Copy of `Timken - Steel glossary`

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Timken - Steel glossary
Category: Agriculture and Industry > Steel
Date & country: 04/01/2014, UK
Words: 49


alloying elements
Chemical elements added for improving the properties of the finished products. Some alloying elements are nickel, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, and silicon.

alloy steel
Steel containing one or more alloying element. Steel is classified as alloy when the maximum content of alloying elements exceeds one or more of the following

alloy
A substance that has metallic properties and is comprised of two or more chemical elements of which at least one is a metal.

annealing
A process involving heating and cooling, usually applied to induce softening of steel. The term also refers to treatments intended to alter mechanical or physical properties, produce a definite microstructure or remove gasses.

argon stirring
An inert gas introduced through a nozzle to stir molten steel to promote chemical and temperature homogenization and float out inclusions.

argon shroud
A procedure using argon gas to shield molten steel from oxygen as it is teemed from the ladle.

austenite
High-temperature solid form of steel with face-centered cubic crystal structure.

blowhole
An internal cavity in steel produced by gases during the solidification of the metal.

bloom shear
A shear used to cut a rolled ingot into shorter bloom lengths or to cut off the ends of a bloom.

bloom
A semi finished piece of steel resulting from the rolling or forging of an ingot. A bloom is square or not more than twice as wide as thick and usually not less than 36 square inches in cross-sectional area.

bottom pouring
The process of pouring ingots using a refractory runner system to fill them from the bottom of the ingot molds.

brinnel hardness
A hardness test commonly used for soft steel and metals which measures diameter of an indentation made by a steel ball under a given load.

breakout
Liquid steel flowing through the shell of a ladle or EAF.

butt
An unfinished or incomplete ingot.

butt
An unfinished or incomplete ingot. C back to top

casting powder
A powder applied to the inside of a mold before teeming to prevent the metal from sticking to the mold.

casting
Pouring molten metal into a mold, or the metal object (i.e., ingot) produced by such pouring.

charge
To load a furnace with scrap and flux prior to melting, or to load a soaking pit with ingots for reheating.

chemistry
The chemical constituents of a heat of steel.

cold working
Rolling or drawing semi-finished steel products to provide higher physical properties or better surfaces than can be produced by hot-working.

continuous caster
A machine used to continuously produce blooms from molten steel with no interruptions or intermediate operations.

crystal
Physically uniform solids composed of atoms bonded together in a definite geometrical pattern or structure.

creep
Failure of a metal caused by gradual elongation due to constant stress.

critical temperature
The temperature at which a steel transforms one crystal structure into another because of atom rearrangement.

dendrites
Crystals that form in a tree-like pattern during solidification.

deoxidize
Removal of oxygen from steel.

degassing
Lowering the hydrogen and oxygen content of the steel by placing the molten steel in a vacuum.

diffusion
Movement of atoms in solids. Heat provides the energy for atom movement.

draw
To empty a soaking pit one ingot at a time to feed rolling operations (FSP), or to pull steel (usually cold) through a die to change its dimensions and mechanical properties.

ductility
Ability to undergo permanent changes of shape without rupturing.

electrode
A carbon (graphite) rod that carries electricity to melt the scrap in an EAF.

endothermic
A chemical change in which there is absorption of heat.

etch
A steel sample treated with acid to reveal its microstructure; used to visually check conditions such as porosity, large inclusions, or other nonconformities.

exothermic
A chemical change in which there is liberation of heat.

fettle
To prepare a furnace for charging and melting by repairing eroded areas of the refractory.

flux
A slag-making ingredient or the increased fluidity of slag.

flash sticker
An ingot that will not separate from the mold because of leakage that

forging
Forming hot metal in the desired shape by means of hammering or pressing.

forging
Forming hot metal in the desired shape by means of hammering or pressing.

grinding
Method of conditioning steel by removing surface flaws using a power-driven grinding wheel. H back to top

grain
Orderly arrangement of atoms or crystal structure. Individual crystal of a microstructure.

grinding
Method of conditioning steel by removing surface flaws using a power-driven grinding wheel.

hot working
Plastic deformation of metal at specific temperature and rate to prevent strain hardening from occurring.

ingot
Steel, formerly in a molten state, transferred to an ingot mold to solidify.

ingot mold
A form into which molten steel is poured to solidify.

iron
A pure metal that serves as the basis for steel, cast iron and stainless steel. Iron is relatively weak and soft when in its pure form. J back to top JOMINY TEST

toughness
Ability to absorb impact energy.

trumpet
A funnel which serves to deliver molten metal to a junction of 6 or 8 runners.

trumpet
A funnel which serves to deliver molten metal to a junction of 6 or 8 runners.