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Studio Jewellery - Glossary
Category: Hobbies and Crafts > Jewellery
Date & country: 26/08/2014, AU
Words: 246


FOB
The fob is a small decorative or even practical item that is suspended from a chain. Examples of fobs can be: a keychain, a seal, dog tags or personalised names which have become very popular over recent times.

French Wire Hook Earring clasp
The French wire hook is an open ended earring clasp that relies on friction from the earring hole and gravity from the counter weight of the earring body to secure the piece of jewellery in place.

Fresh Water Pearl
Fresh water pearls are cultivated by placing a nucleus inside a molusc and then harvesting it 6 to 12 months later, as they are easier to manage and can grow up to 50 per oyster they are a fraction of the price of their sea water equivalents.

Friction Back Earring Clasp
This type of clasp is so named because when the post is inserted in a backing, the close fit which is usually associated with a ridge, will provide enough resistance when moved to stay in place. A variety of this is the butterfly clasp, a very common closure for stud type earrings.

Friendship Bracelets
This is a very popular bracelet among younger people to signify an event or perhaps a trip and is usually brightly coloured or otherwise a little different. They can be made from woven cotton, leather or beads and are quite inexpensive.

Full Cut Diamond
A full cut diamond has a standard of 57 to 58 facets when in its round form, which enhances its beauty by giving it multiple angles from which to reflect light out, because of the large number of faces it is generally only reserved for larger stones.

Garnet
Is a hard red transparent gemstone and because of its properties is not only used for creating beautiful ornaments but also as an abrasive material. Although red or brown is the most common color, this gemstone can also be found in tones of yellow, pink, orange, purple or black. The blue garnet is the most rare and precious.

Gemstone
A gemstone is a mineral with distinct qualities of durability, rarity and beauty that make it desirable for the purpose of making jewellery. Although some materials like pearl and amber are not minerals they are still regarded as gemstones because they carry similar attributes.

Gem
The gem or gemstone describes a rare mineral used primarily in jewellery for its fine aesthetic properties. The distinction between precious and semi-precious is given by their rarity and although gems often look plain in their raw form, polishing and faceting enhances their allure and value.

Gilding
Gilding is a process where the surface of an object is covered in fine gold leaf or a fine gold powder on a metal, wood or stone surface. The result is a

Gilt
A

Gold Bracelet
A gold bracelet is a wrist accessory made from gold a very precious metal. This type of adornment can appear in a multitude of models, from intricate, complex designs to simple links joined together and it can be worn by both males and females.

Gold Earrings
Are ear ornaments made from gold that represent a fashionable accessory as well as valuable pieces of jewellery. Due to the high density and cost of this material many are made very fine or even hollow to keep the weight down for comfort and to make them more affordable.

Gold Jewellery
For 1000's of years Gold has been used for creating jewellery due to its rarity, beauty and as a store of value. In its purest form it is an inert material that won't irritate making it ideal for objects that are worn close to the skin.

Gold Necklace
A gold necklace is an accessory designed to be worn around the neck with the specification that its primary material is gold. It can appear in various shapes and sizes, fitted for casual outfits or elegant gowns and can be worn by both men and women.

Gold Pendant
A gold pendant is an adornment fabricated from the valuable metal as the name implies. It is usually the Pi

Gold Plate
Plated items involves a fine coating of the precious metal to give the look, feel and general appearance of a pure gold item. Depending on the quality of the layer deposited onto a piece of jewellery the item may last months, years or even a lifetime.

Gold Ring
Gold rings have come to symbolise the bond of a relationship and are worn for engagements, marriage and of course just for pure aesthetics. They range from simple bands to decorative items with large and expensive gem stones including diamonds.

Gold Tone
Gold tone can refer to any object that has the appearance of the pure metal even if there is zero gold material present although usually there is at least a fine coating or plating.

Gold Washed
Are objects dipped or brushed with a very fine layer of the pure metal to obtain a look like gold, as it is less than .175 microns thick it is not a durable application and will usually wear off rather quickly.

Gold
Gold is highly precious and rare metal having a rich, lustrous yellow-brown color and can have industrial or aesthetic applications like that found in jewellery. It is measured in karats for purity, 24 karats being 100% gold, while 18 karats is 75% pure. Since the beginning of human history it has been looked upon as a symbol of wealth and opulence.

