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mondofacto - Online Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: 26/01/2008, UK
Words: 138795


A-DNA
A form of DNA in which the helix is right-handed and the overall appearance is short and broad. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

A-E amputation
Acronym for above-the-elbow amputation. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

A-esotropia
Convergent strabismus greater in upward than in downward gaze. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

A-exotropia
Divergent strabismus greater in downward than in upward gaze. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

a-factor
<molecular biology> A protein which is found in the bacterial genus Streptomyces that helps start the production of streptomycin and the process of morphological differentiation. ... It is used in biotechnology to induce these functions in mutant strains of Streptomyces that cannot produce it themselves. ... (09 Feb 1998) ...

a-form DNA
<molecular biology> One of several forms that can be assumed by a double helix. A-DNA is stable in dehydrated conditions. ... This form is less common than the dominant form found under physiological conditions -- beta-DNA. This form is also assumed by DNA-RNA hybrid helices and by regions of double-stranded RNA. It is a right-handed helix and …

A-G ratio
<abbreviation> Albumin-globulin ratio.... (05 Mar 2000)...

a-good
In earnest; heartily. 'I made her weep agood.' ... Origin: Pref. A- + good. ... Source: Websters Dictionary ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

A-H conduction time
Synonym for atrioventricular conduction ... Forward conduction of the cardiac impulse from atria to ventricles via the A-V node or any bypass tract, represented in the electrocardiogram by the P-R interval. P-H conduction time is from the onset of the P wave to the first high frequency component of the His bundle electrogram (normally 119 &plusm …

A-H interval
The time from the initial rapid deflection of the atrial wave to the initial rapid deflection of the His bundle (H) potential; it approximates the conduction time through the A-V node (normally 50-120 msec). ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

A-K amputation
Acronym for above-the-knee amputation. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

A-mode
In diagnostic ultrasound, a one-dimensional presentation of a reflected sound wave in which echo amplitude (A) is displayed along the vertical axis and time of rebound (depth) along the horizontal axis; the echo information is presented from interfaces along a single line in the direction of the sound beam. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

a-mornings
In the morning; every morning. 'And have such pleasant walks into the woods A-mornings.' (J. Fletcher) ... See: Amorwe. The -s is a genitival ending. See -wards. ... Source: Websters Dictionary ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

A-N interval
The time between onset of the atrial deflection and the nodal potential (normally 40-100 msec). ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

A-P-C virus
Synonym for adenovirus ... <virology> An icosahedral (20-sided) virus that contains DNA, there are over 40 different adenovirus varieties, some of which cause the common cold. ... (10 May 1997) ...

A-pattern strabismus
Synonym for A-strabismus ... Strabismus in which esotropia is more marked in looking upward than downward, strabismus in which exotropia is more marked on looking downward than upward. ... Synonym: A-pattern strabismus. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

a-protein
<protein> A protein found in the cell wall of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus which binds to the Fc section of immunoglobulins and is therefore used to collect antigen-antibody complexes. ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

A-strabismus
Strabismus in which esotropia is more marked in looking upward than downward, strabismus in which exotropia is more marked on looking downward than upward. ... Synonym: A-pattern strabismus. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

A-V
<abbreviation> Arteriovenous; atrioventricular. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

A-V anastomosis
Synonym for arteriovenous anastomosis ... <anatomy> A vessel that directly interconnects an artery and a vein, and that acts as a shunt to bypass the capillary bed. Not to be confused with surgical anastomosis, nor with arteriovenous fistula. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

A-V band
Synonym for atrioventricular bundle ... The bundle of modified cardiac muscle fibres that begins at the atrioventricular node as the trunk of the atrioventricular bundle and passes through the right atrioventricular fibrous ring to the membranous part of the interventricular septum where the trunk divides into two branches, the right crus of the atr …

A-V block
Synonym for atrioventricular block ... <cardiology> A conduction disturbance that results in the inappropriate delay (or complete inability) of a electrical impulse, generated in the atria, to reach the ventricles (via the atrioventricular node). ... Clinical types are divided into first (nonserious), second and third degree (most serious). ... …

