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bursal equivalent tissue a hypothesized lymphoid tissue in nonavian vertebrates including human beings, equivalent to the bursa of Fabricius in birds: the site of B lymphocyte maturation. It now appears that B lymphocyte maturation occurs primarily in the bone marrow.
bursa of Achilles tendon
a bursa between the calcaneal tendon and the back of the calcaneus.
bursa of Fabricius
an epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in chick embryos, which develops in a manner similar to that of the thymus in mammals, atrophying after 5 or 6 months and persisting as a fibrous remnant in sexually mature birds. It contains lymphoid follicles, and before involution is a site of formation of B-lymphocytes associated with h...
burrowing phagedenic ulcer
progressive synergistic gangrene. Meleney ulcer (def. 1).
(bur´sә) pl. bur´sae a small fluid-filled sac or saclike cavity situated in places in tissues where friction would otherwise occur. adj., bur´sal, adj. . Bursae function to facilitate the gliding of muscles or tendons over bony or ligamentous surfaces. They are numerous and are found throughout the body; th...
a spiculed erythrocyte that has multiple small projections evenly spaced over the cell circumference; observed in azotemia, gastric carcinoma, and bleeding peptic ulcer. Called also crenocyte and echinocyte.
(burp) to expel gas from the stomach through the mouth; see eructation. to assist an infant to expel gas from the stomach by upright positioning or gently rubbing or patting the back.
(boo´rov) a preparation of aluminum subacetate, glacial acetic acid, and water; used topically on the skin as an astringent and topical antiseptic and for relief of itching, and as an astringent gargle or mouthwash. Called also aluminum acetate solution.
(bәrnz) falciform process (def. 1).
a method of excising triangles of skin at the base of the pedicle of a skin flap to facilitate advancement.
(burn´out) emotional and physical exhaustion resulting from exposure to environmental and internal stressors and inadequate coping and adaptive skills. In addition to signs of exhaustion, the person with burnout shows more and more negative attitudes toward his or her job, low self-esteem, and personal devaluation...
burning feet syndrome
burning mouth syndrome
any of various conditions of burning sensations and pain in the mouth (stomatalgia or glossalgia) having unknown etiologies; they occur most often in middle-aged, perimenopausal women or persons with candidiasis who have used antibiotics for prolonged periods.
(bәr-net´) milk-alkali syndrome.
(burn) injury to tissues caused by contact with dry heat (fire), moist heat (steam or liquid), chemicals, electricity, lightning, or radiation. Safety measures in the home and on the job are important in prevention of burns. Burns have traditionally been classified by degrees of severity, with first degree being t...
(bur´kit) Burkitt tumor a form of undifferentiated lymphoma, usually found in central Africa but also reported from other areas, and manifested most often as a large bone-destroying lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. The Epstein-Barr virus, a herpesvirus, has been implicated as a causative agent.
one placed within the tissues and concealed by the skin.
(bu-ret´) a glass tube with a capacity of the order of 25 to 100 mL and graduation intervals of 0.05 to 0.1 mL, with stopcock attachment, used to deliver an accurately measured quantity of liquid.
(bur´dәn) load. body burden chemicals stored in the body that may be detected by analysis.
(burch) a type of bladder neck suspension for stress incontinence, consisting of fixation of the lateral vaginal fornices to the ileopectineal ligaments.
(bur´chәrd le´bәr-mәn) Liebermann-Burchard test.
(bur) a rotary instrument used to create openings in teeth, bones, or similar hard material. Also spelled burr.
(bu-pro´pe-on) a compound structurally similar to amphetamine, used in the form of the hydrochloride salt as an antidepressant and as an aid in smoking cessation to reduce the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal; administered orally.
(bu″prә-nor´fēn) a synthetic opioid agonist-antagonist derived from thebaine, used in the form of the hydrochloride salt as an analgesic for moderate to severe pain and as an anesthesia adjunct. Administered sublingually or by intramuscular or intravenous injection.
(boi´an-se) upward force exerted by a fluid on an object less dense than itself.
(bu-piv´ә-kān) a local anesthetic, used as the hydrochloride for local infiltration, peripheral nerve block, and retrobulbar, subarachnoid, sympathetic, caudal, or epidural block.
(bun´yә-vi″rәs) any virus of the family Bunyaviridae.