Gram
The gram is a metric unit of measure where there is approximately 28 grams to an ounce the standard unit for gold and silver.

Green Gold
Green gold is the result of combining naturally occurring yellow gold with silver and cadmium to give a very subtle greenish tint to this precious metal. It is definitely not brightly green as the name would suggest and is in fact so subtle that it is really only noticeable when put next to vivid white or yellow.

Guard Chain
A guard chain is a small link chain or band that can be found in accessories such as bracelets and wrist watches to secure the item in the event that the main clasp fails, it was very popular in past decades but with the advent of more reliable fixtures now it is less prevalent.

Half Hoop Earrings
Or Demi Hoops are a variety of ear ornaments that give the appearance of having full circles but are usually only half closed in. They are usually fixed to the lobe by stud like butterfly clasps or some times hinged closures.

Hallmark
Is an official stamp or signature on gold, silver or platinum that certifies, from an independent body or representitives there of, the degree of purity. It has certainly been used since the middle ages (1200+) as a guarantee of purity and probably as far back as late Roman times (400AD). Most Western Government governments have strict laws on what and how an object can be marked or stamped to protect local consumers.

Heart Cut Diamond
This is the never ending symbol of love which is cut from a pear shaped diamond with a further piece at the top removed to form the heart. The top is usually relatively flat with the facets to the side and underneath providing the light reflection to give off its brilliance.

Hinged Snap Lock Earring Clasp
This closure mechanism involves 2 halves of either the clasp or the whole earring moving towards each other to finish off the design where the male end moves into the female with a node that passes over a ridge and snaps into place and prevents it from coming out easily.

Hoop Earrings
Hoop earrings are virtually any items with a round circular shape and can be quite small at say 10mm to large hoops at over 100mm. They are very popular having been around for centuries and will suit any purpose although the larger items tend to be less comfortable to wear than the smaller items.

Hypoallergenic
Refers to items that are less likely to irritate the skin or body, although there is no official definition or specification, most hypoallergenic items contain no nickel or lead or artificial coatings that are a known irritants.

ID Bracelet
An identification bracelet can be used as a means of identification in the more mundane parts of ones life or can be a great piece of personalised jewellery which is ever so popular. Many of these have either full names or can just have initials.

Inclusion or Feather
An Inclusion or feather is a term denoting a flaw in a precious stone such as a diamond or an emerald. This flaw under a microscope resembles a bird feather since there are small crack like fissures that appear in the stone. The more inclusions a gem posses the less strength and value it has.

Ingot
An ingot is a shape that is given to a certain measure of metal in order to facilitate its storage and simplify its assessment. Unlike the complex shape and design that a fine jewellery item can have, the ingot is a simple block.

Initial Rings
Are very popular in recent times and can have either a lower or upper case letter to signify some ones name, they can also be worn as stackable rings to show 2 initials or more.

Inlaid or Inlay
Inlaid or Inlay refers to an ornament that is constructed by embedding pieces of a material into another. For example a wooden surface can be inlaid with another type of wood or even pieces of metal. It looks like the object has been painted, but the result is a lot more durable and eye catching.

Invisible Setting
An invisible setting is a technique to fixate stones in a way that the setting itself is concealed, this creates the effect of a surface that

Iolite
Iolite in gem form or Cordierite in a mineral form has a subtle blue-violet smoky appearance that makes very beautiful but affordable natural stone jewellery.

Jade
Jade is an ornamental rock very popular in Asian jewellery made from different silicate materials, and although jade is renowned for its rich green color, multiple varieties can be found in nature, having pink, orange and brown hues.

Jewellers Grain
The grain is a unit of measure that is commonly used in jewellery making to denominate 50 mg. Diamonds and pearls were often measured using this ancient system, where 1?4 of a carat = 1 grain, 1 carat=200mg

Jewellery Australia
Australia has many native jewellery types from Aboriginal art to a large Opal industry and is one of the largest diamond and gold producers in the world. Adding in a multicultural mix and the result is many unique and varied designs that come from Australia.

