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Superglossary - Architecture
Category: Architecture and Buildings
Date & country: 16/12/2013, USA
Words: 1135

International Commodity Agreement
An undertaking by a group of countries to stabilize trade, supplies, and prices of a commodity for t

International Grains Council (IGC)
An intergovernmental forum responsible for administering the International Grains Agreement (IGA).

International Wheat Agreement (IWA)
Replaced in 1995 by the International Grains Agreement.

Invasive Species
Alien (non-native) species of plants, animals, and pests whose introduction causes or is likely to c

Inter-regional Project 4, also know as the Minor Crop Pest Management Program, is funded by CSREES t

The process of exposing food or other items to radiation of various wavelengths in order to destroy

Applying water (or wastewater) to land areas to supply the water (and sometimes nutrient) needs of p

Irrigation Return Flow
Part of artificially applied water that is not consumed by plants or evaporation, and that eventuall

Irrigation Water Management
Managing irrigation applications based on the water-holding capacity of the soil and the need of the

Jones Act
The common reference for Section 27 of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920, which requires that all wate

Just-In-Time Delivery
An inventory control system that replenishes and delivers products to a retailer just as a current s

Karnal Bunt
A fungus disease of wheat that reduces yields and causes an unpalatable but harmless flavor in flour

Land Capability (Classification)
The quality of soil resources for agricultural use is commonly expressed as land capability classes

Land Grant Colleges Of Agriculture
The Morrill Act of 1862 granted federal land to states to sell, and instructed each state to use the

Land Grant University
The term used to identify a public university in each state that was originally established as a lan

Land Management Services Contracts
A proposed national forest timber sale contract where purchasers would be required to perform activi

Land Treatment
Any activity or project to improve conservation of soil, water, or other resources and to improve pr

Land Trust
A private nonprofit organization, under

Land Use And Development Controls
Ordinances, resolutions, and controls enacted by local government under the authority of state enabl

Land Use Plan
A coordinated collection of data, programs, and activities related to existing and potential uses of

The process by which chemicals are dissolved and transported through the soil by percolating water.

A family of plants, including many valuable food, forage and cover species, such as peas, beans, soy

The USDA defines levy as an import charge assessed by a country or group of countries not in accorda

A new form of linseed known by the generic crop name Solin, which produces a high-quality edible pol

The short fibers that remain on cottonseed after ginning. They are used mainly for batting, mattress

Listeria monocytogenes, a pathogenic bacterium found widely in nature, can be carried in a variety o

Live Weight
The weight of live animals purchased or sold by a producer.

Loan Deficiency Payments
A commodity payment program authorized by the Food Security Act of 1985 that makes direct payments,

Loan Forfeiture
Under commodity program rules, a producer or processor who pledges a stored commodity as collateral

Loan Forfeiture Level
The lowest market price that a processor must receive before concluding that forfeiting pledged suga

Loan Rate
The price per unit (bushel, bale, pound, or hundredweight, depending on the commodity) at which the

(1) One who has bought a futures contract or option to establish a market position

Long Ton
A measure of weight equal to 2,240 pounds. By contrast, a short ton is 2,000 pounds

Low-Flow Irrigation Systems
These systems (drip, trickle, and micro sprinklers) provide water in small volumes and generally pro

Lump-Sum Sales
A common term for tree measurement sales.

Mad Cow Disease
The common term used for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).

Major Land Resource Area (MLRA)
Major land resource areas are geographically associated land resource units delineated by the Natura

Mandatory Price Reporting
Currently, packers and processors are not required to report the prices they pay for the animals the

The amount of money or collateral deposited by a customer with a broker, by a broker with a clearing

Margin Call
(1) A request from a brokerage firm to a customer to bring margin deposits up to initial levels

The form of aquaculture where fish, shellfish, or aquatic plants are cultured in a salt water enviro

Market Access Program (MAP)
MAP, previously called the Market Promotion Program, is administered by the Foreign Agricultural Ser

Market Allocation
A quantity provision in a fruit or vegetable marketing order specifying the maximum amount of the re

Market Basket
Average quantities of consumables, including U.S. farm foods, purchased per household for a given ba

Market Loss Payments
Term used in the Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency Appropriations Act, FY1999 (P.L. 105-277, Octobe

Market Price
The price per bushel (or pound or hundredweight) of an agricultural commodity paid in the private se

Market Promotion Program (MPP)
An export promotion program authorized by the FACT Act of 1990 that replaced the Targeted Export Ass

Market Structure
Characteristics of an industry that relate to its economic performance, such as the number of buyers

Market Transition Payments
Referred to variously as AMTA payments, contract payments, or production flexibility contract paymen

Marketing Assessments
Producers and first purchasers of some supported commodities are required to pay an assessment as a

Marketing Assistance Loans
Nonrecourse loans made available to producers of wheat, feed grains, upland and ELS cotton, rice, so

Marketing Certificate
A certificate that may be redeemed for a specified amount of CCC-owned commodities. The certificates

