Copy of `Olympus - Glossary of photography`

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Olympus - Glossary of photography
Category: Sport and Leisure > Photography
Date & country: 12/11/2007, UK
Words: 536

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Developed by Apple, this is a standard for digital videos and streaming media. Many internet videos are in QuickTime format.

QuickTime Motion JPEG
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A file format created by Apple for saving and compressing animated audio/video data (videoclips, for example). Best played with Apple QuickTime-Player.

QuickTime VR
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Addition to QuickTime for saving and displaying panorama images.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Quarter VGA. Named for a picture resolution of 320 x 240 pixels, which occurs a lot as a picture size with video recordings. See also VGA

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Quad Extended Graphics Array. Standard for displaying images on a screen. Typical resolution is 2,048 x 1,536 pixels. (SXGA, VGA, UXGA, XGA)

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Random Access Memory. The user can read and write data from/onto this type of memory. RAM is used to temporarily store both data and programs. As opposed to ROM, all memory stored in RAM is lost when the power is turned off and is therefore called volatile memory. (SIMM)

Raster length
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The number of raster points that can be displayed per inch. Given in lines per centimetre (L/cm) or per inch (lpi). A 60 raster is 60 L/cm or 152 lpi.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Some cameras allow files to be saved in the RAW format. These contain the image information as it is sent directly from the CCD, i.e. before the camera has carried out any processing at all. The RAW files are usually smaller than if saved in TIFF format because the colour information has not been processed at that point. To see and edit the files and then save them in a more conventional format, a special program or plug-in is required.

Real image viewfinder
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Optical real image viewfinder.

Rechargeable battery
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Type of battery that once empty can be recharged using a charger. The most common types of rechargeable batteries are nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd), lithium ion (li-ion) and lithium polymer (li-po) batteries. (Battery pack)

Red eye reduction
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Technical measures for red-eye reduction effects with flash shooting. Red lightning eyes originate during the reflextion of the flash light in the retina of the eye.The effect will appear more often, if the the pupil is opened wide and the closer the built-in flash is near the axe of the objective. As a counteract, they will try to reduce the red-eye-efect by using a bundled ambient light or pre-flash for the actually shooting so the pupils will close a little.

Red stitch
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Affected with a red stitch.

Reflected light metering
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Method of exposure metering by which the amount of light reflected from the subject is measured. (Digital ESP/selective multi-zone metering, exposure metering, light metering, spot metering, centre-weighted average metering)

Removable lens
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Lens that is not fixed to the camera but one that can be removed and replaced by another lens.

Removable memory
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Memory card that may be inserted into and taken out of the camera. Examples are xD-Picture Card, SmartMedia and Compact Flash.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Measurement of the image detail (dots per inch/ centimetre) that a device can capture or reproduce. With a monitor or printer, the resolution describes the number of pixels that can be shown. When used with devices for image capture, such as digital cameras or scanners, the resolution refers to the number of pixels that record the image. The result is given in dpi (“dots per inch� 1 inch = 2.54 cm), the horizontal and vertical total of pixels (e.g. 2,288 x 1,712 ) or in lpmm (line pairs per millimetre, which describes the highest number of thin black and white lines that can be displayed per millimetre). A good small image film has, for example, a resolution of approximately 150 lpmm (300 dpi rounded out to 118 dots per centimetre). In general, it can be said that the higher the resolution, the better the quality.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Other word for test.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Red, Green, Blue â€` the three basic colours for additive colour mixing.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Hardware or software, which converts a postscriptum file into a for a printer or other device suitable raster format. The RIP-software is usually a part of the postcriptum software.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Reduced Instruction Set Computer. A processor or system that has extremely fast processing times, but recognises only a small number of commands.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Read Only Memory. This type of memory storage only allows the user to “read� the information it contains, i.e. the user cannot store (write) any information on the ROM. Once written, the contents of the ROM cannot be changed. (Flash ROM, CD-ROM, RAM)

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Short for Reduced Size-MultiMediaCard. Resized (24 x 18 x 1,4 mm) version of the MultiMedia Card.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Serial interface

(Digital cameras and photo printers) High frequent noise, with a dispersion of black and white dots, which originates through a not optimal working noise-reduction in the camera.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) The process of reading information through the use of a scanner.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) A device used to digitise printed information (pictures, graphics, and text).

