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Netfit - fitness glossary
Category: Sport and Leisure > Fitness
Date & country: 11/11/2007, UK
Words: 224


Flush
Cleanse a muscle by increasing the blood supply to it, removing toxins left in muscle by exertion.

Forced Repetitions
Assistance to perform additional repetitions of an exercise when muscles can no longer complete movement on their own.

Free Radicals
Highly reactive molecules that possess unpaired electrons. Caused by a number of factors, look at Antioxidants for prevention.

Free Style Training
Training all body parts in one workout.

Free-Form Amino Acids
Structurally unlinked individual amino acids.

Fructose
Often used as a sugar substitute for diabetics, because of its low glycemic index. A healthier option than normal sugar, as fructose comes from fruit.

Full Spectrum Amino Acids
A supplement that contains all of the essential amino acids.

Glucagon
A hormone responsible for the regulation of blood sugar levels.

Glucose
The basic fuel of the body, the simplest sugar molecule and main sugar found in the blood stream.

Gluteals
Abbreviation for gluteus maximus, medius and minimus; the buttock muscles.

Glycemic Index (GI)
A measuring system to find the extent of which various foods raise the blood sugar level. The benchmark is white bread, which has a GI of 100. The higher the score, the greater the extents of blood sugar raise. E.g. Dextrose scores 138 (HIGH) whereas fructose 31 (LOW).

Glycogen
The principle form of carbohydrate energy (glucose) stored within the bodies muscles and liver.

Growth Hormone
A naturally released anabolic hormone by the pituitary gland. It promotes muscle growth and the breakdown of body fat for energy, unfortunately it is greatly reduced after the age of about 20.

Hand Off
Assistance in getting a weight to the starting position for an exercise.

Hard Set
Perform a prescribed number of repetitions of an exercise using maximum effort.

Health and Wellness Promotion
Altering lifestyles and environmental factors with the intent of improving quality of life.

High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
A blood substance that picks up cholesterol and helps remove it from the body; often called 'GOOD CHOLESTEROL.'

Hormones
Regulators of various biological processes through their ability to control the action of enzymes. Made from proteins, such as insulin for blood sugar control, or cholesterol for testosterone control.

Hyper kinetic Condition
A disease/illness or health condition caused or contributed by excessive exercise.

Hypertension
High blood pressure.

Hypertrophy
Increase in size of muscle fibre.

Hypoglycemia
A common occurrence in diabetics, this is low blood sugar levels, resulting in anxiety and fatigue.In severe untreated cases it can lead to coma and even death.

IFBB
International Federation of Bodybuilders, founded in 1946 Group that oversees world-wide mens and womens amateur and professional bodybuilding.

Illness
Symptoms that upset your health.

Incomplete Proteins
Proteins which are low in one or more of the essential amino acids.

Iso kinetic Exercise
Isotonic exercise in which there is ACCOMMODATING RESISTANCE. Also refers to constant speed. Nautilus and Cybex are two types of iso kinetic machines, where machine varies amount of resistance being lifted to match force curve developed by the muscle.

Isometric Exercise
Muscular contraction where muscle maintains a constant length and joints do not move. These exercises are usually performed against a wall or other immovable object.

Isotonic Exercise
Muscular action in which there is a change in length of muscle and weight, keeping tension constant. Lifting free weights is a classic isotonic exercise.

JUST DO IT
Well known sport manufacturer's marketing phrase.

Kinesiology
Study of muscles and their movements.

Knee Wraps
Elastic strips about 3 1/2' wide used to wrap knees for better support when performing squats, dead lifts, etc.

Lactic Acid
A substance caused by anaerobic training of the muscles, a build up prevents continuation of exercise, and a good example is 400 metre runners. Watch how they slow down during the last 100 metres of the race.

Lat's
Abbreviation for Latissimus dorsi, the large muscles of the back that move the arms downward, backward and in internal rotation.

Lean Body Mass
Everything in the body except for fat, including bone, organs, skin, nails and all body tissue including muscle. Approximately 50-60% of lean body mass is water.

Lifestyle
Individual patterns of your typical life.

Lift Off
Assistance in getting weight to proper starting position.

Ligament
Strong, fibrous band of connecting tissue connecting two or more bones or cartilage or supporting a muscle, fascia or organ.

Lipids
All fats and fatty acids.

Lipoprotein
Fat carrying protein in the blood.

Lock Out
Partial repetition of an exercise by pushing the weight through only last few inches of movement.

Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
A core of cholesterol surrounded by protein, often referred to as bad cholesterol.

Lower Abs
Abbreviation for abdominal muscles below the navel.

Lumbar
Lower region of you spine, vertebrates L1 to L5. Used for bending and extending the body forward and back, with the aid of the abdominal and erector spinae muscles.

Max
Maximum effort for one repetition of an exercise.

Midsection
Muscles of abdominal area, including upper and lower abdominals, obliques and rectus abdominis muscles.

Military Press
Pressing a barbell from upper chest upwards in a standing or sitting position.

