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Nutribase - Fish Meat Poultry Glossary
Category: Food and Drink > Fish Meat and Poultry
Date & country: 13/09/2007, USA
Words: 266


Goatfish
Goatfish is so named because of its two long 'whiskers' that resemble a goat's whiskers. The meat is firm and lean. This fish is normally available only on the East Coast and through the Florida Keys.

Goose
Any of many species of fatty, web-footed wild or domesticated birds that are larger than ducks. The female is the 'goose,' the male is called the 'gander.' Roasted goose is traditional holiday fare in many European countries.

Goosefish
This large low-fat, firm-textured salt-water fish has a mild, sweet flavor that compares with lobster. Also called 'angler fish,' and 'monkfish.'

Ground Beef, Extra Lean
Also called 'ground round' or 'ground sirloin, this type of ground beef contains approximately 11% fat.

Ground Beef, Lean
Also called 'ground chuck.' The fat content is approximately 15% to 20%. This form of ground beef is flavorful, yet doesn't shrink excessively--it's the favorite choice for making hamburgers.

Ground Beef, Regular
This form of ground beef is usually made from the lower cost cuts such as brisket or shank. The fat content is up to 30%.

Grouper
This true sea bass, found in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic, has a lean firm flesh. Its skin has a strong flavor and should be removed prior to cooking. Groupers have the ability to change to the color of their surroundings.

Grouse
A small, low-fat game bird. Quality birds should have no odor.

Guinea Fowl
A relative to the chicken and partridge, the female (hen) makes better eating than the male. The taste has been described as 'pleasantly gamey.' Guinea fowl were raised and eaten by the Greeks and Romans.

Haddock
A North Atlantic fish, the smaller cousin to the cod. The haddock has firm white flesh that is mild in flavor. Smoked haddock is called 'finnan.'

Hake
This low-fat saltwater fish, related to the cod, is found in the Atlantic and North Pacific. It's flesh features a white, delicate flavor.

Halibut
A low-fat, firm white and mild-flavored fish from the flatfish family. Resembles a gigantic flounder. 'Chicken Halibuts' weigh up to ten pounds and are considered the finest halibut.

Ham
The hind leg of a hog. The taste of ham is affected by the age and breed of the hog, as well as by the food that the hog was fed. The unprocessed meat is called 'fresh ham,' but most ham is cured.

Hamburger
Ground beef formed into a patty for use in a hamburger sandwich. The best type of ground beef to use for this purpose is lean ground beef, which contains about 15% to 20% fat.

Head Cheese
This is not a cheese, but a sausage made from the edible parts of a calf's or pig's head that are combined with a gelatinous meat broth. Ingredients include cheeks, snouts, underlips and sometimes brains, hearts, tongues, and feet.

Heart
The heart of most animals and birds are used in cooking. Some say that the best hearts are calf's or lamb's hearts. Hearts are sometimes stuffed with breadcrumbs and herbs or used in making gravies.

Herring
A small salt-water fish related to the shad, alewife, sardine, and the freshwater cisco. Herring is often pickled, smoked, and dressed in numerous sauces.

Hog Maws
A pig's stomach, often stuffed with a sausage mixture, simmered, then baked.

Horse Meat
Taboo for Jews, horse meat is eaten in many parts of the world, particularly France and Belgium. The flesh is on the sweet side and can be mistaken for beef if flavored with garlic or some other strong herb. May be cooked like beef.

Italian Sausage
A popular pizza topping consisting of pork flavored with garlic and fennel. Available in sweet and hot styles, the latter of which contains hot peppers.

Jerky
Meat that is cut into long, narrow, strips then dried. Beef is the most commonly used meat for jerky. Also known as 'Jerked Meat.'

Kamoboko
A variety of Japanese fish paste cake.

Katsuo
This small tuna (6 to 8 pounds) has a light-colored meat similar to yellowfin. 'Katsuo' is the Japanese name for this fish. The Hawaiians call it 'aku.'

Kidney
The kidneys are a pair of glandular organs in the abdominal cavities of mammals and reptiles. Calf's and lamb's kidneys are amongst the most delicate. Pig's kidneys are larger and coarser and make good pâtés.

Kielbasa
A highly seasoned smoked sausage of Polish origin made from pork and (sometimes) beef. It is flavored with garlic and other spices. Can be served cold or hot.

King Crab
A giant crab that can grow up to 10 feet, claw-to-claw. It has snowy white meat edged in red. Because their numbers are rapidly decreasing, the catch is rigidly quota-controlled.

