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PMEL - roofing glossary
Category: Architecture and Buildings > Roofing glossary
Date & country: 01/09/2008, USA
Words: 414


blocking
In carpentry, the process of fastening together two pieces of board by gluing blocks of wood in the interior angle.

fully tempered glass
Flat or bent glass that has been heat-treated to a high surface and/or edge compression to meet the requirements of ASTM C 1048, kind FT. Fully tempered glass, if broken, will fracture into many small pieces (dice) which are more or less cubical. Fully tempered glass is approximately four times stronger than annealed glass of the same thickness when exposed to uniform static pressure loads.

fully adhered
A completely attached (adhered) roof membrane.

Deck
  The surface installed over the supporting framing members to which the roofing is applied.

Dormer
  A framed window unit projecting through the sloping plane of a roof.

Double coverage
Application of asphalt roofing such that the lapped portion is at least two inches wider than the exposed portion, resulting in two layers of roofing material over the deck.

Racking
  Roofing application method in which shingle courses are applied vertically up the roof rather than across and up. Not a recommended procedure.

furnace
A heating system that uses the principle of thermal convection. When air is heated, it rises and as the air cools it settles. Ducts are installed to carry the hot air from the top of the furnace to the rooms. Other ducts, called cold air returns, return the cooler air back to the furnace.

foot print
See Floor Plan.

folded seam
In sheet metal work, a joint between sheets of metal wherein the edges of the sheets are crimped together and folded flat.

footings
Wide pours of cement reinforced with re-bar (reinforcing bar) that support foundation walls, pillars, or posts. Footings are part of the foundation and are often poured before the foundation walls.

flashing base
The upturned edge of the watertight membrane formed at a roof termination point by the extension of the felts vertically over the cant strip and up the wall for a varying distance where they are secured with mechanical fasteners.

bid documents
Drawings, details, and specifications for a particular project.

Collar
   Pre-formed flange placed over a vent pipe to seal the roof around the vent pipe opening. Also called a vent sleeve.

Cricket
   A peaked saddle construction at the back of a chimney to prevent accumulation of snow and ice and to deflect water around the chimney.

Cutout
  The open portions of a strip shingle between the tabs.

flash point
The critical temperature at which a material will ignite.

bidding
Getting prices from various contractors and/or subcontractors.

bid bond
Security posted by a bidder to ensure performance in accordance with a bid.

flashing, counter
The formed metal secured to a wall, curb, or roof top unit to cover and protect the upper edge of a base flashing and its associated fasteners.

Coating
   A layer of viscous asphalt applied to the base material into which granules or other surfacing is embedded.

bite
The dimension by which the framing system overlaps the edge of the glazing infill.

flashing, step
Individual small pieces of metal flashing material used to flash around chimneys, dormers, and such projections along the slope of a roof. The individual pieces are overlapped and stepped up the vertical surface.

flashing, thru-wall
Flashing extended completely through a masonry wall. Designed and applied in combination with counter-flashings, to prevent water which may enter the wall above from proceeding downward in the wall or into the roof deck or roofing system.

flashing
Weatherproof material installed between roof sheathing (or wall sheathing) and the finish materials to help keep moisture away from the sheathing.

bitumen
Any of various mixtures of hydrocarbons occurring naturally or obtained through the distillation of coal or petroleum. (See Coat Tar Pitch and Asphalt)

flat glass
A general term that describes float glass, sheet, glass, plate glass, and rolled glass.

flat seam
A seam at the junction of sheet metal roof components that has been bent at the plane of the roof.

bead
In glazing, an applied sealant in a joint irrespective of the method of application, such as caulking bead, glazing bead, etc. Also a molding or stop used to hold glass or panels in position.

fleet averaging
By using a point system, builders can show compliance with energy building requirements by using average figures for all air conditioning units in the same sub division.

flexible metal conduit
Conduit similar to armored cable in appearance but does not have the pre-inserted conductors.

