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AGNIC - Wildlife terms
Category: Animals and Nature > Wildlife Management
Date & country: 27/09/2013, US
Words: 921


ABSORPTION
the passage of nutrients, drugs, or water from the intestines into the bloodstream.

ABSTRACT
a written summary of the important points of a medical article.

ACCELERATE
speed up.

ACCELERATED APPROVAL
FDA regulations governing early marketing approval of promising drugs for life-threatening illnesses.

ACTIGALL
see ursodiol.

ACTIVE INFECTION
an infection in which a disease-causing microorganism is actively replicating and infecting new cells.

ACUPRESSURE
a traditional Chinese healing technique in which finger pressure is applied to specific points on the body to treat disease and alleviate symptoms.

ACUPUNCTURE
a traditional Chinese healing technique that involves inserting thin needles into different acupuncture points on the body. Acupuncture is believed to improve the flow of qi, the body's vital energy; it is used for many conditions, including pain and addiction.

ACUTE
rapid-onset, short-term initial stage of a disease. Contrast with chronic.

ACUTE HBV
Initial infection with hepatitis B.

ACUTE HEPATITIS
the initial stage of viral hepatitis following infection. In HCV, acute hepatitis refers to the first six months of infection.

ADA
see Americans with Disabilities Act.

ADDITIVE EFFECT
the combined effect of several drugs that is the sum of the effects that would be produced by each of the drugs in the absence of the others.

ADHERENCE
following a prescribed treatment regimen, including correct dosage, timing, and number of doses per day.

ADJUNCT THERAPY
therapy given in addition to a primary treatment.

ADRENAL GLAND
one of a pair of glands located above the kidneys. The adrenal medulla produces hormones such as adrenaline (epinephrine), while the adrenal cortex produces corticosteroids and androgens.

ADVERSE EVENT
an unwanted side effect of a medication.

AEROBIC EXERCISE
a type of exercise (e.g., running, swimming) that makes the heart and lungs work harder to supply the muscles with oxygen.

AFP
see alpha-fetoprotein.

AIDS
see acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

ALBUMIN
a blood protein produced by the liver that plays a role in maintaining normal blood volume. A low albumin level is associated with liver cirrhosis. A normal level is 3.2 to 5.0g.

ALCOHOLISM
a disorder characterized by excessive consumption of and dependence on alcohol.

ALKALOID
an organic compound found in plants.

ALLERGY
an abnormal immune response to an antigen (allergen) that does not normally cause an adverse reaction (e.g., animal dander, pollen). Allergic reactions are caused by the release of histamine by mast cells, a type of white blood cell. Allergic symptoms may include runny nose (rhinitis), skin rash, asthma, and anaphylactic shock.

ALLOGRAFT
a transplant of genetically matched cells, tissues, or organs between two members of the same species.

ALOPECIA
hair loss.

ALPHA INTERFERON
see interferon-alpha.

ALT
see alanine aminotransferase.

ALTERNATIVE THERAPY
any type of treatment that is not considered standard or conventional practice in a given culture. In Western countries, traditional Chinese medicine, homeopathy, naturopathy, and chiropractic are considered alternative therapies.

AMENORRHEA
absence of menstrual periods.

AMINO ACID
an organic compound that is a basic structural unit of peptides and proteins. There are over 100 amino acids, eight of which are essential for human metabolism.

AMMONIA
a toxic metabolic byproduct that is normally excreted in the urine.

AMNESIA
memory loss.

AMPLICOR/COBALT AMPLICOR
brand name of a PCR-based viral load test for HCV and HIV.

ANA
see antinuclear antibody

ANALGESIC
a drug or therapy that reduces pain.

ANECDOTAL
evidence based on reports of specific individual cases rather than controlled clinical studies.

ANEURYSM
an abnormally stretched, dilated section of a blood vessel that is prone to bursting.

ANGINA PECTORIS
chest pain that occurs when the heart muscle receives inadequate oxygen.

ANOREXIA
loss of appetite for food.

ANTIBIOTIC
an agent that kills or inhibits the growth of bacteria.

ANTIBODY TEST
an assay that detects the presence of antibodies in a blood sample; ELISA and RIBA tests are used to detect HCV antibodies.

ANTICOAGULANT
a drug that reduces or delays blood coagulation or clotting.

ANTICONVULSANT
a drug that prevents or reduces convulsions or seizures.

ANTIDEPRESSANT
a drug that elevates the mood and alleviates mental depression. There are several types, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's), MAO inhibitors, and tricyclics.

ANTIEMETIC
a drug that relieves nausea and vomiting.

ANTIFIBROTIC
a drug or other agent than prevents or reduces the development of liver fibrosis or cirrhosis.

ANTIGEN
any agent or substance that stimulates an immune response. Antigens are often foreign invaders such as bacteria or viruses.

ANTIHISTAMINE
a drug that blocks the action of histamine, a chemical messenger in the body. Antihistamines are used to prevent or alleviate allergic reactions and to reduce stomach acid production.

ANTINUCLEAR ANTIBODY
An antibody that attacks cell nuclei.

ANTIOXIDANT
a substance that reduces oxidation by binding with and neutralizing free radicals. The body produces natural antioxidants, and they are also available in foods and dietary supplements (e.g., vitamin E, selenium).

ANTIRETROVIRAL
a drug that suppresses the activity or replication of retroviruses. Different types of antiretroviral drugs (e.g., reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors) interfere with various stages of the virus life cycle.

ANTISENSE COMPOUNDS
Compounds that target gene sequences associated with diseases to interfere with the disease process.

ANTISENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDE
an agent that blocks the synthesis of disease-causing proteins by binding with and preventing translation of RNA (genetic material). HCV antisense oligodeoxynucleotides are directed against a specific HCV genetic sequence and inhibit viral gene expression.

ANTIVIRAL
a drug that suppresses the activity or replication of viruses.

ANXIOLYTIC
a drug that helps relieve mental anxiety.

APLASTIC ANEMIA
anemia due to a reduced level of red blood cells caused by the inability of stem cells in the bone marrow to produce new cells. Certain drugs suppress the bone marrow and can lead to aplastic anemia as a side effect.

ARM
a group of participants in a clinical trial who receive the same treatment (or placebo).

ARTERIOGRAPHY :(ANGIOGRAPHY)
examination of arteries (after injection of a dye) to look for damage and blockages.

ARTHRALGIA
joint pain.

ARTHRITIS
joint inflammation.

AS-TREATED ANALYSIS
a method of analyzing the results of a clinical trial that includes only participants who successfully complete a course of the treatment, excluding those who drop out early. Contrast with intent-to-treat analysis.

ASCITES
accumulation of fluid in the abdominal (peritoneal) cavity. Ascites may be a symptom of advanced liver disease with decompensated cirrhosis.

ASSAY
a test, especially one used to detect the presence or amount of an agent in the blood or body tissues.

AST
see aspartate aminotransferase.

ASTRAGALUS
an herb used to stimulate the immune system. It is an ingredient in many Chinese herbal formulas.

ASYMPTOMATIC
not feeling or showing outward symptoms or signs of a disease.

ATHEROSCLEROSIS
a condition in which blood vessels harden and lose their elasticity due to the build-up of fatty material (plaques).

AUTOANTIBODY
an antibody that targets the body's own tissues.

AUTOIMMUNE RESPONSE :(AUTOIMMUNITY)
a condition in which a person's immune system produces antibodies that attack the body's own tissues. Several conditions associated with hepatitis C (e.g., lichen planus, Sj

AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS
an inflammatory, autoimmune condition in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland.

AYURVEDA
a system of traditional medicine practiced in India.

BACTERIUM (plural BACTERIA)
a simple single-celled microorganism. Bacteria are classified by their shape (e.g., rod, spirochete), staining properties (Gram positive or Gram negative) and habitat (aerobic, anaerobic).

BASELINE
an initial or known value (e.g., ALT level, HCV viral load) against which later measurements can be compared.

bDNA
see branched-chain DNA assay.

BECK DEPRESSION INDEX
a written, self-report questionnaire used to gauge clinical depression.

BEHCET'S DISEASE
a disease that presents as ulcerations in the eyes, mouth and genitals but can affect any organ of the body.

BENIGN
a mild, non-lethal illness, especially a non-cancerous tumor. Contrast with malignant.

BIAS
in a clinical trial, a false association that results from the failure to account for some skewing or influencing factor.

BID
taken twice daily.

BILE
a yellowish-green fluid produced by the liver that aids in the digestion of fats and the excretion of toxins.

BILE DUCT
the passage that carries bile from the liver to the small intestine.

BILIRUBIN
a yellowish pigment released when red blood cells are broken down. Normally bilirubin is processed and excreted by the liver. An excess level of bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia) may indicate liver damage, and can lead to jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes), pale-colored stools, and dark urine. A normal bilirubin level is below 1.3mg.

BINDING PROTEIN
a protein synthesized by the liver that binds to and transports substances such as vitamins, minerals, hormones, and fats.

BIOAVAILABILITY
the degree to which a drug or other substance is absorbed and circulated in the body.

BIOFEEDBACK
a technique in which people learn to use signals from their own bodies to influence physiological functions.

BIOFLAVINOID (VITAMIN P)
natural pigments found in fruits and vegetables that increase absorption of vitamin C.

BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE
see biochemical response.

BIOPSY (BX)
a procedure in which a sample of cells or tissue is taken for laboratory examination. Liver biopsies are used to monitor liver disease progression in people with HCV.

BLINDING
a method of conducting clinical trials in which participants do not know who is taking an experimental treatment, a standard (control) treatment, or a placebo. In a blinded study, the volunteers do not know what treatment (if any) they are receiving. In a double-blind study, neither the volunteers nor the researchers administering the treatment know who is receiving what. Blinding is done to reduce bias in drug trials. In the case of medical necessity, a study may be unblinded to reveal who is receiving what treatment.

BLOOD TRANSFUSION
the infusion of blood or blood components into an individual for the treatment of a medical condition. Transfusions may be homologous (from a donor) or autologous (previously stored blood from the recipient).

BLOOD-BORNE
a pathogen that is transmitted through direct blood-to-blood contact, for example, through sharing dirty needles or through a blood transfusion.

BMI
see body mass index.

BODY MASS INDEX (BMI)
a measurement of body fat determined by dividing a person's weight (in kilograms) by height (in meters squared).

BODYWORK
healing techniques (e.g., massage therapy, reflexology) that involve manipulating or applying pressure to the body.

BONE MARROW
the soft, spongy material inside certain long bones where blood cells are produced.

BRAIN FOG
mild mental confusion, memory loss, and/or lack of concentration and alertness. May be a symptom of toxic chemical build-up due to impaired liver function. See hepatic encephalopathy.

BRANCHED-CHAIN DNA ASSAY (bDNA)
a test that measures the amount of virus (viral load) in plasma or tissues using a chemical signal emitted by viral genetic material.

BREAKTHROUGH
the return of detectable viral load or high ALT levels in a person who had previously achieved a good virological or biochemical treatment response.

BUDDING
the emergence of newly produced virus particles through a host cell membrane.