Error that occurs when groups being compared in a study are different with regard to important risk or prognostic factors, other than the factor (treatment or exposure) under investigation.
In statistics, a confounding variable (also confounding factor, a confound, or confounder) is an extraneous variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the dependent variable and the independent variable. A perceived relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable that has been misestimat...Found on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confounding
(kon-foun´ding) interference by a third variable so as to distort the association being studied between two other variables, because of a strong relationship with both of the other variables; a relationship between two causal factors such that their individual contributions can not be separated.Found on http://www.encyclo.co.uk/local/21001
- that confounds or contradicts or confusesFound on http://www.webdictionary.co.uk/definition.php?query=confounding
• (p. pr. & vb. n.) of ConfoundFound on http://thinkexist.com/dictionary/meaning/confounding/
that confounds or contradicts or confusesFound on https://www.encyclo.co.uk/local/20974
1. A situation in which the effects of two or more processes are not separated; the distortion of the apparent effect of an exposure on risk, brought about by the association with other factors that can influence the outcome. ... 2. A relationship between the effects of two or more causal factors observed in a set of data, such that it is not logic...Found on http://www.encyclo.co.uk/local/20973
A measured effect attributed to a variable that is actually due to an unmeasured co-variable.
Found on http://www.cirem.co.uk/definitions.html
confound, confounds, confounding 1. To perplex or to amaze; especially, by a sudden disturbance or surprise; to bewilder; to confuse: 'Trying to comprehend the complicated directions for operating his new TV confounded him too much.' 2. To throw into confusion or disorder: 'The new tax system confounded the people.' 3. To throw into increased confu...Found on http://www.wordinfo.info/words/index/info/view_unit/869/
Type: Term Pronunciation: kon-fownd′ing Definitions: 1. A situation in which the effects of two or more processes are not separated; the distortion of the apparent effect of an exposure on risk, brought about by the association with other factors that can influence the outcome. 2. A relationship between the effects of two or more causal facto...Found on http://www.medilexicon.com/medicaldictionary.php?t=19792
No exact match found