A-V bundle
Synonym for atrioventricular bundle ... The bundle of modified cardiac muscle fibres that begins at the atrioventricular node as the trunk of the atrioventricular bundle and passes through the right atrioventricular fibrous ring to the membranous part of the interventricular septum where the trunk divides into two branches, the right crus of the atr …

A-V canal
Synonym for atrioventricular canal ... The canal in the embryonic heart leading from the common sinuatrial chamber to the ventricle. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

A-V conduction
Synonym for atrioventricular conduction ... Forward conduction of the cardiac impulse from atria to ventricles via the A-V node or any bypass tract, represented in the electrocardiogram by the P-R interval. P-H conduction time is from the onset of the P wave to the first high frequency component of the His bundle electrogram (normally 119 &plusm …

A-V conduction abnormalities
Synonym for atrioventricular conduction abnormalities ... <cardiology, physiology> Any condition which involves abnormal (blocked, delayed or aberrant) electrical conduction through the atrioventricular node (for example atrioventricular block). ... Some medications may precipitate atrioventricular conduction abnormalities. ... (02 Jan 1998) ...

A-V difference
<abbreviation> Arteriovenous difference of concentration of a substance. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

A-V dissociation
Synonym for atrioventricular dissociation ... Any situation in which atria and ventricles are activated and contract independently, as in complete A-V block, more specifically, the dissociation between atria and ventricles that results from slowing of the atrial pacemaker or acceleration of the ventricular pacemaker at nearly equal (rarely equal) ra …

A-V extrasystole
Synonym for atrioventricular extrasystole ... An extrasystole arising from the 'junctional' tissues, either the A-V node or A-V bundle. ... Synonym: junctional extrasystole. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

A-V fistula
Synonym for arteriovenous fistula ... <surgery> The surgical joining of an artery and a vein under the skin for the purpose of haemodialysis. Larger arteriovenous shunts can place strain on the heart since arterial blood is diverted back to the venous circulation before it has a chance to deliver nutrients and oxygen to the body tissues. ... (2 …

A-V interval
The time from the beginning of atrial systole to the beginning of ventricular systole as measured from pressure pulses or cardiac volume curves in animals, or from the electrocardiogram in humans. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

A-V junction
Imprecisely defined zone surrounding and including the A-V node and the adjacent atrial and ventricular myocardium. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

A-V junctional rhythm
Synonym for atrioventricular junctional rhythm ... The cardiac rhythm when the heart is controlled by the A-V junction (including node); arising in the A-V junction, the impulse ascends to the atria and descends to the ventricles, each at varying speeds depending on site of the pacemaker. ... Synonym: A-V junctional rhythm, nodal bradycardia, nodal r …

A-V junctional tachycardia
Synonym for atrioventricular junctional tachycardia ... Tachycardia originating in the A-V junction. ... Synonym: A-V junctional tachycardia, nodal tachycardia. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

A-V malformation
Synonym for arteriovenous malformation ... <anatomy, embryology> A tangled collection of abnormal blood vessels where there is an abnormal communication between the arterial and venous systems. The afferents flow directly into the venous efferents without the usual resistance of an intervening capillary bed. ... They are mostly congenital. If l …

A-V node
Synonym for atrioventricular node ... <cardiology> The location in the heart's conduction system, between the atria and the ventricles, which conducts the normal electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles. ... (27 Sep 1997) ...