Rake
  The inclined edge of a sloped roof over a wall.

beam
Structural support member (steel, concrete, lumber) that transfers weight from one location to another.

Concealed nail method
    Application of roll roofing in which all nails are driven into the underlying course of roofing and covered by a cemented, overlapping course. Nails are not exposed to the weather.

Counter flashing
That portion of the flashing attached to a vertical surface to prevent water from migrating behind the base flashing.

floor plan
The basic layout of building or addition, which includes placement of walls, windows and doors as well as dimensions.

bed or bedding
In glazing, the bead compound or sealant applied between a lite of glass or panel and the stationary stop or sight bar of the sash or frame. It is usually the first bead of compound or sealant to be applied when setting glass or panels.

floor plate
See Floor Plan.

float glass
Glass formed on a bath of molten tin. The surface in contact with the tin is known as the tin surface or tin side. The top surface is known as the atmosphere surface or air side.

flush glazing
(Pocket Glazing) The setting of a lite of glass or panel into a four-sided sash or frame opening containing a recessed 'U' shaped channel without removable stops on three sides of the sash or frame and one channel with a removable stop along the fourth side.

bent glass
Flat glass that has been shaped while hot into curved shapes.

bell reducer
In plumbing, a fitting shaped like a bell which has one opening of a smaller diameter used to reduce the size of the pipe in the line, and the opposite opening of larger diameter.

bevel
(of a door) is the angle of the front edge of a door usually from 1/8' to 2'.

below-grade
The portion of a building that is below ground level.

fillet bead
Caulking or sealant placed in such a manner that it forms an angle between the materials being caulked.

finish carpentry
The hanging of all interior doors, installation of door molding, base molding, chair rail, built in shelves, etc.

Pitch
  The degree of roof incline expressed as the ratio of the rise, in feet, to the span, in feet.

Ply
The number of layers of roofing: i.e. one-ply, two-ply.

Quick-setting cement
An asphalt-based cement used to adhere tabs of strip shingles to the course below. Also used to adhere roll roofing laps applied by the concealed nail method.

finish coat
The last coat applied in plastering intended as a base for further decorating or as a final decorative surface. Finish coat usually consists of calcified gypsum, lime and sometimes an aggregate. Some may require the addition of lime or sand on the job. The three basic methods of applying it are (1) trowel (2) flat and (3) spray.

back nailing
The practice of nailing roofing felts to the deck under the overlap, in addition to hot mopping, to prevent slippage of felts.

backer rod
In glazing, a polyethylene or polyurethane foam material installed under compression and used to control sealant joint depth, provide a surface for sealant tooling, serve as a bond breaker to prevent three-sided adhesion, and provide an hour-glass contour of the finished bead.

Condensation
  The change of water from vapor to liquid when warm, moisture-laden air comes in contact with a cold surface.

backflow preventer
A device or means to prevent backflow into the potable water supply.

backfill
(1) filling in any previously excavated area. (2) in carpentry, tthe process of fastening together two pieces of board by gluing blocks of wood in the interior angle.

fire wall
Any wall built for the purpose of restricting or preventing the spread of fire in a building. Such walls of solid masonry or concrete generally sub-divide a building from the foundations to two or more feet above the plane of the roof.

finish grade
Any surface which has been cut to or built to the elevation indicated for that point. Surface elevation of lawn, driveway or other improved surfaces after completion of grading operations.

finish
In hardware, metal fastenings on cabinets which are usually exposed such as hinges and locks.

fire-rated
Descriptive of materials that has been tested for use in fire walls.

fish tape
(Fish Wire) Material used to advance wire through a conduit.

ferrous
Refers to objects made of or partially made of iron, such as ferrous pipe.

felt
A very general term used to describe composition of roofing ply sheets, consisting of a mat of organic or inorganic fibers unsaturated, impregnated with asphalt or coal tar pitch, or impregnated and coated with asphalt.

backflow
The flow of liquids through irrigation into the pipes of a potable or drinking water supply from any source which is opposite to the intended direction of flow.

fenestration
Any glass panel, window, door, curtain wall or skylight unit on the exterior of a building.

face brick
Brick made especially for exterior use with special consideration of color, texture and size, and used as a facing on a building.

face glazing
A system having a triangular bead of compound applied with a putty knife, after bedding, setting, and clipping the glazing infill in place on a rabetted sash.