Jewellery Store
A jewellery store or jeweller has been a traditional place where customers have gone for rings, earrings, necklaces and bracelets, but now increasingly more shopping is being done online so the traditional bricks and mortar store is playing less of a role.

Jewellery versus Jewelry
Jewellery is the British way of spelling which is used in most commonwealth countries while Jewelry is the US form of the word. Both have the exact same meaning which is an all encompassing term for body adornments including earrings, bracelets, necklaces and rings.

Jewellery
Jewellery, including rings, earrings, necklaces, bracelets and brooches have been around for 1000's of years and can be considered any adornment for the body which can be made from virtually any material however gemstones or precious metals like gold or silver are probably the most common.

Jump Rings
A jump ring is constructed by bringing together a piece of wire to form a circle, the rigidity of the material is often enough to form a secure closure.

Karat
A karat is a measure of fineness or purity, for example pure gold equals 24 karats, where as 12 karat gold only contains 50% of the fine metal. It is often confused with carat, which is a unit of weight equal to 200 milligrams not a measure of purity.

Lab Created or Synthetic Grown
Refers to the process of creating gems in a factory or laboratory by using intense heat and pressure or crystal growing methods. These gems are for all intent and purpose real although they are valued less because supply is not limited.

Lapis
Lapis is a vivid blue coloured opaque stone used for decorative purposes, it can be polished and fitted into jewellery settings or turned into beautiful figurines. By crushing this semi-precious rock, a fine blue pigment can be obtained.

Latch Back Earring Clasp
The latch back earring clasp offers a secure and simple way of attaching an earring to the lobe. It is shaped like a hook and has a latch that can be pulled back to allow the wearer to open the enclosure and fixate the ornament on the ear.

Lead Free
Lead poisoning is a very serious medical condition that can cause grave symptoms even when in minute quantities like that have been used in jewellery in the past, most modern jewellery items are lead free and all items at Studio Jewellery are certified to be free of this metal.

Lever Back Earrings
Lever back earrings have a closing mechanism comprised of a curved wire that clicks into place securing the item. They are easy to attach, have a sturdy construction and are very common in drop or dangle earrings.

Links
A link is essential any connecting mechanism, in jewellery chains there are various types of shapes and sizes of links to form bracelets, necklaces or even decorative items that hang off earrings.

Lobster Clasp
This is a popular clasp used in necklaces and bracelets and is so called because it looks like the pincer from a lobster. The item is usually spring loaded so when it is snapped into place it stays shuts, it is a very secure reliable item.

Locket
A locket is a small ornamental pendant or charm like piece that is usually worn on a chain or necklace that opens to reveal a picture or a memento. A locket can be a very personal and sentimental accessory that can be passed down through the generations.

Loupe
A loupe is a magnifying glass of relatively small dimensions. It gained its popularity in the 19th century when watchmakers and jewellers would assess items and it is still used today.

Luster or Lustre
Lustre is a term used to denote the way light interacts with a gem, metal or mineral. There are various technical ways to describe lustre including Dull, Greasy, Metallic, Pearly, Resinous or Silky to name just a few.

Magnetic Fastener
A magnetic fastener can usually be found in pieces of jewellery such as earrings, bracelets or necklaces. It works by joining two magnetic ends together in a secured clasp. Earrings that have a magnetic fastener don

Malachite
Malachite is an opaque green sometimes banded mineral that is used in jewellery as well as for other purposes. As a copper carbonate, it can usually be found throughout copper deposits and limestone's.

Marcasite
Marcasite in jewellery making is actually made from pyrite as pure Marcasite tends to be too brittle and discolours easy. In jewellery the colour tends to be a dark silver metallic like gem usually used as many small stones joined together to form an overall pattern.

Marquise Cut Diamond
A marquise cut diamond is a modified brilliant cut that is shaped like an oval or more precisely a rugby shaped football where, due to its shape it posses quite a large flat top surface. It was named after King Louis XIV of France had a stone cut to resemble the perfectly shaped mouth of the Marquise of Pompadour.

Matinee Length Necklace
Is usually 56 to 58 cms long or 22 to 23 inches in the old scale and will sit just at the start of the cleavage on most ladies. It is a typical full length size of today's modern necklace without a pendant.

