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Netfit - fitness glossary
Category: Sport and Leisure > Fitness
Date & country: 11/11/2007, UK
Words: 224


Abduction
Movement of a limb away from middle of body, such as bringing arms to shoulder height from hanging down position.

Abs
Abbreviation for abdominal muscles.

Absolute Strength
The maximum amount a person can lift in one repetition.

Accommodating Resistance
Increasing resistance as lifters force increases through range of motion. Nautilus machines are said to provide accommodating resistance.

Acquired Ageing
The acquisition of characteristics commonly associated with ageing but that are, in fact, caused by immobility or sedentary living.

Active Stretch
Muscles are stretched using the contraction of the opposing muscle, (antagonist). For an example stretching the triceps, requires the biceps to contract.

Adduction
Movement of a limb toward middle of body, such as bringing arms to side from extended position at shoulder.

Adhesion
Fibrous patch holding muscles or other parts together that are normally separated.

ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate)
ADP is formed when ATP is broken down within the bodies cell furnace, (the mitochondria). This provides energy for muscular contraction.

Aerobic capacity
Another term for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 Max)

Aerobic Exercise, (with oxygen)
Activity in which the body is able to supply adequate oxygen to the working muscles, for a period of time. Running, cross-country skiing and cycling are examples of aerobic activities.

Agonist
Muscle directly engaged in contraction that is primarily responsible for movement of a body part.

All Natural
Athletes, especially body builders who can avoid using steroids or other banned substances.

All-or-None
Muscle fibre contracts fully or it does not contract at all.

Amino Acids
Twenty- two basic building blocks of the body that make up proteins.

Anabolic Steroid
Synthetic chemical that mimics the muscle building characteristics of the male hormone testosterone.

Anaerobic Threshold
The point at which you begin working your muscles without oxygen, from an aerobic level, believed to be at about 87% of your Maximum Heart Rate.

Angina Pectoris
Chest or arm pain resulting from reduced oxygen supply to the heart muscle.

Antagonist
Muscle that counteracts the agonist, lengthening when the agonist muscle contracts.

Anti - Catabolism
Supplements such as glutamine, used to prevent breakdown within the body, in order to promote muscle growth.

Antioxidants
Vitamins A, C and E, along with various minerals, which are useful to protect the body from 'free radicals'. Free radicals are unstable molecules which react with oxygen. They are naturally created in the body, and are also caused by factors such as smoking and radiation. Free radicals may cause cell damage, which leads to disease.

APC
American Physique Committee, Inc. Group that administers mens amateur bodybuilding in America.

Arm Blaster
Aluminum or fibre glass strip about 5' x 24', supported at waist height by a strap around the neck. Keeps elbows from moving while curling barbell or dumbbells or doing triceps pushdowns.

Arteriosclerosis
Hardening of the arteries due to conditions that cause the arterial walls to become thick, hard, and none elastic.

Assimilation
The process in which foods are utilized and absorbed by the body.

Atherosclerosis
The deposition of materials along the arterial walls, a type of arteriosclerosis.

Atrophy
Withering away Decrease in size and functional ability of tissue or organs.

Baby's Butt
Indentation between the two heads of biceps muscles of a very muscular athlete.

Back Cycling
Cutting back on either number of sets, repetitions or amount of weight used during a exercise session.

Ballistic Stretch
A more vigorous stretch by using a swinging or bouncing motion suited only for conditioned athletes, especially in martial arts.

Barbell
Weight used for exercise, consisting of a rigid handle 5-7' long, with detachable metal discs at each end.

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Metabolic rate at rest, your bodies working output.

Bio availability
The simplicity in which nutrients can be absorbed.

Bio mechanics
Science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on a human body and the effects produced by these forces.

Biochemical Reaction
The chemical reactions which take place within the human body.

Biological Value
A measure of protein quality in a given food.

Body Composition
The breakdown of your body make-up, i.e. fat, lean muscle, bone and water content.

Bodybuilding
Weight training to change physical appearance.

Bone density
Soundness of the bones within the body, low density can be a result of osteoporosis.

Buffed
As in a 'finely buffed finish' Good muscle size and definition, looking good.

Buffer
Substances that help reduce lactic acid build-up during strenuous exercise.

Bulking Up
Gaining body weight by adding muscle, body fat or both.

Burn
As in 'going for the burn' In endurance exercise, working muscles until lactic acid build-up causes burning sensation.

Carbohydrate
Compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen used by the body as a fuel source. Two main groups are sugars and starch.

Carbohydrate Loading
Increase consumption of carbohydrates in liquid or food form normally three days prior to an endurance type event.

Cardiovascular Training
Physical conditioning that strengthens heart and blood vessels, the result of which is an increase in the ability for your body muscles to utilize fuel more effectively resulting in a greater level of exercising.

Catabolism
The breakdown of lean muscle mass, normally as a result of injury, immobilization and poor dieting techniques.

Cellulose
Indigestible fibre in foods.

Chalk
Powder used on hands for secure grip.

Cheating
Too much weight used on an exercise, therefore relying on surrounding muscle groups for assistance in the movement; or changing joint angles for more leverage, as in arching back in bench press.

Chelating Agents
Soluble organic compounds that can fit certain metallic ions into their molecular structure.