King Salmon
Considered the finest Pacific salmon. This high-fat, soft textured fish can reach up to 120 pounds. Also called the 'Chinook Salmon.'

Kingfish
Any of several varieties of drum found along the Atlantic coast.

Kippered Snack
Herring that is split, cured by salting, drying, and cold-smoking. Also called 'Kippered Herring' and 'Kippers.'

Knackwurst
A smoked and cooked sausage made from beef and/or pork. It is shorter and larger in diameter than a frank and is strongly seasoned with garlic.

Kolbassy
A highly seasoned smoked sausage of Polish origin made from pork and (sometimes) beef. It is flavored with garlic and other spices. Can be served cold or hot. Also called 'polish sausage' or 'Kielbassa.'

Lake Herring
One of the most prized whitefish found in the Great Lakes and in Canada. May be prepared in any manner suitable for salmon. Also called 'cisco' and 'chub.'

Lamb
A sheep under 1 year old. 'Baby lamb' in slaughtered at between 6 8 weeks of age, 'spring lamb' at 3 5 months, 'regular lamb' at under one year. Lamb over 1 year old is 'mutton' and is less tender and has a stronger flavor than lamb.

Langostino
The Spanish word for 'prawn.'

Lingcod
A North American Pacific coast fish with a mildly sweet flavor and a firm, lean texture.

Liver
This nutritious organ meat filters toxins from the blood. Select the youngest liver you can find. Poultry generally offers the mildest flavored and most tender livers; pork has the strongest and toughest liver of those commonly available.

Liverwurst
German for 'liver sausage.' Liverwurst is a ready-to-eat sausage of at least 30% ground pork liver plus other meats combined with spices and seasonings. The most famous liverwurst is called 'Braunschweiger.'

Lobster
This crustacean was used as bait until around 1880. Because dead lobsters spoil quickly, they should be cooked live if possible. (Live lobsters curl their tails under when picked up.) Look for curled tails on precooked lobsters.

London Broil
A flank steak that has been cut into large pieces, tenderized by marinating, broiled or grilled, then sliced into thin strips across the grain before it is served.

Lotte
This large low-fat, firm-textured salt-water fish has a mild, sweet flavor that compares with lobster. Sometimes referred to as 'poor man's lobster.' Also called 'angler fish,' 'monkfish,' and 'goosefish.'

Mackerel
A long, slender saltwater fish. The flesh is firm and fatty, with a distinctive savory flavor. The most popular mackerel is the king mackerel, also known as the 'kingfish.'

Mackerel, King
Also called the 'kingfish,' this is the most popular variety of mackerel. This fish has a firm, high-fat flesh with a savory flavor.

Mackerel, Pacific
Also called the 'chub,' this species of Pacific mackerel is also found in the Mediterranean. Like other mackerels, this fish is fatty and has a strong flavor.

Mahi Mahi
Also called 'dolphin fish.' Although this fish is a dolphin, it is not a mammal. To avoid this confusion, the Hawaiian name 'Mahi Mahi' is becoming prevalent. This fish is moderately fat with firm, flavorful flesh.

Meatball
Chopped meat formed into balls and cooked. Additional ingredients are sometimes added to the meat.

Milkfish
An important food fish of the Indo-Pacific region that offers a tender, white flesh. Hawaiians use milkfish for making fish cakes and sashimi. Also called 'awa.'

Monkfish
This large low-fat, firm-textured salt-water fish has a mild, sweet flavor similar to lobster. Sometimes referred to as 'poor man's lobster.' Also called 'Angler,' 'Lotte,' 'Belly-Fish,' 'frogfish,' 'Sea Devil,' and 'Goosefish.'

Moochim
A Korean-style dried fish with soy sauce.

Moose
A large member of the deer family with enormous palmate antlers. Moose meat is called 'venison.' Antelope, caribou, elk, deer, and reindeer meat is also classified as venison, the most popular large animal game meat in the U.S.

Mortadella
A smoked sausage from Bologna, Italy, the city that brought us 'bologna' sausage. Made from finely ground beef, pork, cubes of pork fat, and seasonings.

Mullet
This term is used to describe several families of important food fish. In general, they are saltwater fish with a moderate to high fat content and flesh that is tender, white, and firm textured. They have a sweet, nut-like flavor.

Muskellunge
A freshwater pike that averages between 10 and 30 pounds. Some specimens, however have reached 60 pounds and up to six feet in length. Muskellunge offers a lean, firm, low-fat flesh.