Melee Diamond
Is a term used to classify small diamonds that weigh individually 0.18 carats or less and they are often used as accents or secondary accents. They form the largest amount of diamonds used and are traded in parcels of 1 carat and up in the wholesale trade with the final value depending on their grade.

Mens Bracelets
Men can have any bracelets that they chose but the most popular tends to be the link chain in the form of a curb or figaro pattern. Due to being chunkier in style they usually require a reinforced clasp with the Lobster being the most favoured.

Mens Jewellery
Men tend to wear jewellery which is subtly different than women, the chains they like tend to be thicker and use of stainless and leather is more prevalent.

Mens Necklaces
Men's chains tend to be simple with a curb design that usually has a lobster closing mechanism. They can be in any form but gold or silver either solid or plated are the true classics.

Mens Rings
Men tend to like simpler band like rings that denotes marital status while for fashion items they tend to be chunkier and even made from 318 stainless. The size is also significantly larger starting at a US 9 which would be a very large ring for a lady.

Moh's Hardness Scale
The Moh's hardness scale measures the ability of 1 gem to visibly scratch another, where Talc, a very soft material comes in at number 1 on the scale, while a Diamond comes in at number 10 being the hardest.

Moonstone
A moonstone is a semi precious gem from the feldspar mineral group that can have a silvery blue iridescences or pearly white lustre. It is commonly used in rings and has been used as jewellery for at least 3000 years with examples being found in ancient Egypt and Asia.

Mosaic
A Mosaic is a pattern created by assembling a number of smaller objects, these can quite commonly be glass, metal, gem stones or in fact any material that is relatively durable. Some mosaics can be as large as a wall while others can fit on a ring.

Mother of Pearl
Mother of pearl is a smooth hard milky white iridescent substance that can be found inside a shell or what makes up the outer layers of a Pearl. It is more technically known as Nacre and is an organic compound formed by molluscs.

Natural Pearl
A natural pearl is formed when a mollusc secretes Nacre to cover an irritant present inside the shell. The overwhelming number of pearls sold today are cultivated and not natural, that is a small nuclear or tissue is placed in the shell and then it is dropped into a sea bed or river and farmed usually up to 1 year later for freshwater varieties and up to 3 years for sea pearls.

Necklace Lengths
The preference of the wearer means that Necklace lengths will vary greatly from a 30 to 35 cm choker that will sit tight around the throat to a long rope necklace which will exceed 90cm and sit as low as the belly button.

Necklaces
The necklace is an age old jewellery item that has been worn to symbolise power, position or wealth for 1000's of years but today is more commonly used a fashion item. Necklaces can be fashioned in different shapes and sizes and with different materials ranging from gold, silver, platinum to more common wood and plastic.

Nickel Free
This silver like material was once very popular in jewellery making however as it has been identified as a potential skin irritant most earrings are now certified nickel free.

Nickel Silver or German Silver
Nickel silver, also known as German silver is an alloy of nickel, copper and zinc, used primarily in manufacturing of coins and cutlery. Despite its name, it does not contain any silver although it does look very similar.

Nickel
Nickel is a metal that has a silvery-white lustrous appearance and as it is very similar to silver in looks. It has been used in jewellery making for centuries however as it can be an irritant to the skin it is used much less now particularly in earrings.

Nucleated Pearls
Nucleated pearls are formed by placing a small nucleus within a mollusc and then providing the conditions where Nacre layers can form and build up over time. Virtually all pearls today are nucleated in some way as natural pearls are very rare.

Onyx
Onyx is a well-known variety of chalcedony which can have a variety of colours from white up to the most valuable pure black which is also the most valuable.

Opal
An opal is a gemstone that has a mesmerizing spectrum of colors from nearly opaque white to even dark browns or blacks. It is the official gemstone of Australia which produces over 95% of the worlds supply.

Opera Length Necklace
Is typically 75 to 90 cms in length or 30 to 35 inches and will sit just at the breast plate on most ladies. It was very popular to wear this length in pearls going back a few decades.