Course
  A row of shingles or roll roofing running the length of the roof.

backhoe
Self powered excavation equipment that digs by pulling a boom mounted bucket towards itself. It is used to dig basements and/or footings and to install drainage or sewer systems.

balloon framing
In carpentry, the lightest and most economical form of construction, in which the studding and corner plates are set up in continuous lengths from the first floor line or sill to the roof plate.

factory mutual fm
A major insurance agency who has established stringent guidelines for maximum construction integrity as it relates to fire and environmental hazards. Their specifications have become industry standards.

Coverage
Amount of weather protection provided by the roofing material. Depends on number of layers of material between the exposed surface of the roofing and the deck; i.e., single coverage, double coverage, etc.

barometer
Instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure.

barrel roof
A roof design which in cross section is arched.

Pallets
  Wooden platforms used for storing and shipping bundles of shingles.

Overhang
  That portion of the roof structure that extends beyond the exterior walls of a building.

fascia
Any cover board or framed metal assembly at the edge or eaves of a flat, sloping, or overhanging roof which is placed in a vertical position to protect the edge of the roof assembly.

fasteners
A general term covering a wide variety of screws and nails which may be used for mechanically securing various components of a building.

façade
The front of a building. Frequently, in architectural terms an artificial or decorative effort.

eyebrow
A flat, normally concrete, projection which protrudes horizontally from a building wall; Eyebrows are generally located above windows.

base ply
An asphalt-saturated and/or coated felt installed as the first ply with 4 inch laps in a built-up roof system under the following felts which can be installed in a shingle-like fashion.

excavate
Dig the basement and or all areas that will need footings/foundations below ground.

expansion coefficient
The amount that a specific material will vary in any one dimension with a change of temperature.

expansion joint
A device used to permit a structure to expand or contract without breakage.

exterior glazed
Glazing infills set from the exterior of the building.

Organic felt
  An asphalt roofing base material manufactured from cellulose fibers.

batten plate
A formed piece of metal designed to cover the joint between two lengths of metal edge.

batt insulation
Strips of insulation – usually fiberglass, that fit between studs or other framing.

exterior stop
The molding or bead that holds the lite or panel in place when it is on the exterior side of the lite or panel.

auger
In carpentry, a wood-boring tool used by a carpenter to bore holes

asphalt
A dark brown to black, highly viscous, hydrocarbon produced from the residue left after the distillation of petroleum. Asphalt is used on roofs and highways as a waterproofing agent.

extrusion
An item formed by forcing a base metal (frequently aluminum) or plastic, at a malleable temperature, through a die to achieve a desired shape.

Closed cut valley
A method of valley treatment in which shingles from one side of the valley extend across the valley while shingles from the other side are trimmed two inches from the valley centerline. The valley flashing is not exposed.

Class "C"
  Fire-resistance rating that indicates roofing  materials are able to withstand light exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building.

epdm
Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer. A single ply membrane consisting of synthetic rubber; usually 45 or 60 mils. Application can be ballasted, fully adhered or mechanically attached.

end dams
Internal flashing (dam) that prevents water from moving laterally within a curtain wall or window wall system.

end lap
The amount or location of overlap at the end of a roll of roofing felts in the application.

emissivity
the measure of a surface`s ability to emit long-wave infrared radiation.

emt
Electrical Metallic Tubing- This electrical pipe, also called thin-wall conduit, may be used for both concealed and exposed areas. It is the most common type of raceway used in single family and low rise residential and commercial buildings.

emulsion
In roofing, a coating consisting of asphalt and fillers suspended in water.

elastomeric
Of or pertaining to any of the numerous flexible membranes that contain rubber or plastic.