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Nutribase - Fish Meat Poultry Glossary
Category: Food and Drink > Fish Meat and Poultry
Date & country: 13/09/2007, USA
Words: 266


Salami
Any of a family of boldly seasoned sausages similar to 'cervelats,' except that they tend to contain more garlic and are coarser and drier than cervelats. Salamis are rarely smoked. 'Pepperoni' is a popular type of salami.

Salisbury Steak
A ground beef patty seasoned with onions and seasonings before it is broiled or fried and served with gravy. Named after Dr. J. H. Salisbury who recommended eating a lot of beef for a wide variety of ailments.

Salmon
Perhaps the best-known of all fish, pictures of salmon from 12,000 B.C. have been found. Salmon migrate from the seas into freshwater to spawn. Over the years, some varieties have become landlocked in lakes.

Sardine
The name describing several varieties of weak-boned fish including the Alewife, French Sardine, Herring, and Sprat. Named after the French island of Sardina. Often salted, smoked, or canned and packed in oil, tomato, or mustard sauce.

Sausage
Basically, sausage is ground meat with fat, salt, seasonings, preservatives, and sometimes fillers. They may be smoked, fresh, dry or semi-dry, uncooked, partially cooked, or fully cooked. There are thousands of variations of sausage.

Scallop
A bivalve mollusk with a ribbed, fan-shaped shell. In U.S. markets, only the adductor muscle, which opens and closes the shell is available. The Bay scallop is smaller, sweeter and a bit more succulent that their deep sea counterparts.

Scampi
The Italian name for the tail portion of any of several varieties of miniature lobsters. In the U.S., the term refers to large shrimp that are split and brushed in a garlic oil or butter, then broiled. 'Scampo' is the singular form.

Scrod
Scrod is the name for young cod (and haddock) that weight less that 2.5 pounds. It is a popular fish from the Pacific and the North Atlantic with a lean, firm, white flesh. 'Haddock,' 'hake,' and 'pollock' are close relatives of the cod.

Scup
Also know as 'porgie' or 'sea bream.' These fish are generally lean, and coarse-grained. Scup is often grilled, poached, and pan-fried.

Sea Bass
A term used to describe a number of lean to moderately fat marine fish, most of which aren't actually members of the bass family. 'Striped bass' and 'Black Sea bass' are true bass. The 'white sea bass' is a member of the drum family.

Sea Bream
Also know as 'scup.' These marine fish are generally lean, and coarse-grained. Sea bream is often grilled, poached, and pan-fried.

Sea Devil
This large low-fat, firm-textured salt-water fish has a mild, sweet flavor that compares with lobster. Also called 'angler fish' 'monkfish,' and 'goosefish.'

Sea Perch
This important commercial fish is a member of the rockfish group. Also known as 'ocean perch,' although it is not a true perch.

Sea Trout
An anadromous (spawns in fresh water) brown trout that spends part to its life cycle in the sea. Sea trout have meat that is pink to red in color and is very comparable to salmon. May be prepared any way appropriate for salmon.

Shad
Small, delicate saltwater fish related to the alewife, herring, and sardine. They are larger than herrings and spawn in fresh water. Some species of shad have been landlocked and live in freshwater lakes.

Shark
A flavorful, low-fat fish that includes varieties such as Leopard, Mako, Spiny Dogfish, Soupfin and Thresher. Shark meat tends to have an ammonia-like smell that can be eliminated by soaking the flesh in milk or acidulated water.

Sheepshead
A saltwater fish belonging to the wrasse family. Also called 'California Sheephead,' 'Fathead,' and 'Redhead.' Its meat is white, tender, and lean.

Shrimp
American's most valuable and popular shellfish. This ten-legged crustacean got its name from English word 'shrimpe,' which means 'puny person.'

Silver Hake
A small gray and white saltwater fish that is also called the 'whiting.' This low-fat fish, which is related to both the 'cod' and the 'hake,' has a tender white fine-textured flesh and a flaky, delicate flavor.

Silver Salmon
This high-fat variety of salmon provides a firm-textured, pink to orange-red flesh. Also called the 'coho salmon.'

Sirloin
A cut of beef that lies between the Short Loin (very tender) and the Round (much tougher).