Oval Cut Diamond
An oval cut diamond is a new brilliant from just the 1950's and as its name suggest is a perfect oval with multiple facets that aims to accentuate its clarity and enhances its value. This diamond can be fitted into various accessories like rings, bracelets and necklaces.

Padlock Fastening
The Padlock fastening is very common in vintage pieces and is still used today with many belcher chain bracelet and necklace sets. The shackle usually connects the ends of a chain and when locked forms a closure, many are shaped as hearts with the love theme prevalent.

Parrot clasp
A parrot clasp is a mechanism used for securing chains and is usually spring loaded so when the item is put through a jump ring the parrots beak closes hard against the head forming a very steadfast closure. It is most commonly used with bracelets and necklaces.

Patina
Patina is a thin green layer that forms by oxidation on some surfaces made from bronze, copper, metals and even wood. Due to its jade green color, patina is sometimes regarded as adding to the aesthetic value of ornamental objects.

Pear Cut Diamond
Pear cut diamonds which are sometimes referred to as teardrops are cut in such a away as to give them the appearance of a round elongated pear shape. This cut tends to be reserved for large size stones and can also be the base of a heart shape by cutting out a cleft from the bottom.

Pearl
A pearl is a hard spherical entity usually a silvery white colour that forms inside the shell of a mollusc. Although it

Pendant Necklaces
A necklace can be made out of anything but the most common in classic jewellery is the chain and these can be stand alone or adorned with a Pendant. The pendant again can be anything but it is usually a focal piece that hangs down from the links under its own weight.

Peridot
Peridot is a semi-precious gemstone that has a bright olive green color and although similar in appearance to an emerald it is much more common and therefore has less value.

Plating
Plating is a process in which a conductive surface is covered with a metal in order to improve certain attributes of the involved items. Industrially, coating is used to alter the conductivity, friction and durability of a surface. Jewellers often plate accessories in gold or silver to improve their appeal.

Platinum
Platinum is a precious and very expensive metal that has a most remarkable resistance to corrosion even in extreme conditions and is therefore sometimes used to plate silver items so they won't tarnish.

Precious Four Gems
The precious four gems also named the

Precious Metal
A precious metal is the common term given to a metallic chemical element that is very rare and hard to find in nature. It is not only the scarcity of the metal that gives its value but also its beauty, resistance to corrosion and other unique properties.

Princess Cut Diamond
One of the more popular cuts of today the princess cut diamond has a square shape with multi facets and will resemble a pyramid when seen from below. Due to its angled corners it does tend to pick up dirt a little quicker than most however it can be cleaned easily.

Princess Length Necklace
This tends to be 45 to 50 cm in length or 18 to 20 inches in the old scale. It is so named because it is very popular with young ladies although now this length tends to be the most common for wearing with pendants on all ages. It will sit longer than a choker, about a hands width down from the throat.

Promise Ring
A promise ring marks a commitment to another person or a relationship, the most popular are pre-engagement rings that are offered as a gift between couples pending a marriage proposal.

Prong
Prongs are can be best described as small metal claw arms that are constructed in such a way to secure gemstones or other simulants. They are the most popular way to secure gems onto rings, earring or pendants as they can be constructed in such a way as to let in maximum light which can in turn be reflected out of the gem for that special sparkle.

Radiant Cut Diamond
A radiant cut diamond is best described as a square or rectangular brilliant cut with each corner shaved off, it is relatively new designed and a cross between a princess and cushion brilliant.

Rhinestone
An English translation of the French word

Rhodium Plate
Rhodium is a metal in the same family as the platinum group and shares similar characteristics including a silvery white look. It is often used to plate silver rings as being chemically inert it does not tarnish easily and will also not cause irritation to the skin, thus protecting the silvers appearance for much longer periods.

Rhodium
Is a silver like material that is usually more expensive than gold and is commonly used in plating of jewellery because of its tarnish resistant properties. In fact many fine silver pieces are finished with a fine coast of Rhodium to make it much more tarnish resistant.

Ring Size
A ring size is given by the measurement of its circumference. There are several standards for ring sizes such as the ISO, defining the circumference in millimetres, the American and Canadian standard, the Ireland - United Kingdom and Australia standard that uses the alphabetical scale and various European standards.