Scene program
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Modes for certain types of shots. In a scene program, the camera automatically selects the best parameters (such as aperture, shutter, flash mode, etc.) for the scene in question. Typical scene modes include night scene, landscape, portrait, sport.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Small Computer System Interface. A general interface standard used, for example, to connect external storage devices or scanners with a computer. It is necessary to differentiate between SCSI I, SCSI II, and SCSI III.

SD Card
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Secure Digital Card

Search engine
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Helps catalogue and find the huge amount of information available on the Internet. (Altavista, Google, Lycos and Yahoo)

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Sequential Couleur Avec Memoire. French television standard. Also used in former Eastern Bloc countries. (PAL, NTSC)

Secure Digital Card
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Removable storage media for images and audio files.

Secure Digital Card
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Built the same as the MultimediaCard,however with copy protection (short: SD Card)

Selective measurement
(Digital cameras and photo printers) With selective light metering, as with spot metering only a certain part of the motiv - mostly in the middle of the image - will be measured. The selective light metering has a wider measure angle (normally 3 bis 20%) as with spot metering (angle under 5%).

Selective multizone metering
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Digital ESP. (Exposure metering, spot metering, reflected-light metering, exposure metering, light metering)

Selective zone metering
(Digital cameras and photo printers) As with spot metering, selective zone metering just takes the readings for a specific section in the frame â€` usually in the centre. However, unlike spot metering, the measurement area covers a larger portion (up to 20% whereas the spot metering just concentrates on an area below 5%.)

(Digital cameras and photo printers) A function that delays the opening of the shutter. This ensures vibration-free operation during long exposure times and enables the photographer to get into the picture.

Self-timer mode
(Film cameras) The setting that delays the camera taking a picture until a specified interval after you touch the shutter button. Useful when you want to be in the photograph.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) This picture effect gives images a brown-golden colour that resembles old photographs.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Amber colored color nuance. In the analog photography is used a so called Sepia-Toner, to let Picture printouts look like bleached images. Some digital cameras offer this effect as an extra.

Sequence mode
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Several shots are taken automatically in a row. (Quick shooting mode)

Serial interface
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Also called RS232C or RS422 interface. An interface which allows peripheral devices such as a mouse, modem, and certain digital cameras to be connected to the computer. Data is transferred serially, which means bit by bit, one piece after another, via a connection cable. Also called COM Port.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) The main computer in a network, responsible for the management/regulation of all other computers.

(Film cameras) The degree to which clear, distinguishable details of the subject are rendered in a photographic negative or print.

Sharpness range
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Area in which the fixfocus objectiv focuses. See also depth of field

Shooting range
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The range in which a camera is able to capture sharp, focused images.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Super High Quality-resolution. A very high resolution digital photo.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Either mechanical and/or electronic shutters are possible. Mechanical systems can use a leaf (or iris) shutter or curtain shutter. In digital cameras a third alternative is also possible: the electronic shutter. This works by activating and then deactivating the CCD so that no further light can be recorded, regardless of whether light is hitting the CCD. The shutter controls the exposure time, which can range from thousandths of a second to several minutes or more. Fast shutter speeds freeze action, slow speeds are more suited to stationary subjects. A tripod is recommended for slow exposure shots to avoid camera shake. (Aperture)

Shutter button
(Film cameras) The button that you press to take a picture. On autofocus cameras, the shutter button also activates and locks the focus when pressed halfway.

Shutter Priority
(Digital cameras and photo printers) In this mode, the user can adjust the shutter speed manually and the camera then selects the aperture setting for the best exposure. Often described as “S� mode on the camera.