Skate
This kite-shaped fish features edible fins. The flesh is firm, white, and sweet, similar to the texture and taste of scallop. Also called 'Skate.'

Skil
This saltwater fish has a soft-textured flesh and a mild flavor. Its high fat content makes it a good fish for smoking. Also 'black cod' and 'sablefish,' although it is not a cod.

Skipjack Tuna
Also called the 'oceanic bonito,' 'watermelon,' and 'Arctic bonito,' this small tuna (6 to 8 pounds) has a light-colored meat similar to yellowfin. The Japanese call this fish 'katsuo' and the Hawaiians call it 'aku.'

Smelt
A rich and oily mild-flavored fish. Popular varieties of smelt include 'Eulachon' and 'Whitebait.' The eulachon is called the 'candlefish' because Indians sometimes run a wick through their high-fat flesh and use them for candles.

Snail
Popular since prehistoric times, the snail was greatly favored by ancient Romans who set aside special vineyards where snails could feed and fatten.

Snapper
There are a few hundred species of this lean, firm-textured saltwater fish, 15 or so which are available in the U.S. The most popular snapper is the 'red snapper.' Some species of rockfish and tilefish are called snappers, but are not.

Sockeye Salmon
Prized for canning, the sockeye salmon has a firm, red flesh. Also known as the 'redeye salmon.'

Softshell Crab
The 'soft-shell crab' is actually the blue crab caught just after molting (discarding its shell). This crab is found along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. It is sold in both its soft and hard-shell stages.

Sole
A popular flatfish with a delicate flesh with a firm, fine texture. The best-known variety is 'Dover sole' (also called 'channel sole).' Much of what is sold as 'sole' in the U.S. is actually a variety of flounder, which isn't a true sole.

Souse Loaf
Well-cooked pig's head and feet that are chopped into small pieces, marinated in lime juice, chili pepper and salt, then pressed into a loaf.

Spot
A small fish (approximately 1.5 pounds) belonging to the drum family. In 1925, these fish appeared in New York harbor in such vast numbers that they clogged the condenser pumps of the electric company and caused a blackout.

Squab
A young domesticated pigeon that has never flown and is therefore very tender. Squabs are normally under a pound and about 4 weeks old. May be prepared in any manner suitable for chicken.

Squid
This ten-armed cephalopod is related to the octopus and the cuttlefish. Squid varies in size from 1 inch to 80 feet in length. The meat is firm and chewy, with a somewhat sweet flavor. Over-cooking can lead to a rubbery texture.

Squirrel
An abundant, largely arboreal rodent. Red and gray squirrels are commonly eaten in the U.S. The gray squirrel is fatter and has a flavor considered by many as superior to the red squirrel. Squirrels do not have a strong 'gamey' taste.

Striped Bass
This true bass is found along the Atlantic coast. It features six to eight horizontal stripes and provides a moderately fat, firm flesh with a mild, sweet flavor.

Stroganoff
A dish of thinly sliced beef (usually tenderloin or top loin), onions, and mushrooms sautéed in a combination of butter and sour-cream sauce. Often served with a rice pilaf. Invented by Count Paul Stroganoff in the 19th century.

Sturgeon
A name for various migratory species of fish know for its rich, high-fat flavor, firm texture, and excellent roe. Their average weight is 60 pounds, but one freshwater 'Beluga' sturgeon was 26 feet long and weighed 3,221 pounds.

Sucker
A name popularly applied to various types of freshwater fish closely related to carp. Suckers live and feed near the bottoms of streams. They may be cooked in any way appropriate for other fish.

Sunfish
Any of a number of North American freshwater fish closely related to the perch. Known for their bright, sunny colors and interesting shapes, popular varieties include 'Bluegill,' 'Crappie,' and 'Calico Bass,' commonly called 'Sunnies.'

Surimi
Imitation crab meat processed from fish.

Swedish Meatballs
A combination of ground meat (often a combination of beef, pork, or veal), sautéed onions, milk-soaked breadcrumbs, beaten eggs, and seasonings. The mixture is formed into small balls, then sautéed until brown.