Muskrat
Also known as a 'marsh rabbit' and 'musquash,' this animal is a large, aquatic, North American rodent with a red, gamey flesh. Muskrat has a lot of bones, but it makes a good stew.

Mussel
A bivalve mollusk with worldwide distribution. There are salt and freshwater varieties. The thin shell means there is more meat compared to the same weight of clams or oysters. The yellow meat has a sweet and delicate flavor.

Muttonfish
A marine fish of the eelpout family found mainly in the Pacific. The flesh is sweet and white and contains very few bones. Also called 'ocean pout.'

Norway Haddock
This important commercial fish is a member of the rockfish group. Also known as 'ocean perch,' although it is not a true perch.

Ocean Perch
This important commercial fish is not a true perch, but is rather a member of the rockfish group. Also known as 'sea perch.'

Ocean Pout
A marine fish of the eelpout family found mainly in the Pacific. The flesh is sweet and white and contains very few bones. Sometimes called a 'muttonfish.'

Oceanic Bonito
This small tuna (6 to 8 pounds) has a light-colored meat similar to yellowfin. The Japanese call this fish 'katsuo' and the Hawaiians call it 'aku.'

Octopus
This cephalapod, related to the squid and the cuttlefish, can reach 50 feet in length. It features a highly flavorful meat that tends to be a bit on the rubbery side. Octopus is eaten raw, boiled, pickled, sautéed, and fried.

Ono
The Hawaiian name for 'Wahoo,' a marine fish whose flesh compares favorably with Albacore. It provides a moderate to high-fat flesh that is white and slightly sweet. In Hawaii, 'Ono' means 'sweet.'

Opossum
A cat-sized marsupial with a prehensile tail native to the Southern and Midwestern U.S. Opossum, which has a flavor resembling young pig, can be prepared in the same manner suitable for a roast suckling pig.

Orange Roughy
A New Zealand area fish with lean, white flesh that is firm and mild. Also called 'Slimeheads' (by fishermen--not by fish vendors). This popular fish can be poached, baked, broiled, or fried.

Oyster
A bivalve mollusk with a rough gray shell. The flesh varies from creamy beige to pale gray; the flavor from salty to bland; the texture from tender to firm. The Atlantic or Eastern oysters are considered superior to Pacific varieties.

Parrot Fish
Any of various chiefly tropical marine fish, especially those of the family Scaridae. These fish are called parrot fish because of the brilliant coloring and the shape of their jaws. 'Also called 'Pollyfish.'

Pastrami
A highly seasoned preserved meat made from beef dry-cured with salt or saltpeter. The seasonings include garlic, ground pepper, cinnamon, red peppers, cloves, allspice and coriander seeds. Commonly served as a sandwich on rye bread.

Pâté
A well-seasoned French preparation using a meat or fish paste filling. Sometimes a fruit or vegetable mixture is used. Can be smooth or coarsely textured. Pâtés may be served hot or cold, usually as a first course or appetizer.

Pepper Steak
A beefsteak sprinkled with black pepper, sautéed in butter and served with a sauce made from the drippings, stock, wine, and cream. Also refers to a Chinese stir-fry of steak strips, green peppers, and onion cooked in soy sauce.

Pepperoni
A highly spiced dry sausage made of pork and beef. Seasoned with salt, black pepper, cayenne, and garlic. Often thin sliced and served as an appetizer or as a topping for pizzas.

Perch
Any of a number of spiny-finned freshwater fish found in North America and Europe. The best known U.S. perch is the 'yellow perch.' Perch have a mild, firm, low-fat flesh. The saltwater white perch and ocean perch are not true perches.

Pheasant
A medium-sized game bird related to the partridge and the quail. The female's flesh is plumper, juicier, and more tender. Farm-raised birds have a somewhat milder flavor than wild varieties.

Pickerel
A small (between two and three pound) variety of the freshwater pike. Pickerel are know for their lean, firm flesh.

Pig's Feet
The feet and ankles of a pig. Available fresh, pickled, and smoked. Fresh and smoked pig's feet are used in sauces, soups, and stews. Pig's feet are called 'trotters' in England.

Pigeon
A widely distributed bird that is normally eaten only when young. Squabs are young pigeons that have never flown are therefore very tender. Squabs are normally under a pound and about 4 weeks old. May be prepared like chicken.

Pike
A family of fish that includes the pike, pickerel, and the muskellunge. These freshwater fish have long bodies, pointed heads, vicious teeth, and provide a lean, firm, bony flesh. Used in French 'quenelles' and the Jewish 'gefilte fish.'

