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Fit and Healthy solutions - Fitness glossary
Category: Health and Medicine > Fitness
Date & country: 21/01/2008, UK
Words: 183


Abduction
Movement of a limb away from middle of body, such as bringing arms to shoulder height from hanging down position.

Abs
Abbreviation for abdominal muscles.

Absolute Strength
The maximum amount a person can lift in one repetition.

Accommodating Resistance
Increasing resistance as lifters force increases through range of motion. Nautilus machines are said to provide accommodating resistance.

Acid-Base Balance
The mechanisms by which the pH of the body fluids are kept in a state of balance so that arterial blood is kept at a constant pH level of 7.35 to 7.45; The pH of blood is kept from becoming too acidic or alkaline through respiration, buffers, and work done by the kidney.

Acquired Ageing
The acquisition of characteristics commonly associated with ageing but that are, in fact, caused by immobility or sedentary living.

Active Stretch
Muscles are stretched using the contraction of the opposing muscle, (antagonist). For an example stretching the triceps, requires the biceps to contract.

ADP (Adenosine Diphospahate)
ADP is formed when ATP is broken down within the bodies cell furnace, (the mitochondria). This provides energy for muscular contraction.

Aerobic capacity
Another term for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 Max)

Aerobic Exercise, (with oxygen)
Activity in which the body is able to supply adequate oxygen to the working muscles, for a period of time. Running, cross-country skiing and cycling are examples of aerobic activities.

Agonist
Muscle directly engaged in contraction that is primarily responsible for movement of a body part.

All Natural
Athletes, especially body builders who can avoid using steroids or other banned substances.

All-or-None
Muscle fibre contracts fully or it does not contract at all.

Anabolic Steroid
Synthetic chemical that mimics the muscle building characteristics of the male hormone testosterone.

Anaerobic Threshold
The point at which you begin working your muscles without oxygen, from an aerobic level, believed to be at about 87% of your Maximum Heart Rate.

Angina Pectoris
Chest or arm pain resulting from reduced oxygen supply to the heart muscle.

Antagonist
Muscle that counteracts the agonist, lengthening when the agonist muscle contracts.

Anti - Catabolism
Supplements such as glutamine, used to prevent breakdown within the body, in order to promote muscle growth.

Arteriosclerosis
Hardening of the arteries due to conditions that cause the arterial walls to become thick, hard, and none elastic.

Arteriosclerosis
The deposition of materials along the arterial walls, a type of arteriosclerosis.

Assimilation
The process in which foods are utilized and absorbed by the body.

Atrophy
Decrease in size and functional ability of tissue or organs.

Baby's Butt
Indentation between the two heads of biceps muscles of a very muscular athlete.

Back Cycling
Cutting back on either number of sets, repetitions or amount of weight used during

Ballistic Stretch
A more vigorous stretch by using a swinging or bouncing motion suited only for conditioned athletes, especially in martial arts.

Barbell
Weight used for exercise, consisting of a rigid handle 5-7' long, with detachable metal discs at each end.

Bio mechanics
Science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on a human body and the effects produced by these forces.

Biochemical Reaction
The chemical reactions which take place within the human body.

Biological Value
A measure of protein quality in a given food.

Blood Pressure
The force exerted against heart and blood vessel walls by passing blood; When a blood pressure reading is taken, the systolic over diastolic value is determined. Systolic pressure is primarily caused by the heartbeat or contraction. The diastolic pressure is taken when the heart is filling with blood between beats. Blood pressure values vary appreciably depending on age, sex, and ethnicity. A typical adult reading may be 120mm Hg over 80mm Hg, stated 120 over 80. Blood pressures above 140 over 90 at rest are considered high; see diastolic and systolic.

Body Composition
A test or tests used to determine percentage of body fat; Examples, underwater or hydrostatic, skinfold, anthropometric, or electrical impedance.

Body mass index (BMI)
A number calculated using a persons height and mass, which gives a indication of total body fat content.

Bone density
Soundness of the bones within the body, low density can be a result of osteoporosis.

BPM
The units of heart rate, beats per minute.

Buffer
Substances that help reduce lactic acid build-up during strenuous exercise.

Bulking Up
Gaining body weight by adding muscle, body fat or both.

Burn
In endurance exercise, working muscles until lactic acid build-up causes burning sensation.

Calorie
A measure of energy from food. (3,500 kilocalories of food energy = 1 pound of body weight). Also the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1° C (1000 calories = 1 kilocalorie). An interesting fact: When we see 'Calories' on a food label it is actually measuring kilocalories.

Carbohydrate
Compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen used by the body as a fuel source. Two main groups are sugars and starch.

Carbohydrate Loading
Increase consumption of carbohydrates in liquid or food form normally three days prior to an endurance type event.

Cardiovascular Training
Physical conditioning that strengthens heart and blood vessels, the result of which is an increase in the ability for your body muscles to utilize fuel more effectively resulting in a greater level of exercising.

Catabolism
The breakdown of lean muscles mass, normally as a result of injury, immobilization and poor dieting techniques.

Cellulose
Indigestible fibre in foods.

Cheating
Too much weight used on an exercise, therefore relying on surrounding muscle groups for assistance in the movement; or changing joint angles for more leverage, as in arching back in bench press.

Chelating Agents
Soluble organic compounds that can fit certain metallic ions into their molecular structure.

Cholesterol
A fat lipid which has both good and bad implications within the human body. Good being known as HDL and bad being LDL. Bad cholesterol is associated with heart disease and stroke, whereas the body requires cholesterol for the production of many steroid hormones.