Swiss Steak
Round or chuck steak that has been tenderized by pounding, coated with flour, and browned on both sides. The meat is then smothered in chopped tomatoes, onions, carrots, celery, broth, and seasonings, then baked for about two hours.

Swordfish
A saltwater food and sport fish with mild-flavored, moderately fat flesh. The flesh is red, dense, and meat-like. Thanks to its firmness, swordfish can be prepared by baking, broiling, grilling, poaching, or sautéing.

Tarpon
A large, powerful game fish from the warmer waters of the Atlantic Ocean.

Terrapin
This eight-inch long freshwater turtle is considered by many to have the best meat among turtles. Its flesh is often pounded and served like steak.

Thuringer Cervelat
A fresh, smoked sausage named after the former German region of Thuringia. Coriander (also called 'cilantro') is an important spice used in this variety of sausage.

Tilefish
This low-fat Atlantic fish is delicately flavored and has a flesh that is firm yet tender. Available fresh and frozen, in steaks and fillets. Suitable for just about any cooking method.

Torsk
A large saltwater fish related to the cod. It has a firm, lean flesh. Also called 'cusk.'

Tripe
The stomach lining of beef, pork, or sheep. Beef tripe is the most commonly available. Tripe is tough and requires long cooking. It is the prime ingredient for menudo (tripe soup).

Trout
A delicately flavored fish that belongs to the same family as salmon and whitefish. Most are freshwater, but some are marine (sea trout). The very popular 'rainbow trout' has been transplanted from California to many different countries.

Tuna
A saltwater fish related to the mackerel. Probably the most popular fish used in canning today. Tunas have a distinctive rich-flavored flesh that is moderately high in fat and has a firmly textured flaky but tender flesh.

Turkey
An American game bird from the pheasant family that has been domesticated. Self-basting turkeys have been injected with butter or vegetable oil. 'Roaster-fryers' (6 8 lb. birds), are becoming more popular for everyday fare.

Turtle
Any of several varieties of shelled reptiles that live on land, in freshwater, or in the sea. Turtles can weigh over 1,000 pounds. Sea or Green Turtles are best known as food.

Tusk
A large saltwater fish related to the cod. It has a firm, lean flesh. Also called 'cusk.'

Veal
Calves that are slaughtered from 13 months of age. 'Milk-fed' veal are unweaned calves. 'Bob veal' is under a month old; 'baby beef' is 6 12 months old. To keep their flesh from darkening, these animals are not fed grains or grasses.

Venison
This term covers the meat from antelope, caribou, elk, deer, moose, and reindeer. Venison is probably the most popular large game meat eaten today.

Vienna Sausage
A small frankfurter, often served as an hors d'oeuvre.

Water Buffalo
A buffalo native to the Old World tropics with large flattened horns. Also called 'water ox.'

Whelk
A large marine snail that belongs to the mollusk family. The flavorful foot-like muscle is rather tough and must be tenderized by pounding. Look for whelk in Chinese or Italian markets or specialty food stores.

Whitefish
A high-fat, mild-flavored member of the salmon family with a firm white flesh. The whitefish can be poached, baked, broiled, grilled, pan fried, or stuffed. Its roe (eggs) can be cooked or made into caviar by adding salt.

Whiting
A small gray and white saltwater fish sometimes called the 'silver hake.' This low-fat fish, which is related to both the 'cod' and the 'hake,' has a tender white fine-textured flesh and a flaky, delicate flavor.

Wolf Fish
A firm, white-fleshed saltwater fish with a large head, strong jaws, and sharp canine teeth and molars that can grind clams, whelks, and other mollusks. Sometimes sold in the U.S. under the confusing name of 'ocean catfish.'

Yankee Pot Roast
A 'pot roast' is a piece of chuck or round cut that is browned, then braised very slowly in a covered pot with a little liquid. A 'Yankee pot roast' includes vegetables that are added part way through the cooking process.

Yellowfin Tuna
These tuna reach about 300 pounds in weight. They feature a pale pink flesh that is relatively mild. Also called 'ahi.'

Yellowtail
A large game fish (up to 100 pounds) from the jack family with a flavor and texture resembling tuna. May be prepared in any manner suitable for tuna.