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Food Marketing Insitute - Glossary of Terms
Category: Agriculture and Industry
Date & country: 13/09/2007, USA
Words: 1737

gross national product (GNP)
The total value of all goods manufactured in a country in a calendar year.

gross profit
An accounting term that refers to a profit figure calculated by subtracting the cost of product from its selling price; expressed as a percentage or as dollars and cents. See markup; margin; net profit; spread.

gross sales
The total dollar sales for a day, week, month or a year.

group advertising
Retailers that advertise together to save money. See voluntary store.

group numbers
The standardized classification systems used for products.

guaranteed sale
The agreement to return product if items do not sell within a certain time.

guaranteed sale program
A program that assures customers a full refund if not satisfied.

The graphical user interface of a World Wide Web page.

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point.

hand truck
A small two-wheeled cart used to move product.

hand-held terminal
A portable computer terminal used for numerous in-store operations, such as price checks or placing orders.

A hand-delivered advertisement or promotional piece distributed to consumers in a trading area.

handling allowance-charge
A manufacturer's discount paid to a wholesaler in return for handling promotional products and/or cash coupons.

handling unit
A term used to describe goods or an aggregation of goods bundled together for distribution and logistical purposes.

hang tag
A hanging tag, also known as a shelf talker.

hanging or dressed weight
The weight of a meat/poultry carcass before trimming and processing.

hard shell lobsters
Mature, salable lobsters.

General merchandise that includes appliances, automotive supplies, barbecue items, batteries, brooms, cookware, cutlery, furniture, gardenware, hardware, photography film or supplies and toys.

Produce such as citrus fruits, potatoes, root vegetables and other fruits and vegetables that will withstand handling and transportation without refrigeration.

Health and beauty aids.

Health and beauty care.

A retail store that sells health and beauty care (HBC) products and/or cosmetics, but not prescription drugs.


header card
See case card.

health and beauty aids (HBA)
A category now called Health and Beauty Care (HBC).

health and beauty care (HBC)
Cosmetics, toiletries and home remedy products sold in food stores. Formerly called health and beauty aids (HBA).

A precooked food that requires heating before consumption.

held at store
Unprocessed invoices at the time of inventory; a list is made to account for outstanding invoices.

Extra-large sizes of packaged goods, such as dry pet foods.


hi-cone packaging
Single products packaged together to make a multiple unit, such as beverages and small bags of chips.

high-low pricing
A marketing strategy in which a product maintains a high retail price, but is frequently offered as an ad special with a deep discount (low price).

historical margin
The profit margin figured on a product or category of products.

holding power
See shelf capacity.

holistic pilots
Test projects in which trading partners implement one or more aspect of ECR across multiple disciplines and functional boundaries within the companies. They document the experience and measure its success.

home delivery
Direct delivery of groceries to a customer's home by a retailer or separate delivery service.

home health care
A store that sells medical supplies, bathroom safety equipment, physical therapy needs, wheelchairs, walkers, etc.

home meal replacement
Foods prepared in a store and consumed at home or in-store which require little or no preparation on the part of the consumer.

home office
The headquarters of a company.

home page
The main entrance to a World Wide Web site.

home shopping
Electronic shopping on the Internet.

honor system
A practice of receiving merchandise without systematically counting the product or checking the contents of cases, but rather trusting that the vendor and shipper have complied with the order. Spot counts are normally conducted in association with an honor system.

horizontal display
Stocking a line of similar products so they form a horizontal pattern across a single shelf. Also known as Horizontal Set, Horizontal Arrangement. See vertical arrangement.

horizontal selling
A wholesaler's marketing plan to sell to all types of related industries, retailers, commissaries, institutional and food service. See vertical selling.

host computer
A computer's processor that each week sends new and sale items to scanning stores.

house brand or house label
A private label brand of products offered by a wholesaler or manufacturer.

house organ
A company's employee newsletter.

Operational procedures to ensure cleanliness, safety, sanitation and maintenance for a store or warehouse.

General merchandise items used in a kitchen and home, e.g., baking pans, mops.

human resources
A department in a company that is involved in every aspect regarding employees hiring, training, payroll, evaluation, among others.

hundred-weight (CWT)
A transportation measure used to determine transportation charges in 100-pound increments.

hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)
A refrigerant used in display cases and warehouse storage facilities.

hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)
A man-made chemical used as a refrigerant.

