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Illinois Brick - Brickwork terms
Category: Architecture and Buildings > Buildings
Date & country: 24/09/2013, US
Words: 208


ABSORPTION
The weight of water a brick unit absorbs, when immersed in either cold or boiling water for a stated length of time. Expressed as a percentage of the weight of the dry unit. See ASTM Specification C 67.

Acid-Resistant Brick
Brick suitable for use in contact with chemicals, usually in conjunction with acid-resistant mortars.

ADMIXTURES
Materials added to mortar to impart special properties to the mortar.

Adobe Brick
Large roughly-molded, sun-dried clay brick of varying size.

ANCHOR
A piece or assemblage, usually metal, used to attach building parts (e.g., plates, joists, trusses, etc.) to masonry or masonry materials.

Angle Brick
Any brick shaped to an oblique angle to fit a salient corner.

ANSI
American National Standards Institute.

Apron Wall
That part of a panel wall between window sill and wall support.

ARCH
A curved compressive structural member, spanning openings or recesses; also built flat.

Arch Brick
1. Wedge-shaped brick for special use in an arch. 2. Extremely hard-burned brick from an arch of a scove kiln.

Area Wall
1. The masonry surrounding or partly surrounding an area. 2. The retaining wall around basement windows below grade.

ASHLAR MASONRY
Masonry composed of rectangular units of burned clay or shale, or stone, generally larger in size than brick and properly bonded, having sawed, dressed or squared beds, and joints laid in mortar. Often the unit size varies to provide a random pattern, random ashlar.

ASHRAE
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

ASTM
American Society for Testing and Materials.

Back Arch
A concealed arch carrying the backing of a wall where the exterior facing is carried by a lintel.

BACK FILLING
1. Rough masonry built behind a facing or between two faces. 2. Filling over the extrados of an arch. 3. Brickwork in spaces between structural timbers, sometimes called brick nogging.

BACKUP
That part of a masonry wall behind the exterior facing.

BAT
A piece of brick.

BATTER
Recessing or sloping masonry back in successive courses; the opposite of corbel.

Bearing Wall
One which supports a vertical load in addition to its own weight.

BED JOINT
The horizontal layer of mortar on which a masonry unit is laid.

BELT COURSE
A narrow horizontal course of masonry, sometimes slightly projected such as window sills which are made continuous. Sometimes called string course or sill course.

Blind Header
A concealed brick header in the interior of a wall, not showing on the faces.

BLOCKING
A method of bonding two adjoining or intersecting walls, not built at the same time, by means of offsets whose vertical dimensions are not less than 8 in.

BOND
1. Tying various parts of a masonry wall by lapping units one over another or by connecting with metal ties. 2. Patterns formed by exposed faces of units. 3. Adhesion between mortar or grout and masonry units or reinforcement.

BOND BEAM
Course or courses of a masonry wall grouted and usually reinforced in the horizontal direction. Serves as horizontal tie of wall, bearing course for structural members or as a flexural member itself.

BOND COURSE
The course consisting of units which overlap more than one wythe of masonry.

BONDER
A bonding unit. See Header.

BREAKING JOINTS
Any arrangement of masonry units which prevents continuous vertical joints from occurring in adjacent courses.

BRICK
A solid masonry unit of clay or shale, formed into a rectangular prism while plastic and burned or fired in a kiln.

BRICK AND BRICK
A method of laying brick so that units touch each other with only enough mortar to fill surface irregularities.

BRICK GRADE
Designation for durability of the unit expressed as SW for severe weathering, MW for moderate weathering, or NW for negligible weathering. See ASTM Specifications C 216, C 62 and C 652.

BRICK TYPE
Designation for facing brick which controls tolerance, chippage and distortion. Expressed as FBS, FBX and FBA for solid brick, and HBS, HBX, HBA and HBB for hollow brick. See ASTM Specifications C 216 and C 652.

Building Brick
Brick for building purposes not especially treated for texture or color. Formerly called common brick. See ASTM Specification C 62.

BUTTERING
Placing mortar on a masonry unit with a trowel.

C/B RATIO
The ratio of the weight of water absorbed by a masonry unit during immersion in cold water to weight absorbed during immersion in boiling water. An indication of the probable resistance of brick to freezing and thawing. Also called saturation coefficient. See ASTM Specification C 67.

CAPACITY INSULATION
The ability of masonry to store heat as a result of its mass, density and specific heat.

Cavity Wall
A wall built of masonry units so arranged as to provide a continuous air space within the wall (with or without insulating material), and in which the inner and outer wythes of the wall are tied together with metal ties.

CENTERING
Temporary formwork for the support of masonry arches or lintels during construction. Also called center(s).

CERAMIC COLOR GLAZE
An opaque colored glaze of satin or gloss finish obtained by spraying the clay body with a compound of metallic oxides, chemicals and clays. It is burned at high temperatures, fusing glaze to body making them inseparable. See ASTM Specification C 126.

CHASE
A continuous recess built into a wall to receive pipes, ducts, etc.

CLAY
A natural, mineral aggregate consisting essentially of hydrous aluminum silicate; it is plastic when sufficiently wetted, rigid when dried and vitrified when fired to a sufficiently high temperature.

CLAY MORTAR-MIX
Finely ground clay used as a plasticizer for masonry mortars.

CLEAR CERAMIC GLAZE
Same as Ceramic Color Glaze except that it is translucent or slightly tinted, with a gloss finish.

Clinker Brick
A very hard-burned brick whose shape is distorted or bloated due to nearly complete vitrification.

CLIP
A portion of a brick cut to length.

Clipped Header
A bat placed to look like a header for purposes of establishing a pattern. Also called a false header.