(bun´yә-vi″rәs) a genus of viruses of the family Bunyaviridae, usually transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito; human pathogens cause febrile disease and encephalitis. Important pathogenic species include California encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, La Crosse, and Oropouche viruses.
(bun″yә-vir´ĭ-de) the bunyaviruses, a family of RNA viruses that includes the genera Bunyavirus, Hantavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus.
an arbovirus of the genus Bunyavirus, originally isolated from Aedes mosquitoes in Uganda; infection is usually asymptomatic, but a mild febrile disease may result.
a figure-of-eight zigzag suture used for tendon repair.
the number of milliliters of gas dissolved in a milliliter of liquid at atmospheric pressure (760 mm Hg) and a specified temperature. Symbol, α.
(bun″yәn-ek´tә-me) excision of a bunion.
(bun″yәn-et´) enlargement of the lateral aspect of the fifth metatarsal head.
(bun´yәn) an abnormal prominence on the inner side of the metatarsal part of the big toe, with bursa formation; it usually results in lateral or valgus displacement of the big toe. Bunions are sometimes caused by congenital malformation of the bones of the foot or by joint disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, but...
bundle of His
a band of cardiac muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles of the heart; called also atrioventricular bundle. Bundle of His, showing the trunk of the bundle and excluding the bundle branches.
bundle branch block
(BBB) a form of heart block involving delay or failure of conduction in one of the branches in the bundle of His, as determined by an electrocardiogram. It may be complete or incomplete; transient, intermittent, or permanent; and found in the right bundle branch, the left one, or both (bilateral). In complete bund...
(bun´dәl) a collection of fibers or strands, as of muscle fibers or nerve fibers. See also tract and fasciculus. medial forebrain bundle a group of nerve fibers connecting the midbrain tegmentum and elements of the limbic system. Thorel bundle a bundl...
blood urea nitrogen.
(bump) a blow or collision. a small swelling. razor bumps popular name for pseudofolliculitis barbae.
fracture of one or both lower limbs immediately below the knee caused by an automobile bumper, often involving the tibial plateau.
pulmonary emphysema in which bullae form in areas of lung tissue so that these areas do not contribute to respiration.
(bu-met´ә-nīd) a loop diuretic used in treatment of edema, such as that associated with congestive heart failure or hepatic or renal disease, treatment of hypertension, usually in association with other drugs, and as an adjunct in treatment of acute pulmonary edema; administered orally, intramuscularly, or in...
(bul´ә) pl. bul´lae a large blister, usually more than 5 mm in diameter; called also bleb. an anatomical structure with a blisterlike appearance. adj., bul´late, bul´lous., adj.
(bul-o´sis) the production of bullae. a condition characterized by bullae.
bull's eye body
dense body (def. 2).
a shadow seen on a radiogram, usually of the duodenal wall, with a dark circle surrounding a central light circle; it represents tumor metastasis in which a mass has central ulceration. Called also target lesion. target l. (def. 3).
(bulk´әj) material that will increase the mass (bulk) of the intestinal contents and consequently stimulate peristalsis.
(bul´bәs) pl. bul´bi Latin word meaning bulb. bulbus oculi eyeball.
(boo-le´me-ә) episodic binge eating usually followed by behavior designed to undo the intake of calories in the food that was eaten, such as by purging, excessive exercise, or fasting. It usually takes the form of bulimia nervosa, but also occurs in other disorders, such as anorexia nervosa. adj., bulim´ic., adj. ...
(bul´bәs) bulbar. bulbiform. bearing or arising from a bulb.
origin,internal pudendal artery; branches, none; distribution, bulbourethral gland, bulb of penis.
two glands embedded in the substance of the sphincter of the male urethra, posterior to the membranous part of the urethra; their secretion lubricates the urethra; called also Cowper glands.
(bul″bo-u-re´thrәl) pertaining to the bulb of the urethra.
bulbospongiosus reflex contraction of the bulbocavernous muscle in response to a tap on the dorsum of the penis; called also penile reflex.
in coma following a stroke, pressure on the eyeball causes contraction of the facial muscles on the side opposite to the lesion; in coma from toxic causes, the reflex occurs on both sides. Called also facial or Mondonesi reflex.