Muscle
Tissue consisting of fibres organized into bands or bundles that contract to cause bodily movement. Muscle fibres run in the same direction as the action they perform.

Muscle Head
Slang for someone whose life is dominated by training.

Muscle Spasm
Sudden, involuntary contraction of muscle or muscle group.

Muscle Tone
Condition in which muscle is in a constant yet slight state of contraction and appears firm.

Muscularity
Another term for definition, denoting a fully delineated muscles and absence of fat.

Myositis
Muscular soreness due to inflammation that often occurs 1-2 days after unaccustomed exercise. Often referred as DOMS (Delayed onset muscle soreness)

Nautilus
Iso kinetic-type exercise machine which attempts to match resistance with user's force.

Negative Reps
One or two partners help you lift a weight up to 50% heavier than you would normally lift to finish point of movement. Then you slowly lower weight on your own.

Non-Locks
Performing an exercise without going through complete range of motion. For example, doing squat without coming to full lockout position of knees or pressing a barbell without locking out elbows.

Obliques
Abbreviation for external obliques, the muscles to either side of abdominals that rotate and flex the trunk.

Odd Lifts
Exercises used in competition other than snatch and clean and jerk, such as squats, bench presses, and barbell curls.

Oestrogen
Female sex hormone.

Olympic Lifts
Two movements used in national and international Olympic competitions: the SNATCH and the CLEAN and JERK.

Olympic Set
High quality, precision made set of weights used for competition. The bar is approximately 7' long. All moving parts have either brass bushings or bearings. Plates are machined for accurate weight.

Onion Skin
Slang denoting skin with very low percentage of subcutaneous fat, which helps to accentuate muscularity.

Overload Principle
Applying a greater load than normal to a muscle to increase its capability.

Parasympathetic Nervous System
Branch of the autonomic nervous system that slows the heart rate.

Partial Reps
Performing an exercise without going through a complete range of motion either at the beginning or end of a rep.

Peak Contraction
Exercising a muscle until it cramps by using shortened movements.

Pec's
Abbreviation for pectoral muscles of the chest.

Performance benefit
Improvements in physical fitness as a result of exercise.

Peripheral Vascular Disease
Lack of oxygen supply to the working muscles and tissues of the body, resulting from decreased blood supply.Predominately affects the limbs,the parts of the body furthest away from the heart such as the legs (calves), hands and feet.

Plyometric exercise
Where muscles are loaded suddenly and stretched, then quickly contracted to produce a movement. Athletes who must jump do these, i.e. jumping off bench to ground, quickly rebounding to another bench.

Pose Down
Bodybuilders performing their poses at the same time in a competition, trying to out pose one another.

Power
Strength + speed.

Power Lifts
Three movements used in power lifting competition; the squat, bench press and dead lift.

Power Training
System of weight training using low repetitions, heavy weights.

Progressive Resistance
Method of training where weight is increased as muscles gain strength and endurance. The backbone of all weight training.

Pumped
Slang meaning the muscles have been made large by increasing blood supply to them through exercise.

Pumping Iron
Phrase that has been in use since the 1950's, but recently greatly popularized. Lifting weights.

Quads
Abbreviation for quadriceps femoris muscles, muscles on the upper part of the front of the legs, which consist of four parts (heads).

Quality Training
Training just before bodybuilding competition where intervals between sets are drastically reduced to enhance muscle mass and density, and low calorie diet is followed to reduce body fat.

Reciprocal Inhibition
Reflex relaxation in a muscle being stretched.

Rep Out
Repeat the same movement over and over until you are unable to do anymore.

Repetition
One complete movement of an exercise.

Reps
Abbreviation for REPETITIONS.

Rest Interval
Pause between sets of an exercise, which allows muscles to recover partially before beginning next set.

Rest Pause Training
Training method where you press out one difficult repetition, then replace bar in stands, then after 10-20 second rest, do another rep, etc.

Ripped
Slang meaning extreme muscularity.

Roid
Slang for ANABOLIC STEROID.

Set
Fixed number of repetitions. For example, 10 repetitions may comprise one set.

Slow Twitch
Muscle cells that contract slowly are resistant to fatigue and are utilized in endurance activities such as long-distance running, cycling or swimming.

Snatch
Olympic lift where weight is lifted from floor to overhead, (with arms extended) in one continuous movement.

Spot
Assist if called upon by someone performing an exercise.

Spotter
Person who watches a person closely to see if any help is needed during a specific exercise.

Static Stretch
A stretch that is held within the stretched position for several seconds, without movement.

Sticking Point
Most difficult part of a movement.

Stiffness
Refer to DOMS

Straight Sets
Groups of repetitions (SETS) interrupted by only brief pauses, (30-90) seconds.

Strength
The ability of a muscle to produce maximum force.

Strength Training
Using resistance weight training to build maximum muscle force.

Stretch Marks
Tears (slight scars) in skin caused if muscle or fat tissue has expanded in volume faster than the skin can grow.

Striations
Grooves or ridge marks seen under the skin, the ultimate degree of muscle definition.

Stroke
A condition which occurs from insufficient oxygen supply to the brain.