A-V shunt
Synonym for arteriovenous shunt ... <anatomy, surgery> A direct connection between an artery and vein. Most often due to the surgical joining of an artery and a vein under the skin for the purpose of haemodialysis. ... Larger arteriovenous shunts can create significant extra workload on the heart since arterial blood is diverted back to the ven …

A-V strabismus syndrome
Synonym for arteriovenous strabismus syndrome ... <syndrome> Strabismus in which the angle of deviation is more marked on looking upward or downward. ... See: A-esotropia, V-esotropia, A-exotropia, V-exotropia. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

A-V valves
<abbreviation> The cardiac atrioventricular valves; the mitral and tricuspid valves. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

a' haemolysis
Haemolysis observed infrequently in blood agar cultures of occasional strains of streptococci; the zone of haemolysis about the colony is not as clear, or wide, or distinctly outlined as it is in b haemolysis; there are a few apparently intact erythrocytes throughout the zone, but they are more numerous in the immediate vicinity of the colony, and …

a1-acid glycoprotein
Synonym for orosomucoid... <biology> Plasma protein of mammals and birds, 38% carbohydrate. In humans a single chain glycoprotein of 39 kD. Increased levels are associated with inflammation, pregnancy and various diseases.... (18 Nov 1997)...

a1-antitrypsin
A glycoprotein that is the major protease inhibitor of human serum, is synthesised in the liver, and is genetically polymorphic due to the presence of over 20 alleles; individuals appropriately homozygous are deficient in a1-trypsin and are predisposed to pulmonary emphysema and juvenile hepatic cirrhosis because of alterations in the amino acid an …

a1-lipoprotein
A lipoprotein fraction of relatively low molecular weight, high density, rich in phospholipids, and found in the a1-globulin fraction of human plasma.... (05 Mar 2000)...

a1-trypsin inhibitor
Synonym for a1-antitrypsin... A glycoprotein that is the major protease inhibitor of human serum, is synthesised in the liver, and is genetically polymorphic due to the presence of over 20 alleles; individuals appropriately homozygous are deficient in a1-trypsin and are predisposed to pulmonary emphysema and juvenile hepatic cirrhosis because of al …

a1PI
Symbol for human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor.... (05 Mar 2000)...

A2 thalassaemia
Beta thalassaemia, heterozygous state.... (05 Mar 2000)...

a2-neuraminoglycoprotein
A glycoprotein that contains neuraminic acid and which during electrophoresis migrates with the a2 portion of serum proteins.... See: C1 esterase inhibitor.... (05 Mar 2000)...

AA
Synonym for amino acid ... <biochemistry> A class of organic molecules that containing an amino group and can combine in linear arrays to form proteins in living organisms. ... There are twenty common amino acids: alanine, arginine, aspargine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, me …

aaa disease
Endemic anaemia of ancient Egypt, ascribed in the Papyrus Ebers to intestinal infestation with ancylostoma; now called ancylostomiasis. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Aad
<abbreviation> Alpha-aminoadipic acid. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

AAF
<abbreviation> 2-acetylaminofluorene; 2-acetamidofluorene. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

AAMC
<abbreviation> Association of American Medical Colleges. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

AAR
<abbreviation> Antigen-antibody reaction. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aardvark
<zoology> An edentate mammal, of the genus Orycteropus, somewhat resembling a pig, common in some parts of Southern Africa. It burrows in the ground, and feeds entirely on ants, which it catches with its long, slimy tongue. ... Origin: D, earth-pig. ... Source: Websters Dictionary ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

aardwolf
<zoology> A carnivorous quadruped (Proteles Lalandii), of South Africa, resembling the fox and hyena. See Proteles. ... Origin: D, earth-wolf. ... Source: Websters Dictionary ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

Aaron, Charles
U.S. Physician, 1866-1951. ... See: Aaron's sign. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Aaron's rod
1. A rod with one serpent twined around it, thus differing from the caduceus of Mercury, which has two. ... 2. <botany> A plant with a tall flowering stem; especially. The great mullein, or hag-taper, and the golden-rod. ... (19 Mar 1998) ...