CLOSER
The last masonry unit laid in a course. It may be whole or a portion of a unit.

CLOSURE
Supplementary or short length units used at corners or jambs to maintain bond patterns.

COLLAR JOINT
The vertical, longitudinal joint between wythes of masonry.

COLUMN
A vertical member whose horizontal dimension measured at right angles to the thickness does not exceed three times its thickness.

Common Brick
See Building Brick.

Composite Wall
A multiple-wythe wall in which at least one of the wythes is dissimilar to the other wythe or wythes with respect to type or grade of masonry unit or mortar

COPING
The material or masonry units forming a cap or finish on top of a wall, pier, pilaster, chimney, etc. It protects masonry below from penetration of water from above.

CORBEL
A shelf or ledge formed by projecting successive courses of masonry out from the face of the wall.

COURSE
One of the continuous horizontal layers of units, bonded with mortar in masonry.

CULLS
Masonry units which do not meet the standards or specifications and have been rejected.

Curtain Wall
An exterior non-loadbearing wall not wholly supported at each story. Such walls may be anchored to columns, spandrel beams, floors or bearing walls, but not necessarily built between structural elements.

DAMP COURSE
A course or layer of impervious material which prevents capillary entrance of moisture from the ground or a lower course. Often called damp check.

DAMPPROOFING
Prevention of moisture penetration by capillary action.

DOG'S TOOTH
Brick laid with their corners projecting from the wall face.

DRIP
A projecting piece of material, shaped to throw off water and prevent its running down the face of wall or other surface.

Dry-Press Brick
Brick formed in molds under high pressures from relatively dry clay (5 to 7 percent moisture content).

Dwarf Wall
A wall or partition which does not extend to the ceiling.

e1/e2
Ratio of virtual eccentricities occurring at the ends of a column or wall under design. The absolute value is always less than or equal to 1.0.

EBM
See Engineered Brick Masonry.

ECCENTRICITY
The normal distance between the centroidal axis of a member and the parallel resultant load.

Economy Brick
Brick whose nominal dimensions are 4 by 4 by 8 in.

EFFECTIVE HEIGHT
The height of a member to be assumed for calculating the slenderness ratio.

EFFECTIVE THICKNESS
The thickness of a member to be assumed for calculating the slenderness ratio.

EFFLORESCENCE
A powder or stain sometimes found on the surface of masonry, resulting from deposition of water-soluble salts.

Enclosure Wall
An exterior non-bearing wall in skeleton frame construction. It is anchored to columns, piers or floors, but not necessarily built between columns or piers nor wholly supported at each story.

Engineered Brick
Brick whose nominal dimensions are 4 by 3.2 by 8 in.

ENGINEERED BRICK MASONRY
Masonry in which design is based on a rational structural analysis.

Exterior Wall
Any outside wall or vertical enclosure of a building other than a party wall.

FACE
1. The exposed surface of a wall or masonry unit. 2. The surface of a unit designed to be exposed in the finished masonry.

Faced Wall
A composite wall in which the masonry facing and backings are so bonded as to exert a common reaction under load.

FACING
Any material, forming a part of a wall, used as a finished surface.

Facing Brick
Brick made especially for facing purposes, often treated to produce surface texture. They are made of selected clays, or treated, to produce desired color. See ASTM Specification C 216.

Fat Mortar
Mortar containing a high percentage of cementitious components. It is a sticky mortar which adheres to a trowel.

FIELD
The expanse of wall between openings, corners, etc., principally composed of stretchers.

FILTER BLOCK
A hollow, vitrified clay masonry unit, sometimes salt-glazed, designed for trickling filter floors in sewage disposal plants. See ASTM Specification C 159.

Fire Brick
Brick made of refractory ceramic material which will resist high temperatures.

FIRE CLAY
A clay which is highly resistant to heat without deforming and used for making brick.

Fire Division Wall
Any wall which subdivides a building so as to resist the spread of fire. It is not necessarily continuous through all stories to and above the roof.

FIRE RESISTIVE MATERIAL
See Non-combustible Material.

Fire Wall
Any wall which subdivides a building to resist the spread of fire and which extends continuously from the foundation through the roof.

FIREPROOFING
Any material or combination protecting structural members to increase their fire resistance.

Flare Header
A header of darker color than the field of the wall.

FLASHING
1. A thin impervious material placed in mortar joints and through air spaces in masonry to prevent water penetration and/or provide water drainage. 2. Manufacturing method to produce specific color tones.

Floor Brick
Smooth dense brick, highly resistant to abrasion, used as finished floor surfaces. See ASTM Specification C 410.

Foundation Wall
That portion of a loadbearing wall below the level of the adjacent grade, or below first floor beams or joists.

FROG
A depression in the bed surface of a brick. Sometimes called a panel.

FURRING
A method of finishing the interior face of a masonry wall to provide space for insulation, prevent moisture transmittance, or to provide a level surface for finishing.

Gauged Brick
1. Brick which have been ground or otherwise produced to accurate dimensions. 2. A tapered arch brick.

GROUNDS
Nailing strips placed in masonry walls as a means of attaching trim or furring.

GROUT
Mixture of cementitious material and aggregate to which sufficient water is added to produce pouring consistency without segregation of the constituents.

HACKING
1. The procedure of stacking brick in a kiln or on a kiln car. 2. Laying brick with the bottom edge set in from the plane surface of the wall.

HARD-BURNED
Nearly vitrified clay products which have been fired at high temperatures. They have relatively low absorptions and high compressive strengths.

HEAD JOINT
The vertical mortar joint between ends of masonry units. Often called cross joint.