The earliest known report of bakanae is from 1828; it was first described scientifically in 1898 by Japanese researcher Shotaro Hori, who showed that the causative agent was fungal. The fungus affects rice crops in Asia, Africa, and North America. In epidemic cases yield losses may reach up to 20% or more. A 2003 publication from the International...
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(from the article `malformation`) ...normal represents merely a quantitative change, which is evidenced by a harmonious but exaggerated manifestation of the normal developmental ...
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