Chronic Disease
A disease or illness that is associated with lifestyle or environment factors as opposed to infectious diseases (hypo kinetic diseases are considered to be chronic diseases).

Clean
Lifting weight from floor to shoulder in one motion.

Coenzyme
A substance that works with an enzyme to promote the enzyme's activity.

Complete Proteins
Proteins that contain all the essential amino acids.

Compound Training
Sometimes called â€Å`giant setsâ€?; doing 3-4 exercises for same muscle, one after the other, with minimal rest in between.

Congestive Heart Failure
The inability of the heart muscle to pump the blood at a life sustaining rate.

Cool Down
Moderate then light activity, normally followed by stretching.

Coronary Circulation
Circulation of blood to the heart muscle associated with the blood carrying capacity of a specific vessel or development of collateral vessels (extra blood vessels).

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
Diseases of the heart muscle and the blood vessels that supply it with oxygen, including heart attack.

Coronary Occlusion
The blocking of the coronary blood vessels.

Creatine Phosphate
An inorganic phosphate molecule which binds with ADP and form ADT. Produced naturally within the body, however creatine mono hydrate supplements have helped a number of athletes boost their performances.

Curl Bar
Cambered bar designed for more comfortable grip and less forearm strain.

Cutting Up
Reducing body fat and water retention to increase muscle definition.

Deficiency
A sub optimal level of either one or more nutrients, often resulting in poor health.

Delts
Abbreviation for deltoids, the large triangular muscles of the shoulder which raise the arm away from the body and perform other functions.

Disease-Illness Prevention
Altering lifestyles and environmental factors with the intent of preventing or reducing the risk of various illnesses and diseases.

Disease-Illness Treatment
Altering lifestyles and use of medical procedures to aid in rehabilitation or reduction in symptoms or debilitation from a disease or illness.

Diuretic
A substance that aids the increase of urine excreted by the body.

DOMS Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness
A condition that is often felt after exercise, especially weight orientated, or excessive running. Caused by the micro tears within your muscles as part of the body rebuilding phase. Will generally last 24 / 72 hours, with feelings felt normally the day after exercise.

Double (Split Training) Routine
Working out twice a day to allow for shorter, more intense workouts. Usually performed by more advanced bodybuilders preparing for a contest.

Drying Out
Encouraging loss of body fluids by limiting fluid intake, eliminating salt, sweating heavily and/or using diuretics.

Easy Set
Exercise not close to maximum effort, as in a warm-up.

EFA's Essential Fatty Acids
Required by the body, however only obtainable from food sources, such as flaxseed oil and safflower oil.

Emotional Storm
A traumatic emotional experience that is likely to effect the human organism physiologically.

Endogenous
Naturally occurring body productions.

Endurance
Ability of a muscle to produce force continually over a period of time.

Enzyme
Helpful protein molecules, responsible for a multitude of chemical reactions within the body.

Ergogenic
Something that can increase muscular work capacity.

Exercise
Activity done for the purpose of keeping fit and healthy, or sociable in a group form like football.

Extension
Body part (i.e. hand, neck, trunk, etc.) going from a bent to a straight position, as in leg extension.

Fascia
Fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports and separates all muscles and muscle groups. It also unites skin with underlying tissue.

Fast Twitch
Refers to muscle cells that fire quickly and are utilized in anaerobic activities such as sprinting and power lifting.

Fat
Often referred to as lipids, or triglycerides, one of the main food groups, containing nine calories per gram. It serves a variety of functions in the body, however a high percentage of body fat has been proven to be bad for you.

Flex
Bend or decrease angle of a joint; contract a muscle.

Flexion
Bending in contrast to extending, as in leg flexion's.

Flush
Cleanse a muscle by increasing the blood supply to it, removing toxins left in muscle by exertion.

Forced Repetitions
Assistance to perform additional repetitions of an exercise when muscles can no longer complete movement on their own.

Free Radicals
Highly reactive molecules that possess unpaired electrons. Caused by a number of factors, look at Antioxidants for prevention.

Free Style Training
Training all body parts in one workout.

Free-Form Amino Acids
Structurally unlinked individual amino acids.

Full Spectrum Amino Acids
A supplement that contains all of the essential amino acids.

Glucagon
A hormone responsible for the regulation of blood sugar levels.

Glucose
The basic fuel of the body, the simplest sugar molecule and main sugar found in the blood stream.

Gluteals
Abbreviation for gluteus maximus, medius and minimus; the buttock muscles.

Glycemic Index (GI)
A measuring system to find the extent of which various foods raise the blood sugar level. The benchmark is white bread, which has a GI of 100. The higher the score, the greater the extents of blood sugar raise. E.g. Dextrose scores 138 (HIGH) whereas fructose 31

Glycogen
The principle form of carbohydrate energy (glucose) stored within the bodies muscles and liver.

Growth Hormone
A naturally released anabolic hormone by the pituitary gland. It promotes muscle growth and the breakdown of body fat for energy, unfortunately it is greatly reduced after the age of about 20.

Hand Off
Assistance in getting a weight to starting position for an exercise.

Hard Set
Perform a prescribed number of repetitions of an exercise using maximum effort.

Health and Wellness Promotion
Altering lifestyles and environmental factors with the intent of improving quality of life.

High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
A blood substance that picks up cholesterol and helps remove it from the body; often called â€Å`GOOD CHOLESTEROL.â€?

Hormones
Regulators of various biological processes through their ability to control the action of enzymes. Made from proteins, such as insulin for blood sugar control, or cholesterol for testosterone control.

Hyper kinetic Condition
A disease/illness or health condition caused or contributed by excessive exercise.

Hypertrophy
Increase in size of muscle fibre.