(bul-bi´tis) inflammation of the bulb of the urethra.
bulbospongiosus muscle origin, central point of perineum, median raphe of bulb; insertion, fascia of penis or clitoris; innervation, pudendal; action, narrows spongy urethra in males and vaginal orifice in females, contributes to erection of penis or clitoris.
(bul´bәr) pertaining to a bulb. pertaining to or involving the medulla oblongata, such as bulbar paralysis.
progressive bulbar palsy.
any syndrome caused by a lesion in the medulla and its nuclei, with paralysis of the cranial nerves originating there. Called also Dejerine syndrome.
bulb of vestibule
a body consisting of paired masses of erectile tissue, situated one on either side of the vaginal orifice.
bulb of eye
bulb of hair
bulb of penis
the enlarged proximal part of the corpus spongiosum.
bulb of aorta
the enlargement of the aorta at its point of origin from the heart.
(bulb) a rounded mass or enlargement. adj., bul´bar., adj.
(bldbomacl) an acute sepsis affecting newborn infants, marked by hemorrhages into the skin, mucous membranes, and navel attended with cyanosis and jaundice; there are also hemorrhages in the intestinal organs.
one that resists appreciable change in its hydrogen ion concentration (pH) when acid or alkali is added to it.
intravenous injection of buffer substances, such as sodium bicarbonate, with the object of lowering the hydrogen ion concentration.
a salt in the blood that is able to absorb slight excesses of acid or alkali with little or no change in the hydrogen ion concentration.
(buf´әr) a substance that, by its presence in solution, increases the amount of acid or alkali necessary to produce a unit change in pH. The bicarbonate buffer system in the blood maintains a balance between bicarbonate and carbon dioxide ions and determines the pH of the blood.
(bur´gәr) thromboangiitis obliterans.
(bәr´gәr al´әn) specific exercises intended to improve circulation to the feet and legs. The lower limbs are elevated to a 45 to 90 degree angle and supported there until the skin blanches (becomes white). The feet and legs are then lowered below the level of the rest of the body until redness ap...
(bu-des´ә-nīd) a glucocorticoid antiinflammatory agent administered by inhalation to treat asthma, intranasally to treat allergic rhinitis and other inflammatory nasal conditions, rectally to treat ulcerative colitis, and orally to treat Crohn disease.
(bud´ing) gemmation. a method of release of virus from a cell after replication has taken place: viral protein associates itself with an area of cell membrane, which forms a coat or envelope around the virus; some cellular proteins in the area of budding are replaced by virus-coded proteins.
(bud) a structure on a plant, often round, that encloses an undeveloped flower or leaf. something resembling the bud of a plant, especially a protuberance in the embryo from which an organ or part develops.
(bud´ ke-ah´re) symptomatic obstruction or occlusion of the hepatic veins, causing hepatomegaly, abdominal pain and tenderness, intractable ascites, mild jaundice, and, eventually, portal hypertension and liver failure. The obstruction is caused by thrombi or fibrous obliteration of the veins and has been associated with ...
(bu´klĭ-zēn) an antihistamine used mainly as an antinauseant in treatment of motion sickness; administered orally as the hydrochloride salt.
(buk´le) hyperimmunoglobulinemia E syndrome.
(buk´ling) the process or an instance of becoming crumpled or warped. scleral buckling a technique for repair of detachment of the retina, in which indentations or infoldings of the sclera are made over the tears in the retina so as to promote adherence of the retina to the choro...
a tear in the semilunar cartilage, along the middle portion, leaving a loop of cartilage lying in the intercondylar notch.
(buk″o-ә-kloo´zәl) pertaining to or formed by the buccal and occlusal surfaces of a tooth.
cuneiform excision of the patella and the ends of tibia and fibula.
origin, buccinator ridge of mandible, alveolar process of maxilla, pterygomandibular ligament; insertion, orbicularis oris muscle at angle of mouth; innervation, buccal branch of facial nerve; action, compresses cheek and pulls back angle of the mouth.
buccal smear test
sex chromatin test.
the vestibular surface of the molars and premolars, which faces the cheek.
origin, mandibular nerve; distribution, skin and mucous membrane of cheeks, gums, and perhaps the first two molars and the premolars; modality, general sensory.
seromucous glands on the inner surface of the cheeks; called also genal glands.
origin, maxillary artery; branches, none; distribution, buccinator muscle, mucous membrane of mouth.
(buk´ә) Latin word meaning cheek (def. 1).