Shutter time lag
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Time between the instant the release is fully depressed and the actual moment of capture. This does not include the time when the release is half depressed to activate (if available) the autofocus system, etc.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Single In-line Memory Module. A common type of plug-in RAM memory module for personal computers.

Single lens reflex camera
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Camera type that directs the image coming in through the lens up into the viewfinder by means of a mirror. When the shutter is released the mirror swings up to allow light on the image plane. For fast sequence shooting and to reduce vibrations, some SLR optical systems use a beam splitter (prism) instead of the quick return swinging mirror. The picture seen through the viewfinder is almost 100% identical to the resulting photo.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Filter which - as the UV-filter - stops the UV light, oposite to thisone not colorneutral, but light pink coloured. Used mainly for reducing the atmospheric fog (vapour) and for protecting the camera.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Expansion interface in computers, notebooks and other devices. Expansion cards, e.g. PC Cards, can be plugged or built in here to increase performance, capacity or the capabilities of the device.

Slow synchronisation
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Flash mode that uses a slow shutter speed in combination with a flash. Since the duration of the flash is far shorter that the selected shutter speed, the flash fires at either the beginning (first curtain) or end (second curtain) of the exposure time. Because the fired flash freezes action in the foreground while capturing background scenes in low light conditions with slow shutter speed, the slow synchronisation mode can produce particularly attractive, atmospheric shots. (The night scene mode found in some cameras acts in a similar fashion.)

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Single Lens Reflex

SmartMedia function cards
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Olympus offers various SmartMedia cards with additional functions for compact and compact zoom digital cameras: a template function that allows photos to be combined with 12 different templates, a panorama card which together with a PC permits up to 10/20 images to be fused to create a panoramic photo, a calendar function card that enables the production of personalised calendars, and a title function card for creating birthday and greetings cards.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Generall name for all computer programms (operating system and applications)

(Digital cameras and photo printers) General term for all computer programs.

Sound recording
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Some modern digital cameras enable sound to be recorded to either movie sequences or still images. Therefore, through the use of the built-in (or external) microphone, sound effects can be added to images. (movie recording)

Spot metering
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Exposure metering method whereby the exposure reading is taken from the centre of the frame. This is often used when working with backlight. (Digital ESP/selective multi zone metering, reflected-light metering, exposure metering, light metering)

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Standard Quality resolution.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Static RAM. A special type of RAM that, due to its speed, is particularly suited to tasks where time is a critical factor.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Solid State Floppy Disc Card. (SmartMedia memory card)

Standard interface
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Standard interfaces include serial, parallel, USB and monitor interfaces. (Interface)

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Lens adapter, with which a filter/conversion lens with a wider diameter than that of the camera`s lens is attached.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Past together. Method with the help of the right software for pasting together seamless single shots to a Panorama image.

Storage Class
(Digital cameras and photo printers) USB Mass Storage Class

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Internal or external drive for data security involving a so-called Streamer Band.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Continiously transferring from files with the same aspects. Video- and audio files are played before the transferring is completed, therefor there is needed a constant transferring rate. Interference in the file transferring causes extending of the sound or failures in the video.

Studio flash
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Stationary, high power flash that is mostly used by advertising and fashion photographers. Normally consisting of simply a flash tube and pilot lamp that shines continuously to enable the user to check the exposure, they have no automatic metering system and must be adjusted manually. Studio flashes can be equipped with diverse accessories, such as softboxes, filters, reflectors, Fresnel lenses etc. to achieve special lighting or effects. These flash systems are generally much more powerful than compact flashes and their output is measured not by a guide number but by watts per second (Ws). Models over 400 Ws mostly have to be powered by an external power source. The studio flash is connected to the camera via an x-synchronisation cable. If several flashes are used, the other units are activated by an activation light from the first flash unit.