Aaron's sign
<clinical sign> In acute appendicitis, a referred pain or feeling of distress in the epigastrium or precordial region on continuous firm pressure over McBurney's point. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Aarskog syndrome
<syndrome> Grier et al. (1983) reported father and 2 sons with typical Aarskog syndrome, including short stature, hypertelorism, and shawl scrotum. ... They tabulated the findings in 82 previous cases. X-linked recessive inheritance has been repeatedly suggested. The family reported by Welch (1974) had affected males in 3 consecutive generatio …

Aarskog-Scott syndrome
Synonym for faciodigitogenital dysplasia ... A syndrome of ocular hypertelorism, anteverted nostrils, broad upper lip, saddle-bag scrotum, and laxity of ligaments resulting in genu recurvatum, flat feet, and hyperextensible fingers; X-linked and autosomal dominant forms. ... Synonym: Aarskog-Scott syndrome. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Aarskog, Dagfinn
Norwegian paediatrician, *1928. ... See: Aarskog-Scott syndrome. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

AASH
<abbreviation> Adrenal androgen-stimulating hormone. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

AAV
<abbreviation> Adeno-associated virus. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Ab
<immunology> Portion of antigen that interacts with an MHC molecule. ... (18 Nov 1997) ...

ab er-de-vine
<ornithology> The European siskin (Carduelis spinus), a small green and yellow finch, related to the goldfinch. ... Source: Websters Dictionary ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

ab-
1. <prefix> A prefix meaning from or away from, off. ... 2. Applied to electrical units in the CGS-electromagnetic system to distinguish them from units in the CGS-electrostatic system (prefix stat-) and those in the metric system or SI system (no prefix). ... Origin: L. Ab, from, usually abs-before c, q, and t; often a-before m, p, or v ... (05 …

AB-C protease
<enzyme> From agkistrodon bilineatus; activates protein c; inhibited by calcium; amino acid sequence given in first source ... Registry number: EC 3.4.21.- ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

abaca
<botany>The Manila hemp plant (Musa textilis); also, its fibre. ... Origin: The native name. ... (19 Mar 1998) ...

abacterial thrombotic endocarditis
Synonym for nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis ... Verrucous endocardial lesions occurring in the terminal stages of many chronic infectious and wasting diseases. ... Synonym: abacterial thrombotic endocarditis, cachectic endocarditis, terminal endocarditis, thromboendocarditis. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abactinal
<zoology> Pertaining to the surface or end opposite to the mouth in a radiate animal; opposed to actinal. The aboral or abactinal area. ... Origin: L. Ab + E. Actinal. ... (19 Mar 1998) ...

abacus
1. A table or tray strewn with sand, anciently used for drawing, calculating, etc. ... 2. A calculating table or frame; an instrument for performing arithmetical calculations by balls sliding on wires, or counters in grooves, the lowest line representing units, the second line, tens, etc. It is still employed in China. ... 3. The uppermost member or …

abada
<zoology> The rhinoceros. ... Origin: Pg, the female rhinoceros. ... (19 Mar 1998) ...

Abadie
Joseph Louis Irenee Jean, French neurosurgeon, 1873-1946. ... See: Abadie's sign of tabes dorsalis. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Abadie's sign of tabes dorsalis
Insensibility to pressure over the tendo achillis. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abalone
<marine biology> A univalve mollusk of the genus Haliotis. The shell is lined with mother-of-pearl, and used for ornamental purposes; the sea-ear. Several large species are found on the coast of California, clinging closely to the rocks. ... (19 Mar 1998) ...

abampere
Electromagnetic unit of current equal to 10 absolute amperes; a current that exerts a force of 2&pi; dynes on a unit magnetic pole at the centre of a circle of wire 1 cm in radius. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abandon
1. To cast or drive out; to banish; to expel; to reject. 'That he might . . . Abandon them from him.' (Udall) 'Being all this time abandoned from your bed.' (Shak) ... 2. To give up absolutely; to forsake entirely; to renounce utterly; to relinquish all connection with or concern on; to desert, as a person to whom one owes allegiance or fidelity; to …

abandoned
1. Forsaken, deserted. 'Your abandoned streams.' ... 2. Self-abandoned, or given up to vice; extremely wicked, or sinning without restraint; irreclaimably wicked; as, an abandoned villain. ... Synonym: Profligate, dissolute, corrupt, vicious, depraved, reprobate, wicked, unprincipled, graceless, vile. ... Abandoned, Profligate, Reprobate. These adject …