(buk´әl) pertaining to or directed toward the cheek.
the tooth angles between the buccal surface and the other surfaces of a posterior tooth; the cavity angles between the buccal wall of a tooth cavity and other walls.
(bu´bo) pl. bu´boes a tender, enlarged, and inflamed lymph node, particularly in the armpit or groin, resulting from absorption of infective material. These occur in various diseases, such as lymphogranuloma venereum, plague, syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid, and tuberculosis. adj., bubon´ic., adj.
body temperature and pressure, saturated; denoting a volume of gas saturated with water vapor at 37° C and ambient barometric pressure.
a device in which pure oxygen is bubbled through an extracorporeal reservoir of blood, either directly or through a filter.
basic trauma life support.
bsp; the region between the wall of the alveolus and the apex of the root of a tooth.
Bachelor of Surgery; Bachelor of Science; breath sounds; blood sugar.
body surface area.
(bre´kә) the longitudinal fibers of the ciliaris muscle.
lowering of the axillary folds in dislocation of the shoulder.
(broo´tәn) X-linked agammaglobulinemia.
(bruk´siz-әm) gnashing, grinding, or clenching the teeth, usually during sleep. If this continues for a long time, it can wear down and loosen teeth and cause bone loss in the jaw; it can also cause headache, muscle spasm, and chronic pain in the face and jaw. Possible causes include dental problems such as ...
(brush´fēld wi´әt) a congenital syndrome consisting of extensive unilateral nevus flammeus, homonymous hemianopia of both eyes, contralateral hemiplegia, cerebral angioma, and mental retardation; it may be related to the Sturge-Weber syndrome.
a skin wound caused by violent rubbing or friction, as by a rope pulled through the hands; called also friction burn.
one in which the sample is obtained by a brush with stiff bristles introduced through an endoscope, such as for a tissue sample from an inaccessible place such as the renal pelvis or bronchus.
(broon´shwig) pancreatoduodenectomy performed in two stages.
(brun´sting) Brunsting-Perry syndrome (brun´sting per´e) a variant of cicatricial pemphigoid with lesions on the skin of the head and neck that heal and leave superficial scarring; if it is on the scalp, it causes cicatricial alopecia.
Bruns syndrome (broonz) intermittent headache, vertigo, vomiting, and visual disturbances on sudden movement of the head, characteristic of cysticercus infection of the fourth ventricle, lesion of the fourth ventricle, or tumors of the midline of the cerebellum and third or lateral ventricles.
(brun´strәm) neurophysiological treatment based on the use of reflexes to elicit movement; stereotyped whole-limb movement patterns (synergies) are facilitated.
(brwe) (brldbomact) French word meaning sound (def. 3). aneurysmal bruit a blowing sound heard over an aneurysm. placental bruit placental souffle.
the appearance of opacities in the cornea during the course of pneumonia or typhoid fever.
glands in the submucosa of the duodenum that secrete intestinal juice; called also duodenal glands.
(brldbomacz) contusion. to cause or to develop a contusion.
(broo´je-ә) a genus of filarial worms. B. mala′yi is a species similar to, and often found in association with, Wuchereria bancrofti, causing human filariasis and elephantiasis from eastern India throughout Southeast Asia and the nearby islands.
(broi´gәl) Meige syndrome (def. 2).
(broo-gah´thah) a type of ion channelopathy characterized by sudden, idiopathic ventricular fibrillation in an apparently healthy person, often resulting in death (sudden adult or sudden arrhythmia death syndrome). It is autosomal dominant and occurs most often in males of Southeast Asian origin.
Brudzinski sign (broo-jin´ske) in meningitis, bending the patient's neck usually produces flexion of the knee and hip. in meningitis, passive flexion of the lower limb on one side causes a similar movement in the opposite limb.
(brook) a condition marked by deformity of bones, multiple fractures, ankylosis of joints, and atrophy of muscles.
the inner layer of the choroid, separating it from the pigmented layer of the retina.
(broo″sә-lo´sis) infection by a species of Brucella, transmitted to humans from domestic animals such as pigs, goats, and cattle, especially through infected milk or meat. It primarily involves the reticuloendothelial system, and is marked by remittent fluctuating fever, malaise, and headache. Symptoms may b...
(broo-sel´in) a preparation from pooled cultures of the three species of Brucella, used in the diagnosis of brucellosis.
