that are produced mainly by the ovaries. They are essential for normal sexual developments and for the reproductive system.

Fallopian Tubes
The ducts through which eggs travel to the uterus once released from the follicle andthe site at which fertilisation usually occurs.

Female Kallman's Syndrome
A condition characterised by early sexual development and the inability to produce LH and FSH.

Ferning
A pattern characteristic of dried cervical mucus viewed on a slide which appears when the mucus has been thinned and prepared by estrogen for the passage of sperm.

Fertilisation
The combining of the genetic material carried by sperm and egg to create an embryo. Normally occurs inside the fallopian tube (in vivo) but also occurs in IVF in a petri dish.

Fertility Specialist
A doctor specialising in the practice of fertility.

Fertility Treatment
Any method or procedure used to enhance fertility or increase the likelihood of pregnancy, such as ovulation induction treatment, varicocoele repair, and microsurgery to repair damaged fallopian tubes. The goal of fertility treatment is to help couples have a child.

Fertility Workup
The initial medical examinations and tests performed to diagnose or narrow down the cause of fertility problems.

Fetus
A term used to refer to a baby during the period of gestation between eight weeks and term.

Fibroids
A benign tumor of the uterine muscle and connective tissue.

Fimbria
The opening of the fallopian tube near the ovary with fingerlike ends which grasp the ovary and coax the egg into the tube.

Flow cytometry
A method of sperm sorting used for sex selection. X and Y chromosome bearing sperm are stained with different fluorescent dyes and then can be sorted by colour.

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
A pituitary hormone that stimulates spermatogenesis and follicular development. In the man FSH stimulates the Sertoli cells in the testicles and supports sperm production. In the woman FSH stimulates the growth of the ovarian follicle.

Follicles
Fluid-filled sacs in the ovary which contain the eggs released at ovulation.

Follicular Fluid
The fluid inside the follicle that cushions and nourishes the ovum.

Follicular Phase
The pre-ovulatory portion of a woman's cycle during which a follicle grows and high levels of estrogen cause the lining of the uterus to proliferate. Normally takes between 12 and 14 days.

Frigidity
The inability to become sexually aroused.

FSH
Follicle stimulating hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland. It stimulates the growth of follicles in the female and sperm production in the male.

Full-term Birth
A birth that takes place at 37 or more completed weeks of gestational age.

Fundus
The upper region of the uterus. The fallopian tube opens into the opposite corners of the fundus.

Galactorrhoea
Abnormal milk secretion from the breasts.

Gamete
A reproductive cell

Gene
The unit of inheritance. Everyone inherits two copies of each gene. One from the father, one from the mother.

Genitals
The external sex organs, as the labia and clitoris in the woman and the penis and testicles in the man. Also called genitalia.

Genome
The basic sets of genes in a chromosome.

Germ Cell
In the male the testicular cell that divides to produce immature sperm cells; in the woman the ovarian cell that divides to form the egg (ovum). The male germ cell remains intact throughout the man's reproductive life; the woman uses up her germ cells at the rate of about one thousand per menstrual cycle, although usually only one egg matures each cycle.

Gestational Carrier
The age of an embryo or fetus calculated by adding 2 weeks to the number of completed weeks since fertilization.

Gestational Sac
A fluid-filled structure containing an embryo that develops early in pregnancy usually within the uterus.

GIFT
Gamete Intra-Fallopian Transfer.

GnRh
Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, a hormone secreted by the hypothalamus. It stimulates the pituitary gland to release FSH and LH. GnRh preparation are produced synthetically.

Gonad
The gland that makes reproductive cells and sex hormones i.e. the testicles, which make sperm and testosterone, and the ovaries, which make eggs (ova) and estrogen.

Gonadotropins
The Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Lutenizing Hormone (LH) which control reproductive function.

Gonal F
A recombinant human follicular stimulating hormone, known as a `fertility drug`.

Gonorrhea
An infection that is usually asymptomatic and may cause tubal blockage, impair sperm and prevent pregnancy.

Habitual Abortion
Repeat miscarriages.

Haemophilia
A sex-linked inherited blood disease found almost exclusively in men. It is characterised by delayed blood clotting and difficulty in controlling haemorrhage, even after minor injury.