Marketing Contract
Prices (or pricing mechanisms) are established for a commodity before harvest or before the commodit

Marketing Loan Repayment Provisions
A loan settlement provision, first authorized by the Food Security Act of 1985, that allows producer

Marketing Orders And Agreements
Orders and agreements (authorized by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended) a

Marketing Quotas (Or Allotments)
Authorized by the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, these quotas (sometimes called poundage quota

Marketing Year
The 12-month period, generally from the beginning of a new harvest, over which a crop is marketed. F

Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD)
Loosely, the highest dose of a chemical that when administered to a group of test animals does not i

Mcintire-Stennis Act Of 1962
P.L. 87-788 (October 10, 1962) makes funding available to the state agricultural experiment stations

A shortened name for the Mediterranean fruit fly, a destructive pest of fruits and vegetables that i

A term meaning a large set of regulations that some have used to describe the extensive new rules is

Memorandum Of Agreement (MOA)
An agreement between federal agencies, or divisions/units within an agency or department, or between

Mercado Commun Del Sur (MERCOSUR)
A customs union between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay, which came into effect on January

Merchant Marine Act Of 1920
P.L. 66-261, also known as the Jones Act, provides for the promotion and maintenance of a U.S. merch

A gas created by anaerobic decomposition of organic compounds. Natural gas is composed mostly of met

A liquid alcohol (also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol), formed in the destructive distillat

Methyl Bromide
A fumigant used for soil treatment, to control pests in postharvest storage, for killing pests on fr

Metric Ton
Usually abbreviated mt. Or MT, a metric ton is 2,204.62 pounds, compared to a short ton of 2,000 pou

Migratory Bird Treaty Act Of 1918
P.L. 65-186 (July 3, 1918), as amended, regulates the taking of wild birds and implements the provis

Milk Equivalent
A measure of the quantity of fluid milk used in a processed dairy product, usually expressed on a mi

Milk Marketing Orders
Administered by the Agricultural Marketing Service, federal milk marketing orders were first institu

Milk-Feed Price Ratio
A measure of the value of 16% protein ration (feed) to one pound of whole milk. As with the hog-corn

Minimal Nutritional Value
Refers to foods that may not be sold in competition with the school lunch and breakfast programs. Th

Minimum Access
In the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture, countries are obliged to provide minimum levels of im

Minimum Tillage
The minimum soil manipulation necessary for crop production. Conservation tillage, reduced tillage,

Minor Crops
Crops that may be high in value but that are not widely grown. Many fruits, vegetables, and tree nut

Minor Oilseeds
Oilseed crops other than soybeans and peanuts

Mitigation Bank
A bank is created when wetlands at a site are restored, enhanced or created in advance of destructio

Mohair Recourse Loan Program
A program authorized by the emergency provisions of the FY1999 USDA appropriations act (P.L. 105-277

A P.L. 480 provision added by the Food Security Act of 1985 that allows private voluntary organizati

A pattern of crop or tree production that relies on a single plant variety.

Rate of disease incidence

Morrill Act Of 1862
Enacted July 2, 1862 (chapter 130, 12 Stat. 503), this law allocated federal land to each state and

Morrill Act Of 1890
Enacted August 30, 1890 (chapter 841, 26 Stat. 417), this law authorized additional direct appropria

Most-Favored-Nation Treatment (MFN)
A commitment that a country will extend to another country the lowest tariff rates it applies to any

A natural or artificial layer of plant residue or other material on the soil surface. Mulch reduces

Multilateral Agreement
A trade agreement involving three or more countries (as with the World Trade Organization) in contra

Multiple Basing Points
A method of regional pricing in milk marketing orders that would allow more than one basing point, o

Multiple Component Pricing
The practice of valuing farm milk according to the value of its protein, fat, and mineral content. T

Multiple Use
According to the Multiple Use and Sustained Yield Act of 1960 (P.L. 86-517, June 12, 1960), as amend

An agent that causes a permanent genetic change in a cell other than that which occurs during normal

Mutual Self-Help Housing
A program to assist groups of low-income families in building their own homes. Each family is expect

Toxic substances produced by fungi or molds on agricultural crops that may cause sickness in animals

National Academy Of Sciences (NAS)
An institution created by Congress in 1863 to provide science-based advice to the government. The si

National Agricultural Library (NAL)
A national depository of scientific and popular agricultural information located at the Agricultural

National Appeals Division (NAD)
The National Appeals Division of USDA was established by the Department of Agriculture Reorganizatio

National Aquaculture Act Of 1980
P.L. 96-362 (September 26, 1980), as amended, is intended to promote and support the development of

National Cheese Exchange (NCE)
A now defunct private non-profit corporation that operated in Green Bay, Wisconsin. Every Friday mor

National Commission On Small Farms
A 30-member panel appointed by the Secretary of Agriculture in 1997 to examine the status and needs

National Drought Policy Commission
P.L. 105-199 (July 16, 1998), the National Drought Policy Act, authorized creation of the Commission