Subtractive colour mixing
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A special method for the production of colour prints that involves layering the colours cyan, magenta, yellow, and black in appropriate proportions, to produce the required colours. (additive colour mixing)

Super CCD
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A CCD type developed by Fujifilm that utilises octagonal-shaped pixels arranged in an interwoven pattern.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Super Video Graphics Array. Refers to a display screen resolution of 800 x 600 pixels. (QXGA, SXGA, VGA, UXGA, XGA)

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Super Extended Graphics Array. Describes a resolution of 1,280 x 1,024 image pixels. (QXGA, SVGA, VGA, UXGA, XGA)

System camera
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Camera that can be used with a wide range of accessories from the same manufacturer (lens converters, external flash, external power source, etc.)

System conditions
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Minimal requirement of hardware and software for the operating of a device (f.i. digitalcamera or scanner) or the software on a computer. Decisive are the CPU, the free working space RAM en harddisk space as well as the operating system.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Camera which is dileverd with a great range of accessories, objectives, external flashes, external batteries etc. from the same manufacturer which forms a system.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Tabletops are used for the aranging of a motiv on a surface. For profesional shooting there are available special tables.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol. Standard protocol for sending data packets over the Internet or network. The data is automatically broken up into small packets. An error correction procedure takes place automatically.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) All lenses with a focal length of 80 mm (or in digital cameras, with the equivalent of 80 mm) or over are classified as tele lenses. Typical characteristics of a tele lens are the narrow field of view (30° and below depending on focal length), the short depth of field and a compression effect where objects far away and near by appear to be on one level. Standard tele lenses are 80 to 200 mm* and super tele lenses are from 200 mm* upwards. (Wide angle, zoom.) (* Refers to a 35 mm camera)

Tele converter
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Lens attachment that extends the focal length. (Macro converter, wide-angle converter)

Telephoto focal length
(Film cameras) A focal setting (also known as long focal length), usually around 60mm (with APS) or 70mm (with 35mm) and beyond, at which the subject appears larger than normal in the frame.

Template card
(Digital cameras and photo printers) SmartMedia function card.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Thin Film Technology. Currently the highest quality of colour LC-Displays. TFT displays are used in notebooks as well as in digital cameras from OLYMPUS.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) The miniature representation of a digital image that usually serves as a preview function in image editing programs.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Tagged Image File Format. A specific, high quality file format used for the storage of digitised images.

Title function card
(Digital cameras and photo printers) SmartMedia function card.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Stand to which the camera can be attached to hold it steady, especially during slow exposure shots where camera shake must be avoided. Most tripods have three legs while professionals prefer the more compact but less stable one-legged versions.

True Colour
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Describes the colour output on a monitor or printer. Requires at least 16 million colour nuances.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Developed by Olympus, the TruePic technology optimises the image information captured on the CCD before the data is saved. Employing the algorithm 3-D Cubic, it uses the brightness and colour information of the neighbouring pixels when processing the pixel data. These calculations, only possible with the super-fast Risc and Olympus Asic processor, lead to digital pictures that set standards for picture sharpness, contrast, true colours and gradation.

TTL flash metering
(Digital cameras and photo printers) With TTL flash metering the flash light and ambient light is measured through the lens so the intensity of the flash can be set. All work is done by the camera so the flash does not need any metering cells or control circuits. Also, no manual adjustments are necessary.

TTL metering
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Through The Lens metering.

TWAIN driver
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Allows the transfer of scans or digital photos into image editing programs. (TWAIN: Technology Without An Interesting Name.)

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter. Set of chips in a computer regulating data flow over the serial interface.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Zoomobjective with a factor 10x or more

(Digital cameras and photo printers) When a shot does not receive enough light with the result that the scene is too dark.

(Digital cameras and photo printers) Zoom which has a focal length as well in the wide angle area as if in the tele area. Universal zoom indicates typically zoomobjectives which have focal length from 28 to 200 mm.

Unsharp Masking
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Often abbreviated USM. Describes an image focusing process. The quality of the result depends on the characteristics of the algorithm used.