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ACPA - American Pavement Glossary
Category: Architecture and Buildings > concrete terms
Date & country: 25/09/2008, USA
Words: 597

The ability of concrete to remain unchanged while in service; resistance to weathering action, chemical attack, and abrasion.

Dynamic Load
A variable load; i.e., not static, such as a moving live load, earthquake, or wind.

Dynamic Loading
Loading from units (particularly machinery) which, by virtue of their movement or vibration, impose stresses in excess of those imposed by their dead load.

Early Strength
Strength of concrete developed soon after placement, usually during the first 72 hours.

Early-Entry Dry Saw
Lightweight saw equipped with a blade that does not require water for cooling and that allows sawing concrete sooner than with conventional wet-diamond sawing equipment.

Portland cement concrete designed for a specific application and environment and, in general, making use of local commercially produced aggregates. These aggregates do not necessarily meet conventional quality standards for aggregates used in pavements.

Edge Form
Formwork used to limit the horizontal spread of fresh concrete on flat surfaces, such as pavements or floors.

A finishing tool used on the edges of fresh concrete to provide a rounded edge.

Deposit of calcium carbonate (or other salts), usually white in color, appearing upon the surface or found within the near-surface pores of concrete. The salts deposit on concrete upon evaporation of water that carries the dissolved salts through the concrete toward exposed surfaces.

End-Result Specification
Specification that requires the contractor to take the entire responsibility for supplying each item of construction. The highway agency's responsibility is to either except or reject the final product or apply a price adjustment that compensates for the degree of compliance with the specification.

Entrained Air
Round, uniformly distributed, microscopic, non-coalescing air bubbles entrained by the use of air-entraining agents; usually less than 1 mm in size.

Entrapped Air
Air in concrete that is not purposely entrained. Entrapped air is generally considered to be large voids (larger than 1 mm).

Evaporable Water
Water set in cement paste present in capillaries or held by surface forces; measured as that removable by drying under specified conditions. See also Nonevaporable Water.

Expanding Rubber Packer
For slab stabilization or slab jacking, nozzle containing an expandable rubber sleeve that expands from injection pressure to fill the injection hole during injection of stabilizing material.

Increase in length or volume. See also Autogenous Volume Change, Contraction, Moisture Movement, Shrinkage, and Volume Change.

Expansion Joint
See Isolation Joint

Expansion Sleeve
A tubular metal covering for a dowel bar to allow its free longitudinal movement at a joint.

Exposed Aggregate
Surface texture where cement paste is washed away from concrete slab surface to expose durable chip-size aggregates for the riding surface.

Exposed Concrete
Concrete surfaces formed so as to yield an acceptable texture and finish for permanent exposure to view. See also Architectural Concrete.

External Vibrator
See Vibration

False Set
The rapid development of rigidity in a freshly mixed Portland cement paste, mortar, or concrete without the evolution of much heat, which rigidity can be dispelled and plasticity regained by further mixing without addition of water; premature stiffening, hesitation set, early stiffening, and rubber set are terms referring to the same phenomenon, but false set is the preferred designation.

Series of techniques to accelerate concrete pavement construction.

Differential vertical displacement of a slab or other member adjacent to a joint or crack.

Federal Highway Administration

Fibrous Concrete
Concrete containing dispersed, randomly oriented fibers.

Field-cured Cylinders
Test cylinders cured as nearly as practicable in the same manner as the concrete in the structure to indicate when supporting forms may be removed, additional construction loads may be imposed, or the structure may be placed in service.

Final Set
A degree of stiffening of a mixture of cement and water greater than initial set, generally stated as an empirical value indicating the time in hours and minutes required for a cement paste to stiffen sufficiently to resist to an established degree, the penetration of a weighted test needle; also applicable to concrete and mortar mixtures with use of suitable test procedures. See also Initial Set.

Final Setting Time
The time required for a freshly mixed cement paste, mortar, or concrete to achieve final set. See also Initial Setting Time.

Fine Aggregate
Aggregate passing the 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) sieve and almost entirely passing the No. 4 (4.75-mm) sieve and predominantly retained on the No. 200 (75 mm) sieve.

Fineness Modulus
A measure of the fineness or coarseness of an aggregate sample, usually the fine aggregate (sand). It is determined by adding the cumulative percent retained on each of a specified series of sieves, and dividing the sum by 100. For fine aggregate, these sieve sizes are 3/8 in., #4, #8, #16, #30, #50, and #100.

The texture of a surface after compacting and finishing operations has been performed.