A glass cylinder with a suction bulb on one end ,that is used to measure the salt level of a lobster tank.

A combined supermarket and discount store, at least 200,000 square feet or larger, that sells a wide variety of food and general merchandise at a low price.

International Association of Refrigerated Warehouses.

ice burn
A contact 'burn' of raw fish iced too long.

International Dairy-Deli-Bakery Association.

identification label
The label showing name, age (or pasteurization) and the identity of cheese.

International Foodservice Manufacturers Association.

Inventory management program and control technique.

A measurement of customer reaction to advertising and merchandising.

impulse buy
An unplanned purchase promoted by visual or other sensory stimulation.

in-ad coupon
A manufacturer's cents-off coupon appearing in a retailer's ad.

in-and-out promotion
A retail promotion for a limited selling period that features product types or quantities not regularly stocked (e.g., lawn mowers, Christmas ornaments).

in-line product
Products that are permanently ordered and stocked for a store.

in-pack promotion
A coupon packaged with a product.

Products regularly carried, currently stocked on the shelves and available for purchase. See out-of-stock.

in-store advertising
Signage used by a retailer to merchandise products within a store.

In-store bakery
A bakery department producing baked goods in the store using one of two baking methods

in-store banking
A franchise department in a retail store that provides full or partial banking services to customers.

in-store coupon
A coupon only offered to customers who shop in the store.

in-store demonstrators
An employee or temporary person conducting tastings, samplings, and product preparations to encourage impulse buys from customers.

in-store processor (ISP)
An in-store computer system that operates the various systems., e.g., point-of-sale register system, ATM cards, inventory.

in-store signs-promotions
Signage used by a retailer to merchandise products and displays within the store.

The path customers follow as they enter a store and begin shopping. The term can also refer to the flow of products into a warehouse prior to order selection.

incentive plan or incentive program
Monetary compensation to employees for meeting and/or exceeding sales, and other profit performance goals.

income statement
See operating statement.

An increase in product sales volume attributed to a special promotion or merchandising plan.

independent store
A retailer with 1-10 stores with similar operational policies and programs.

An alphabetical list of products and prices handled by a wholesaler.

indirect chain
A group of retail stores that purchases products from a wholesaler instead of operating its own warehouse.

indirect expense
An expense that does not directly relate to a specific segment of the business operation.

indirect selling
A sale of goods by a manufacturer to a service merchandiser or other wholesaler, who in turn sells the products to chain store companies or independent stores.

individually quick frozen (IQF)
A food processing technique that freezes products in the final stage of processing. It is then wrapped and packaged for shipment.

industry trade association
A nonprofit organization that represents members and provides services, e.g., referrals, direct purchases, lobbying, education services.

informal display
A haphazard product display, purposely jumbled in bins or on tables to project a buy-me, well-shopped image. See dump display; jumble display; mass display.

information technology (I-T)
Integrated computer systems that provide information for business decisions.

inner pack
A sub-package within a master package.

A drop-in fixture used to modify standard grocery shelving. Used to break up the monotony of gondola shelving.

inside sales rep
See telephone sales rep.

inspection report
A lost/damage claim describing the condition of the product.

instant redeemable coupon (IRC)
A coupon located with or attached to a product for the customer to use immediately or save for future use.

institutional advertising
Advertising conveying a company's general image or philosophy as opposed to specific product information. Also known as image advertising.

institutional and industrial buyers
Hospitals, restaurants, schools and other institutions that buy food and supplies from a wholesale grocer for consumption, not for resale

institutional sizes
Large cans and packages of food products used in food service preparations, e.g., commissaries, restaurants.

institutional wholesale grocer
A wholesaler selling to related businesses in the food industry; e.g., commissaries, hotels, restaurants, etc.

insulated containers
Containers used to hold hot or cold products to ensure that they will be in good condition when they get to the customer's home.

integrated approach
Creating opportunities for solution selling of products throughout all departments in a store.

General merchandise and health and beauty aids shelved in aisles with food, not in a separate store area.