abanga
A West Indian palm; also the fruit of this palm, the seeds of which are used as a remedy for diseases of the chest. ... Origin: Name given by the negroes in the island of St. Thomas. ... Source: Websters Dictionary ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

abapical
Opposite the apex. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abapical pole
In an ovum, the pole opposite the animal pole (i.e., vegetal pole). ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abarognosis
Loss of ability to appreciate the weight of objects held in the hand, or to differentiate objects of different weights. When the primary senses are intact, caused by a lesion of the contralateral parietal lobe. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + baros, weight, + gnosis, knowledge ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abarticulation
<anatomy> Articulation, usually that kind of articulation which admits of free motion in the joint; diarthrosis. ... Origin: L. Ab + E. Articulation: cf. F. Abarticulation. ... Source: Websters Dictionary ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

abasia
<neurology> Lack of motor or muscular coordination in walking. ... (27 Sep 1997) ...

abasia trepidans
Abasia due to trembling of the lower limbs. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abasia-astasia
Synonym for astasia-abasia ... The inability to either stand or walk in a normal manner; the gait is bizarre and is not suggestive of a specific organic lesion; often the patient sways wildly and nearly falls, but recovers at the last moment; a symptom of hysteria-conversion reaction. ... Synonym: Blocq's disease. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abasic
1. Affected by, or associated with, abasia; also abatic. ... 2. Refers to loss of pyrimidine sites in DNA. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abattis
A means of defense formed by felled trees, the ends of whose branches are sharpened and directed outwards, or against the enemy. ... Origin: F. Abatis, abattis, mass of things beaten or cut down, fr. Abattre. ... Source: Websters Dictionary ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

abattoirs
Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abaxial
<botany> Describes a plant part which is on the side or surface of an organ, facing away from the axis. ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

abaxile
<botany> Away from the axis or central line; eccentric. ... Origin: L. Ab + axis axle. ... Source: Websters Dictionary ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

abba
Father; religious superior; in the Syriac, Coptic, and Ethiopic churches, a title given to the bishops, and by the bishops to the patriarch. ... Origin: Syriac abba father. ... Source: Websters Dictionary ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

Abbe apertometre
<optics> In microscopy, a device for measuring simultaneously, the numerical and angular apertures of an objective or condenser. ... The back focal plane of the objective is viewed within auxiliary lens, and the device is set to show the position of an indicator just cutting into two opposite edges of the conoscopic field of view. ... (11 Mar 1 …

Abbe flap
A full-thickness flap of the middle portion of the lower lip that is transferred into the upper lip, or vice versa. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Abbe limit
<physics> Ernst Abbe's specification for the limit of resolution of a diffraction-limited micro-scope. According to Abbe, a detail with a particular spacing in the specimen is resolved when the numerical aperture of the objective lens is large enough to capture the first-order diffraction pattern produced by the detail at the wavelength emplo …

Abbe operation
Use of an Abbe flap in plastic surgery of the lips. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Abbe substage apparatus
<apparatus> Includes a rack and pinion for horizontal displacement of an iris diaphragm to obtain oblique lighting. ... (05 Aug 1998) ...

Abbe test plate
<equipment> A long, wedge-shaped coverslip about 0.20 mm thick at one end and 0.10 to 0.12 mm at the other end coated chemically with a silver film on which are ruled horizontal lines. ... at each variation in thickness of 0.01 mm there are vertical lines. By means of oblique illumination and by focusing on different portions of the plate, it …

Abbe theory of image formation
<optics, physics> Abbe's theory is based on the fact that a non-self-luminous particle, which is illuminated by an extraneous source, gives rise to diffracted light rays, in addition to the dioptric pencil. ... He stated that to form a good microscopical image as many of the diffracted rays as possible should be intercepted by the objective. W …

Abbe, Ernst
<person> German mathematician and physicist, professor at Jena, and inventor of much optical apparatus at the Zeiss works. ... His inventions include the apochromatic objective, the compensating ocular, the Abbe condenser, a well corrected oil-immersion achromatic condenser, the immersion objective, Abbe apertometre, Abbe refractometre, and th …