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Food Marketing Insitute - Glossary of Terms
Category: Agriculture and Industry
Date & country: 13/09/2007, USA
Words: 1737

The bottom shelf in a retail aisle.


bbq machine
A device to cook foods in-store to add a Bar-B-Que or smoky flavor.

Broken Case Price.

A performance standard against which operating performance is measured, which is used to identify performance improvements and best practices in an industry.

best food day
The day that grocery ads run in a newspaper in any community.

beta test
A field test of new equipment or software programs to identify errors or problems, and to solicit user's comments so that the manufacturer can make final modifications before the equipment or software is released for sale.

bill and hold
A manufacturer's deal to a retailer to purchase products, which are not shipped until the retailer needs them.

bill of lading
A delivery receipt acknowledging that a customer received a product and verified the count.

billback (BB)
An accounts receivable practice of invoicing the wholesale/retailer for products at regular price until promotional requirements are met. The deal amount will be returned later to the wholesaler/retailer. See off-invoice.

billboard-billboard effect
The merchandising impact produced by grouping together a large quantity of horizontal facings on a shelf, i.e., sizes, colors and/or flavors.

A merchandising container for bulk product display. See warehouse slot.

The use of DNA technology to create products, for example, pharmaceuticals or food products.

A machine used to vacuum-seal meats and cheeses for display in the Deli Department.

The pricing of a defined section to achieve an overall profit percentage based on movement, unit profit and total sales of a section.

blind ordering
A practice of writing a new order even though an outstanding order has not been received.

blister pack
Product packaging that merchandises a product with a descriptive card under clear plastic wrap.

A damaged, swollen processed food can or glass container, which may indicate contamination, a safety hazard.

blocking (squaring down)
The practice of dressing up shelves. Products are pulled forward to a shelf's edge from the back of the shelf.

An indication of freshness and quality as beef turns bright red when exposed to oxygen.

blue chips
Products with high gross profits and high turnover on the shelves.

Buy one get one free.

bonus pack
A volume increase in a package, a merchandising technique to establish value for a customer by packaging an extra amount in a product while charging the regular price.

A practice retailers use to order in advance to obtain special discounts and guarantee the delivery date, usually for seasonal and holiday products.

bottle returns
Beverage bottles returned to a retailer for recycling.

bottom line
A term for a net profit, which is all money taken in (gross profit) minus all expenses.

bounce back
A product marketing technique that pairs a customer's refund with a rebate on a product .

bounce pattern
A diagrammed path showing where customers stop and/or select products.

box cutter
A knife-like device with a razor blade used to open boxes.

box store
A limited-assortment store, which merchandises products in the original, cardboard shipping boxes.

bracket pricing
A price schedule based on the number of cases that a retailer orders the greater the quantity ordered, the lower the price per case. Also called a volume or quantity discount.

To cook meat by browning it in fat, then simmering it in a covered pan with a little liquid.

branch house
A redistribution center for a manufacturer or wholesaler. See transfers.

A product that is uniquely labeled by a manufacturer, private label or national brands, for example.

brand franchise
An exclusive contract between a manufacturer and a wholesaler or a retailer to distribute and sell products in a specific market.

brand image
Consumers' images of the quality, value and taste of a product.

brand loyalty
A level of consumer support for a product measured by the product's turnover.

brand share
A percentage of category sales attributed to a specific product brand.

bread & butter account
A consistent, high-volume product for a wholesaler or broker.

break-even point
An accounting term used to distinguish the point at which gross sales equal operating costs.

breakage allowance
A manufacturer's allowance to a wholesaler in case products are damaged during shipping.

breaker plate
A device used to grind beef the first time.

breaking down
Removing products from a case in order to clean and sanitize it. Also, removing component parts of a piece of equipment, such as a slicer or a grinder, to clean and sanitize it.

brine solution
A water and salt solution used to clean lobsters, among other uses.

A meat cut sliced from the breast of an animal.

An advertising term that refers to two facing newspaper pages in an ad.

To cook over a flame or other direct source of intense heat.

broken case price (BCP)
A price calculated by adding the cost of a product to the cost of labor to repack the product. See split case.

An independent agent or representative of various noncompetitive products in a retail market who represents a manufacturer and presents products, sales and special deals to a retailer or wholesaler. See agent; field broker;manufacturer's representative; master broker.

broker's warehouse
A warehouse stocked with products and represented by a broker. See wholesale broker.