(broo-sel´ә) any member of the genus Brucella. adj., brucel´lar., adj.
(broo-sel´ә) a genus of gram-negative, aerobic, nonmotile cocci or rod-shaped bacteria, the etiologic agent of brucellosis. B. abor´tus, which causes infectious abortion in cattle, is the most common cause of infection in humans; other species pathogenic for humans are B. meliten´sis, found in goats and sheep, and...
the peculiar, rapid, oscillatory movement of fine particles suspended in a fluid medium; called also molecular movement.
(broun) a type of urethroplasty for hypospadias repair, in which an intact strip of epithelium is left on the ventral surface of the penis to form the roof of the urethra, and the floor of the urethra is formed by epithelialization from the lateral wound margins.
Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome
(broun´ ve-ah-lĕ´to vahn lēr´) an autosomal recessive syndrome consisting of progressive bulbar palsy with any of several cranial nerve disorders, including nerve deafness, facial weakness, dysarthria, and dysphagia.
Brown-Séquard signBrown-Séquard syndrome (brldbomacn´-sa-kahr´) paralysis and loss of discriminatory and joint sensation on one side of the body and of pain and temperature sensation on the other, due to a lesion involving one side of the spinal cord.
a giant cell granuloma produced in and replacing bone, occurring in osteitis fibrosa cystica and due to hyperparathyroidism.
blanching of the tympanic membrane and of the area behind it, seen with pneumatic pressure on the membrane; it indicates presence of a vascular tumor or other lesion in the middle ear.
a deposit of altered blood pigment in the lung in pneumonia. increase of the pulmonary connective tissue and excessive pigmentation, due to chronic congestion from valvular heart disease, or to anthracosis. See also gray induration.
brunescent cataract a type of senile cataract in which the opacity is brown.
a thermogenic type of adipose tissue containing a dark pigment, and arising during embryonic life in certain specific areas in many mammals, including humans; it is prominent in the newborn. Called also brown adipose tissue.
brown adipose tissue
atrophy in which an organ or part becomes brown due to intracellular accumulation of lipofuscin, seen chiefly in the heart, liver, and spleen of the elderly.
a central venous catheter similar to the Hickman catheter but with a smaller lumen.
(bron″to-fo´be-ә) irrational fear of thunder.
(brong´ko-sol) trademark for a preparation of isoetharine hydrochloride inhalation, a bronchodilator.
(bron-kom´ĕ-ter) trademark for a preparation of isoetharine mesylate inhalation aerosol, a bronchodilator.
(brong´kәs) pl. bron´chi any of the larger passages that carry air to a lung (right or left principal bronchus) and within the lungs (lobar and segmental bronchi). Click here to view image Bronchi, showing primary, lobar, and seg...
(brong-kos´tә-me) surgical creation of an opening through the chest wall into a bronchus.
(brong-kot´ә-me) incision of a bronchus.
(brong″ko-stә-no´sis) narrowing of a bronchial tube as a result of scarring or some other stricture; called also bronchiostenosis.
(brong″ko-spi-rog´rә-fe) the recording of bronchospirometry results.
(brong″ko-spi-rom´ә-tre) use of a spirometer to determine vital capacity, oxygen intake, and carbon dioxide excretion of a single lung, or to get simultaneous measurements of the function of each lung separately; it is sometimes used to predict the success of pulmonary resection surgery. ...
(brong´ko-spaz″әm) bronchial spasm.
(brong-kos´kә-pe) inspection of the interior of the tracheobronchial tree through a bronchoscope, usually a fiberoptic one passed through the nose; done for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The bronchoscope allows for visualization of the bronchial mucosa and removal of tissue for biopsy. ...
(brong´ko-skōp) an endoscope especially designed for passage through the trachea to permit inspection of the interior of the tracheobronchial tree and carrying out of endobronchial diagnostic and therapeutic maneuvers, such as taking specimens for culture and biopsy and removing foreign bodies. adj., bronchos...
(brong-ko-re´ә) excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi.
(brong″ko-ra´jә) hemorrhage from the bronchi.
(brong-kor´ә-fe) suture of a bronchus.
chronic lung disease of premature infants that results from disruption of immature lung structures and necessitates the use of supplemental oxygen for at least 28 days after birth. It can be caused by oxygen toxicity and barotrauma during mechanical ventilation, resulting in squamous metaplasia and peribronchiolar fibrosis. It ...