Hatching
The process that precedes implantation by which an embryo at the blastocyst stage separates from the zona pellucida.

Hepatitis B and C
Viruses that may be transmitted sexually or by blood and can cause infection of the liver which can lead to jaundice or liver failure.

Hereditary
A disease transmitted from one`s ancestors.

Heterozygous
Having two different alleles of a particular gene.

HFEA
Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority.

Hirsutism
Abnormal or excessive hair growth in the body and face.

HIV
The Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that causes Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

Homozygous
Having two of the same alleles of a particular gene.

Hormones
Chemical substances secreted by endocrine glands, to regulate activities of certain cells and organs.

Host Uterus
A couple's embryo is transferred to another woman who carries the pregnancy to term and returns the baby to the genetic parents immediately after birth (see Surrogate).

Hostile Mucus
Cervical mucus that impedes the natural progress of sperm through the cervical canal.

HRT
Hormone Replacement Treatment.

Human Menopausal Gonadotropin (HMG)
A combination of FSH and LH, which is extracted from the urine of post-menopausal women and used to induce ovulation in fertility treatment.

Humegon
The lutenizing and follicle-stimulating hormones recovered from the urine of post-menopausal women. Used to stimulate multiple ovulation in fertility treatment.

Huntongton`s Disease
An inherited sex-linked nervous disease that develops in adulthood and leads to a state of detiorated mentality.

Hyperprolactinemia
A condition in which the pituitary gland secretes too much prolactin. Prolactin can suppress LH and FSH production, reduce sex drive in the man, and directly suppress ovarian function in the woman.

Hyperthyroidism
Overproduction of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland which reduces estrogen levels too rapidly and interferes with ovulation.

Hypoestrogenic
Having lower than normal levels of estrogen.

Hypogonadotropic Hypopituitarism
A spectrum of diseases resulting in low pituitary gland output of LH and FSH. Men with this disorder have low sperm counts. Women do not ovulate.

Hyposalpinx
A blocked, dilated and fluid-filled fallopian tube.

Hypospermatogenesis
Low sperm production.

Hypothalamus
A part of the brain located adjacent to and above the pituitary gland which regulates the hormones. In both the man and the woman this tissue secretes GnRH every ninety minutes or so. The pulsatile GnRH enables the pituitary gland to secrete LH and FSH, which stimulate the gonads.

Hypothyroidism
A condition in which the thyroid gland produces an insufficient amount of thyroid hormone causing a lower sex drive and elevated prolactin in men. Women suffer from elevated prolactin and estrogen, both of which interfere with fertility.

Hysterectomy
The surgical removal of the uterus. May also include the removal of other reproductive structures such as the fallopian tubes and ovaries.

Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)
An x-ray of the pelvic organs in which a special dye is injected through the cervix into the uterus and fallopian tubes to check for malformations of the uterus and blockage of the fallopian tubes.

Hysteroscopy
A procedure in which the doctor checks for uterine abnormalities by inserting a fiber-optic device. Minor surgical repairs can be executed during the procedure.

ICSI
See also Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection

Idiopathic
No causes found.

Immature Sperm (Germinal Cell)
A sperm that has not matured and gained the ability to swim.

Immunoglobulin
Also called antibodies, produced by B lymphocytes to bind to foreign antigens.

Implantation (Embryo)
The embedding of the embryo into tissue so it can establish contact with the mother's blood supply for nourishment. Implantation usually occurs in the lining of the uterus.

Impotence
The inability of the man to have an erection and to ejaculate.

In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
Literally means "in glass." Fertilisation takes place outside the body in a small glass dish.

Infertility
Inability of a couple to achieve a pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse.

Infertility
The inability to conceive after a year of unprotected intercourse or the inability to carry a pregnancy to term.

Inhibin
A male feedback hormone made in the testicles to regulate FSH production by the pituitary gland.

Inhibin-F (Folliculostatin)
A female feedback hormone made in the ovary to regulate FSH production by the pituitary gland.

Initiated Cycles
Treatment cycles in which the woman receives ovarian stimulation or monitoring, irrespective of whether or not follicular aspiration was attempted.

Intra Uterine Insemination (IUI)
Insemination of washed and prepared sperm into the uterus.