Cholesterol
A fat lipid which has both good and bad implications within the human body. Good being known as HDL and bad being LDL. Bad cholesterol is associated with heart disease and stroke, whereas the body requires cholesterol for the production of many steroid hormones.

Chronic Disease
A disease or illness that is associated with lifestyle or environment factors as opposed to infectious diseases (hypo kinetic diseases are considered to be chronic diseases).

Circuit Training
Going quickly from one exercise apparatus to another and doing a prescribed number of exercises or time on each apparatus, keeps pulse rate high and promotes overall fitness, by generally working all muscle groups as well as heart and lungs.

Clean
Lifting weight from floor to shoulder in one motion.

Clean and Jerk
Olympic lift where weight is raised from floor to overhead in two movements.

Clean and Snatch
One of two Olympic lifts where weight is raised from floor to overhead at arms length in one motion.

Coenzyme
A substance that works with an enzyme to promote the enzyme's activity.

Complete Proteins
Proteins that contain all the essential amino acids.

Compound Training
Sometimes called 'giant sets'; doing 3-4 exercises with the same muscle, one after the other, with minimal rest in between.

Concentric Contraction
An isotonic muscle contraction, where a muscle contracts or shortens.

Congestive Heart Failure
The inability of the heart muscle to pump the blood at a life sustaining rate.

Cool Down
Moderate then light activity, normally followed by stretching.

Coronary Circulation
Circulation of blood to the heart muscle associated with the blood carrying capacity of a specific vessel or development of collateral vessels (extra blood vessels).

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
Diseases of the heart muscle and the blood vessels that supply it with oxygen, high risk factor for a heart attack.

Coronary Occlusion
The blocking of the coronary blood vessels.

Creatine Phosphate
An inorganic phosphate molecule which binds with ADP and forms ADT. Produced naturally within the body, however creatine mono hydrate supplements have helped a number of athletes boost their performances.

Crunches
Abdominal exercises Sit-ups done on the floor with legs on bench, hands behind the neck.

Curl Bar
Cambered bar designed for more comfortable grip and less forearm strain.

Cutting Up
Reducing body fat and water retention to increase muscle definition.

Dead Lift
One of three power lifting events (other two are squat and bench press). Weight is lifted off floor to approximately waist height. Lifter must stand erect, shoulders back.

Deficiency
A sub optimal level of either one or more nutrients, often resulting in poor health.

Dehydration
Excessive fluid loss from the body, normally from perspiration, urination, evaporation or being sick.

Delts
Abbreviation for deltoids, the large triangular muscles of the shoulder which raise the arm away from the body and perform other functions.

Dip Belt
Large heavy belt worn around hips with a chain at each end that can be attached to a barbell plate or dumbbell for additional resistance during certain exercises like dips.

Disease-Illness Prevention
Altering lifestyles and environmental factors with the intent of preventing or reducing the risk of various illnesses and diseases.

Disease-Illness Treatment
Altering lifestyles and use of medical procedures to aid in rehabilitation or reduction in symptoms or debilitation from a disease or illness.

Diuretic
A substance that aids the increase of urine excreted by the body.

DOMS Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness
A condition that is often felt after exercise, especially weight orientated, or excessive running. Caused by the micro tears within your muscles as part of the body rebuilding phase. Will generally last 24 / 72 hours, with feelings felt normally the day after exercise.

Double (Split Training) Routine
Working out twice a day to allow for shorter, more intense workouts. Usually performed by more advanced bodybuilders preparing for a contest.

Drying Out
Encouraging loss of body fluids by limiting fluid intake, eliminating salt, sweating heavily and/or using diuretics.

Dumbbell
Weight used for exercising consisting of rigid handles about 14' long with either detachable metal discs or fixed weights at each end.

Easy Set
Exercise not close to maximum effort, as in a warm-up.

Eccentric Contraction
Muscle lengthens while maintaining tension.

EFA's Essential Fatty Acids
Required by the body, however only obtainable from food sources, such as flaxseed oil and safflower oil.

Electrolytes
Capable of conducting electricity in a solution. Used in many body activities, potassium, sodium and chloride are all forms of electrolytes.

Emotional Storm
A traumatic emotional experience that is likely to effect the human organism physiologically.

Endogenous
Naturally occurring body productions.

Endurance
Ability of a muscle to produce force continually over a period of time.

Enzyme
Helpful protein molecules, responsible for a multitude of chemical reactions within the body.

Ergogenic
Something that can increase muscular work capacity.

Exercise
Activity done for the purpose of keeping fit and healthy, or sociable in a group form like football.

Extension
Body part (i.e. hand, neck, trunk, etc.) going from a bent to a straight position, as in leg extension.

Fascia
Fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports and separates all muscles and muscle groups. It also unites skin with underlying tissue.

Fast Twitch
Refers to muscle cells that fire quickly and are utilized in anaerobic activities such as sprinting and power lifting.

Fat
Often referred to as lipids, or triglycerides, one of the main food groups, containing nine calories per gram. It serves a variety of functions in the body, however a high percentage of body fat has been proven to be bad for you.

Fibrin
The substance that in combination with blood cells forms a blood clot.

Flex
Bend or decrease angle of a joint; contract a muscle.

Flexibility
(ROM) Range of movement in a joint or group of joints.

Flexion
Bending in contrast to extending, as in leg flexion.