(brong″ko-pool´mә-nar″e) pertaining to the bronchi and lungs.
candidiasis of the respiratory tree, occurring in a mild afebrile form manifested as chronic bronchitis, and in a usually fatal form resembling tuberculosis. Called also bronchocandidiasis.
(brong″ko-ndbobr-mop´ә-the) disease of the bronchi and lung tissue.
(brong″ko-ndbobr-mo´nyә) an inflammation of the lungs that begins in the terminal bronchioles, which become clogged with thick mucus that forms consolidated patches in adjacent lobules; called also bronchial or lobular pneumonia.
an abnormal passage between a bronchus and the pleural cavity, causing an air leak into the pleural cavity; sometimes seen as a complication of empyema, fibrosis, or pneumonia.
(brong″ko-ple´jә) paralysis of the muscles of the walls of the bronchial tubes.
(brong″ko-ploor´әl) pertaining to a bronchus and the pleura, or communicating with a bronchus and the pleural cavity.
(brong´ko-plas″te) plastic surgery of a bronchus to restore the integrity of the lumen.
(brong-kop´ә-the) any disease of the bronchi.
(brong-kof´ә-ne) the normal voice sounds heard over a healthy large bronchus. abnormal voice sounds heard over the lung, with the voice transmitted unusually clearly and with a high pitch; it is a type of pectoriloquy, indicating solidification of the lung tissue. Called also bronchiloquy. ...
(brong″ko-pan″kre-at´ik) communicating with a bronchus and the pancreas, as a bronchopancreatic fistula.
(brong″ko-mo´tәr) affecting the caliber of the bronchi.
(brong″ko-mu″ko-tro´pik) augmenting secretion by the respiratory mucosa.
(brong-kol´ә-je) the study and treatment of diseases of the tracheobronchial tree. adj., broncholog´ic., adj.
(brong″ko-mә-la´shә) a deficiency in the cartilaginous wall of the trachea or a bronchus that may lead to atelectasis or obstructive emphysema.
(brong″ko-lĭ-thi´ә-sis) the presence of broncholiths within the lumen of the tracheobronchial tree.
(brong-kog´rә-fe) radiography of the lungs after instillation of an opaque medium in the bronchi.
(brong´ko-lith) a hard mass or concretion in a bronchus or bronchi, formed around an inorganic center or from calcified portions of lung tissue or adjacent lymph nodes. Called also bronchial calculus.
(brong´ko-gram) the film obtained by bronchography.
a congenital cyst, usually in the mediastinum or lung, arising from anomalous budding during formation of the tracheobronchial tree, lined with bronchial epithelium that may contain secretory elements.
any of a large group of lung cancers, so called because they arise from the epithelium of the bronchial tree. Four primary subtypes are distinguished: adenocarcinoma of the lung, large cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.
the usual type of adenocarcinoma of the lung; see also bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.
(brong-ko-jen´ik) originating in the bronchi.
(brong″ko-fi-bros´kә-pe) examination of the bronchi through a bronchofiberscope.
(brong″ko-fi´bәr-skōp) a flexible bronchoscope utilizing fiberoptics, often used for collection of sputum or tissue samples in the diagnosis of pneumonia or cancer. Called also fiberoptic bronchoscope.
(brong″ko-ә-sof″ә-gol´ә-je) the branch of medicine concerned with the air passages (bronchi) and esophagus.
(brong″ko-ә-sof″ә-gos´kә-pe) instrumental examination of the bronchi and esophagus.
(brong″ko-ә-sof″ә-je´әl) pertaining to or communicating with a bronchus and the esophagus.
bronchoesophageal muscle: a name given to small bundles of muscle fibers that arise from the wall of the left bronchus and reinforce muscles of the esophagus.
(brong″ko-di-la´shәn) the act or process of increasing the caliber of a bronchus.
(brong″ko-di´la-tәr) (-di-la´tәr) expanding the lumina of the bronchi. an agent that does this, such as epinephrine or isoproterenol.
(brong″ko-kәn-strik´tәr) narrowing the lumina of the bronchi. an agent that causes such constriction.
(brong″ko-di-lә-ta´shәn) a dilated state of a bronchus. the site at which a bronchus is dilated.
(brong´ko-sēl) localized dilatation of a bronchus.
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