A manufacturer's commission paid to a broker for the volume of products he or she sells to retailers or wholesalers.

bulk produce
Loose, unpackaged, fresh produce that customers select themselves.

bulk product
Unpackaged, fresh products displayed in bins in large quantitites and sold by the piece or the pound, such as grains, candy or snacks.

A communication to distribute information among different segments of an industry.

A refrigerated, open display case used to merchandise products, primarily in frozen food and dairy departments.

business review
A periodic meeting to review operational performance, goals and projections.

buy one get one free (BOGO)
An offer that allows a customer to buy an item at regular price and get a second, identical item free.

buy out
See forward buy.

buy-in allowance
See distribution allowance.

A wholesale or retail employee who analyzes, selects and buys an appropriate product mix in a category.

buyer's slips
A paper or electronic form that a purchasing department uses to indicate to other departments the selection, quantity and delivery date of products.

buying co-op
A retailers' group formed to take advantage of lower prices on products, advertising and equipment through economies of scale.

buying committee
A management review committee that analyzes and selects new products, deals and special promotions. See advisory board; merchandising committee; plans committee.

buying corporation
A freelance company that resells products.

buying group
A group of noncompeting retailers who analyze, select and purchase products and services, such as advertising and equipment together. Also called chain-owned buying group; affiliated chain.

buying habits
A profile of consumers' purchasing patterns and habits derived from analyzing data.

buying headquarters
A central location, where executives or other employees analyze and approve a mix of products for retailers and wholesalers to sell.

A secure area used to store selected products, such as cigarettes and aerosols.

A chronological list by month of the major trade shows pertaining to the supermarket industry.

calendar marketing agreement (CMA)
An agreement between a retailer and a manufacturer in which the retailer agrees to promote the manufacturer's products according to a specific schedule.

can code
A manufacturer's code that describes the facility, shift, date and time that a product was packaged.

Can Manufacturers Institute (CMI)
1625 Massachusetts Ave., N.W. Washington DC 20036 (202) 232-4677

A category that includes candies, chewing gum and other confections.

A competitive factor that reduces a product's sales, such as the debut of a competing brand.

An awning or covering ledge that extends over the top of grocery fixtures. It may have lights or signs to draw attention to the products on display below.

Computer-assisted ordering.

Controlled atmosphere packaging.

A transportation term that refers to a railroad car or railcar.

car-lot seller
An agent that sells and ships products by railcar loads. For special promotions, the railcar serves as a storage unit for fast-moving merchandise.

carload order
A product that is shipped on a railcar and meets specific standards of weight and volume capacity, among others.

carriage-shopping cart
Four-wheeled baskets that customers use to transport merchandise to the checkout counters.

A registered, licensed truck or rail company, which transports merchandise from one point to another. Also called a common carrier.

carry-in charge
A service delivery fee that vendors charge retailers to unload and stage products in a store. See curb delivery.

carrying cost
The cost of the capital employed in holding an asset (such as inventory) calculated as an interest rate (internal borrowing rate or opportunity cost of capital) times the amount of capital employed.

carryout clerk
An employee who carries and loads groceries in a customer's vehicle.

cart corral
A three-sided enclosure in a store's parking lot to collect shopping carts.

cart lock system
A system that requires a coin, a quarter, to release a shopping cart.

cart, shopping
A four-wheeled basket used to collect purchase items.

Computer-aided software engineering.

case card
A sign used to identify products.. Also called a stack card or header card.

case code
A universal product code (U.P.C.). A product 's unique, machine-readable numeral printed on a product, cases and pallet loads.

case cost
The wholesale cost of a case of products.

case count
A receiving procedure that accepts an invoice's total-order case count instead of verifying the contents of each case.

case cube
A standard measurement used to calculate a shipping container's volume.

case dollar return
A retailer's gross profit calculated by subtracting the wholesale cost of a case from the retail price of a case.

case labels
A product's identification and pricing label attached to a product or case when shipped.

case lot
Unopened cases of products sold at a set price.

case pack
The number of units of products packed in a case.

case ready
Packaged, prepared, refrigerated or frozen foods that go from a shipping container to a sales floor.

case stocking
A stocking procedure that removes a case lid and places a product on the shelf in an original container.