Leveling, smoothing, compacting, and otherwise treating surfaces of fresh or recently placed concrete or mortar to produce desired appearance and service. See also Float and Trowel.

Finishing Machine
A power-operated machine used to give the desired surface texture to a concrete slab.

Fixed Form Paving
A type of concrete paving process that involves the use of fixed forms to uniformly control the edge and alignment of the pavement.

Flash Set
The rapid development of rigidity in a freshly mixed Portland cement paste, mortar, or concrete, usually with the evolution of considerable heat, which rigidity cannot be dispelled nor can the plasticity be regained by further mixing without addition of water; also referred to as quick set or grab set.

Flexible Pavement
A pavement structure that maintains intimate contact with and distributes loads to the subgrade and depends on aggregate interlock, particle friction, and cohesion for stability; cementing agents, where used, are generally bituminous (asphaltic) materials as contrasted to portland cement in the case of rigid pavement. See also Rigid Pavement.

Flexural Strength
A property of a material or structural member that indicates its ability to resist failure in bending. See also Modulus of Rupture.

A tool (not a darby) usually of wood, aluminum, or magnesium, used in finishing operations to impart a relatively even but still open texture to an unformed fresh concrete surface.

Float Finish
A rather rough concrete surface texture obtained by finishing with a float.

Process of using a tool, usually wood, aluminum, or magnesium, in finishing operations to impart a relatively even but still open texture to an unformed fresh concrete surface.

1) Time dependent irrecoverable deformation. See Rheology. 2) A measure of the consistency of freshly mixed concrete, mortar, or cement paste in terms of the increase in diameter of a molded truncated cone specimen after jigging a specified number of times.

Flow Cone Test
Test that measures the time necessary for a known quantity of grout to completely flow out of and empty a standard sized cone; usually used in slab stabilization to determine the water quantity necessary for stabilization grout.

Fly Ash
The finely divided residue resulting from the combustion of ground or powdered coal and which is transported from the fire box through the boiler by flu gasses; Used as mineral admixture in concrete mixtures.

A temporary structure or mold for the support of concrete while it is setting and gaining sufficient strength to be self-supporting.

Form Oil
Oil applied to interior surface of formwork to promote easy release from the concrete when forms are removed.

Free Moisture
Moisture having essentially the properties of pure water in bulk; moisture not absorbed by aggregate. See also Surface Moisture.

Free Water
See Free Moisture and Surface Moisture

Full-depth Patching
Removing and replacing at least a portion of a concrete slab to the bottom of the concrete, in order to restore areas of deterioration.

Full-Depth Repair
See 'Full-Depth Patching'

Gap-graded Concrete
Concrete containing a gap-graded aggregate.

See Grading

The distribution of particles of granular material among various sizes, usually expressed in terms of cumulative percentages larger or smaller than each of a series of sizes (sieve openings) or the percentages between certain ranges of sizes (sieve openings).

Granular material predominantly retained on the 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve and resulting from natural disintegration and abrasion of rock or processing of weakly bound conglomerate.

Green Concrete
Concrete that has set but not appreciably hardened.

Green Sawing
The process of controlling random cracking by sawing uniform joint spacing in early age concrete without tearing or dislocating the aggregate in the mix.

Grinding Head
Arbor or shaft containing many diamond blades on diamond grinding equipment.

The process used to cut slots into a concrete pavement surface to provide channels for water to escape beneath tires and to promote skid resistance.

Gross Vehicle Load
The weight of a vehicle plus the weight of any load thereon.

Gross Volume
In the case of a revolving-drum mixer, the total interior volume of the revolving portion of the mixer drum; in the case of an open-top mixer, the total volume of the trough or pan calculated on the basis that no vertical dimension of the container exceeds twice the radius of the circular section below the axis of the central shaft.

A mixture of cementitious material and water, with or without aggregate, proportioned to produce a pourable consistency without segregation of the constituents; also, a mixture of other composition but of similar consistency. See also Neat Cement Grout and Sand Grout.

Grout-Retention Disk
Small plastic disk that provides a barrier that prevents grout or epoxy from escaping from a dowel hole.

Hairline Cracking
Barely visible cracks in random pattern in an exposed concrete surface which do not extend to the full depth or thickness of the concrete, and which are due primarily to drying shrinkage.

A chemical applied to concrete floors to reduce wearing and dusting.

When portland cement is mixed with enough water to form a paste, the compounds of the cement react with water to form cementitious products that adhere to each other and to the intermixed sand and stone particles and become very hard. As long as moisture is present, the reaction may continue for years, adding continually to the strength of the mixture.