Pink Salmon
A lower fat variety of salmon. Also called the 'humpback salmon.'

Polish Sausage
Also called 'kielbasa,' this is a highly seasoned smoked sausage of Polish origin made from pork and (sometimes) beef. It is flavored with garlic an other spices. It can be served cold or hot.

Pollack
This low to moderate fat fish has firm, white, flesh with a delicate, somewhat sweet flavor. Pollack is often used to make imitation crab meat. Also known as 'Coalfish' or 'Saithe,' this saltwater fish is a member of the cod family.

Pollyfish
Any of various chiefly tropical marine fish, especially those of the family Scaridae. These fish are called parrot fish because of the brilliant coloring and the shape of their jaws. 'Also called 'parrot fish.'

Pomfret
This small, high-fat fish has a tender texture and a rich, sweet flavor. Found off the coast of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, this fish is also called the 'butterfish.'

Pompano
This saltwater fish is a succulent, fine-textured fish with a mild delicate flavor. This expensive, moderately fat fish is considered by many experts as America's finest fish.

Porgy
Also know as 'Scup' or 'Porgie.' These saltwater fish are generally lean, and coarse-grained. Porgy is often grilled, poached, and pan-fried.

Pork
The flesh of domestic swine. Today's pork is leaner (1/3 fewer calories) and higher in protein than a decade ago. And with improved feeding techniques, trichinosis has become extremely rare. Most pork is slaughtered at 6 to 9 months.

Pork Chitterlings
The small intestines of freshly slaughtered pigs. They are cleaned and simmered until tender. Chitterlings are served with sauce, added to soups, battered and fried, and used as sausage casings.

Potted Meat
A meat that has been cooked and ground to a fine paste, lightly seasoned, and packed.

Prosciutto
An unsmoked, seasoned, salt-cured, and air-dried ham. The meat is pressed to produce a firm texture, then sliced very thin. 'Parma ham' is the true prosciutto. 'Prosciutto cotto' is cooked ham, 'Prosciutto crudo' is raw.

Quail
A small game bird of the partridge family that resembles a small, plump chicken. Known also as 'bobwhites' and 'partridges.' The flesh is white and delicately flavored. Most quail today are raised on bird farms.

Rabbit
Rabbit meat is mostly white, fine textured and mildly flavored. Domesticated rabbit is generally plumper and less strongly flavored that wild rabbits. Rabbit can be prepared in any manner suitable for chicken.

Raccoon
A North American mammal that served as an important food source for pioneers. The flesh is mostly dark meat, and the fat is strong in flavor and aroma. Young raccoons are usually roasted; older raccoons should be braised or stewed.

Ray
This kite-shaped fish features edible fins. The fish is firm, white, and sweet; similar to the texture and taste of scallop. Also known as a 'Ray.'

Red Perch
This important commercial fish is a member of the rockfish group. Also known as 'ocean perch,' although it is not a true perch.

Red Snapper
This is the most popular of a few hundred species of snapper. This is a lean, firm-textured saltwater fish. Some species of rockfish and tilefish are also called snappers, but are not.

Redeye Salmon
Prized for canning, the sockeye salmon has a firm, red flesh. Also known as the 'sockeye salmon.'

Redfish
This important commercial fish is a member of the rockfish group. Also known as 'ocean perch,' although it is not a true perch.

Redhead
A saltwater fish belonging to the wrasse family. Also called 'California Sheesphead.' Its meat is white, tender, and lean.

Ribeye Steak
A tender, flavorful beef steak that comes from the rib section between the chuck and the short loin.

Rockfish
A low-fat fish of the Pacific Coast. There are two categories: the elongated varieties are milder and softer, and include Yellowtail and Goldeneye. The more full-flavored deep-bodied types include Bocaccio, Chilipepper, and Shortbelly.

Roe
A seafood delicacy with two varieties: 'Hard roe' is the female fish's eggs. 'Soft roe' (also called 'white roe') is the milt (male reproductive glands filled with seminal fluid) of the male fish. Salted roe is called 'caviar.'

Rosefish
This important commercial fish is a member of the rockfish group. Also known as 'ocean perch,' although it is not a true perch.

Sablefish
This saltwater fish has a soft-textured flesh and a mild flavor. Its high fat content makes it a good fish for smoking. Called 'Alaskan cod,' 'Black Cod,' 'Butterfish,' and 'Skil,' although it is neither a cod nor a butterfish.