Harsh Mixture
A concrete mixture that lacks desired workability and consistency due to a deficiency of mortar.

Deficient workability and cohesiveness caused by insufficient sand or cement, or by improperly graded aggregate.

A transverse construction joint installed at the end of a paving operation or other placement interruptions. To a contractor, a header is the location at which paving will resume on the next day.

Heat of Hydration
Heat evolved by chemical reactions of a substance with water, such as that evolved during the setting and hardening of portland cement.

Heavy-Weight Aggregate
An aggregate of very high unit weight, such as barium, boron, or iron ore, steel shot or punchings, which forms a high density mortar of concrete when bound together with hardened cement paste.

Heavy-Weight Concrete
Concrete in which heavy aggregate is used to increase the density of the concrete; unit weights in the range of 165 to 330 pounds per cubic foot are attained.

High Density Polyurethane
Also, HDP; Polyurethane used in slab stabilization or slab jacking process.

High Range Water-Reducing Admixture
See Water-Reducing Admixture (high range)

High-Early-Strength Cement
See Cement, High-Early-Strength

High-Early-Strength Concrete
Concrete that, through the use of high-early-strength cement or admixtures, is capable of attaining specified strength at an earlier age than normal concrete.

Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete; asphalt pavement

An area in a diamond ground surface that is not ground because the head on the diamond grinding equipment does not cut deep enough to touch a low spot in the surface.

Concrete that, due to lack of the proper amount of fines or vibration, contains abundant interconnected large voids or cavities; concrete that contains honeycombs was improperly consolidated.

Hooked Bar
A reinforcing bar with the end bent into a hook to provide anchorage.

Horizontal-Axis Mixer
Concrete mixers of the revolving drum type in which the drum rotates about a horizontal axis.

Hot-pour Sealant
Joint sealing materials that require heating for installation, usually consisting of a base of asphalt or coal tar.

Hydrated Lime
A dry powder obtained by treating quicklime with sufficient water to convert it to calcium hydroxide.

The chemical reaction between cement and water which causes concrete to harden.

Hydraulic Cement
A cement that is capable of setting and hardening under water due to the chemical interaction of the water and the constituents of the cement.

Hydraulic Ram
Impact-type pavement breaking equipment.

To go out of steering control by skimming the surface of a wet road.

Illinois Bearing Ratio
A measure of the support provided by the roadbed soils or by unbound granular materials. The IBR test is a slight modification of the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) procedure and is a soaked laboratory test. The IBR is considered to be equal to CBR.

Additional payment to the contractor resulting from a measured quality higher than specified for full payment.

Inclined-Axis Mixer
A truck with a revolving drum that rotates about an axis inclined to the bed of the truck chassis.

Small concrete fragments, stones, sand or other hard materials that enter a joint sealant, joint reservoir, or other concrete pavement discontinuity.

Initial Set
A degree of stiffening of a mixture of cement and water less than final set, generally stated as an empirical value indicating the time in hours and minutes required for cement paste to stiffen sufficiently to resist to an established degree the penetration of a weighted test needle; also applicable to concrete or mortar with use of suitable test procedures. See also Final Set.

Initial Setting Time
The time required for a freshly mixed cement paste to acquire an arbitrary degree of stiffness as determined by specific test.

Injection Hole
Hole drilled vertically through a concrete slab that is used to inject stabilizing grout underneath the slab or subbase layers.

A form of reconstruction where new concrete is placed into an area of removed pavement; The removal may be an individual lane, all lanes between the shoulders or only partly through a slab, .

Isolation Joint
A pavement joint that allows relative movement in three directions and avoids formation of cracks elsewhere in the concrete and through which all or part of the bonded reinforcement is interrupted. large closure movement to prevent development of lateral compression between adjacent concrete slabs; usually used to isolate a bridge.

A grate tamper for pushing coarse aggregate slightly below the surface of a slab to facilitate finishing. See also Tamper.

A plane of weakness to control contraction cracking in concrete pavements. A joint can be initiated in plastic concrete or green concrete and shaped with later process.

Joint Depth
The measurement of a saw cut from the top of the slab to the bottom of the cut.

Joint Deterioration
See Spalling, Compression

Joint Filler
Compressible material used to fill a joint to prevent the infiltration of debris and to provide support for sealant.

Joint Sealant
Compressible material used to minimize water and solid debris infiltration into the sealant reservoir and joint.