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SWI - Cancer info
Category: Health and Medicine > Bones
Date & country: 25/03/2011, US
Words: 99


Ablation
In medicine, the removal or destruction of a body part or tissue or its function. Ablation may be performed by surgery, hormones, drugs, radiofrequency, heat, or other methods.

Adjunct
In cancer therapy, a drug or substance used in addition to the primary therapy.

Analgesic
A drug that reduces pain. Analgesics include aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen.

analysis
Andersen-Gill multiple event analysis considers all skeletal-related events and the time between events to provide a hazard ratio that expresses the risk of an event developing (Source Rosen LS. Cancer. 2003;981735-1744).

Androgen
A type of hormone that promotes the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics.

Antiandrogen
Any substance capable of inhibiting the biologic effects of androgen.

Aromatase
An enzyme that helps convert the male hormone testosterone to the aromatic compound estradiol, a female hormone.

Autophosphorylation
Addition of a phosphate to a protein kinase (possibly affecting its activity) by virtue of its own enzymatic activity.

Bisphosphonate
A type of drug used to treat osteoporosis and the bone pain caused by some types of cancer.

Bone scan
A technique to create images of bones on a computer screen or on film. A small amount of radioactive material is injected into a blood vessel and travels through the bloodstream; it collects in the bones and is detected by a scanner.

Capillaries
Extremely small blood vessels.

complications
Events, including pathologic fracture and spinal cord compression, that require interventions such as radiation to bone or surgery to bone. Sometimes hypocalcemia of malignancy is included. Also called skeletal-related events.

Cytokines
Nonantibody proteins released by a group of cells when stimulated by a specific antigen, which act as intercellular mediators.

Cytotoxic therapy
A treatment that may be destructive to certain cells.

density (BMD)
A measure of bone strength.

DEXA
Dual x-ray absorptiometry; a 2-dimensional measure of bone density.

endpoint
The main result that is measured at the end of a study to see if a given treatment worked (eg, the number of deaths or the difference in survival between the treatment group and the control group). What the primary endpoint will be is decided before the study begins.

Estrogen
A hormone that promotes the development and maintenance of female sex characteristics.

Etiology
The causes or origins of disease.

events (SREs)
Events, including pathologic fracture and spinal cord compression, that require interventions such as radiation to bone or surgery to bone. Sometimes hypocalcemia of malignancy is included. Also called skeletal complications.

factor
A cytokine that can cause hemorrhagic death of certain tumor cells in vivo and in vitro but that does not affect normal cells.

factors
A group of growth factors produced in blood and other tissues that are needed to differentiate stem cells into granulocyte and monocyte colonies.

failure
Premature menopause caused frequently by adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.

failure
Premature menopause caused frequently by adjuvant radiation therapy for breast cancer.

Femoral neck
Portion of the femur between the femoral head (by the hip) and the shaft of the femur.

Femur
The long bone at the upper part of the leg, extending from the hip to the knee.

Glucocorticoid
A compound that belongs to the family of compounds called corticosteroids (steroids). Glucocorticoids affect metabolism and have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. They may be naturally produced (hormones) or synthetic (drugs).

GnRH agonist
A pharmacologic agent that promotes gonadotropin-releasing hormone activity.

Gonadal
From gonad, which is part of the reproductive system that produces and releases eggs (ovary) or sperm (testicle/testis).

growth factor
A growth-hormone-dependent mediator of cell growth with insulinlike actions.

Growth factor
A substance made by the body that functions to regulate cell division and cell survival. Some growth factors also are produced in the laboratory and used in biologic therapy.

growth factor
Proteins secreted by transformed cells that can stimulate growth of normal cells.

Growth hormone
A hormone that affects metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids and controls the rate of skeletal and visceral growth.

Gut
All of part of the alimentary canal, especially the intestines; the belly or stomach.

Hematopoietic
Related to the formation and development of blood cells.

Homeostasis
The tendency of an organism toward stability in the normal body states.

Humorally
Refers to that which is dissolved in blood and other body fluids.

Hypertonia
The excessive tone of skeletal muscles and the muscles' resistance to stretching.

Hypogonadism
A condition resulting from or characterized by abnormally decreased functional activity of the gonads.

Hyponephrosis
((Faculty please provide a definition))

imaging (MRI)
A procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer are used to create detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures can show the difference between normal and diseased tissue. MRI makes better images of organs and soft tissue than do other scanning techniques, such as CT or x-ray. It is especially useful for imaging the brain, spine, the soft tissue of joints,...

imbalanced bone
In bone remodeling that is uncoupled and imbalanced, there is an excessive amount of newly woven weak bone that is easily fractured. Osteoblastic activity becomes abnormal such that there may be a net increase in bone formation at sites with no previous bone resorption. Commonly seen in osteoblastic lesions in patients with prostate cancer metastases.

Incidence
The number of newly diagnosed cases during a specific time period.

Infusion
A method of putting fluids, including drugs, into the bloodstream. Also called intravenous infusion.

inhibitor
A drug that interferes with aromatase to prevent the conversion of the male hormone testosterone to the female hormone estradiol. Aromatase inhibitors are used as a type of hormone therapy for postmenopausal women who have hormone-dependent breast cancer.

Interleukin-1
A cytokine that mediates the body's inflammatory response.

Interleukins
Multifunctional cytokines whose effects are at least partly within the lymphopoietic system.

junction
The point at which the ureter and bladder connect.

Lesion
An area of abnormal tissue. A lesion may be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

lesion
Destruction of bone due to a disease process, usually cancer.

LHRH agonist
A pharmacologic agent that promotes luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone activity.

loss (CTIBL)
Loss of bone mass as a result of specific cancer treatments

Lumbar spine
A part of the back between the chest and the pelvis.

Lytic
Pertaining to lysis, destruction of cells. In biology, lysis refers to the disintegration of a cell by disruption of its plasma membrane. Also pertains to destruction of an area of bone due to a disease process, such as cancer.

Lytic lesion
Destruction of an area of bone due to a disease process, such as cancer.

Malignant
Cancerous. Malignant tumors can invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

marker
An entity, test, or measure used to substitute for another measure, for example, biochemical bone markers as a surrogate marker of bone loss or formation.

Metastasis
The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another. A tumor formed by cells that have spread is called a "metastatic tumor" or a "metastasis." The metastatic tumor contains cells that are like those in the original (primary) tumor.

Metastatic
Having to do with metastasis, which is the spread of cancer from one part of the body to another.

MGUS
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, showing an M-protein in the serum without symptoms or findings of multiple myeloma, macroglobulinemia, amyloidosis, or lymphoma and with fewer than 10% plasma cells in the bone marrow.

modulator (SERM)
A drug that acts like estrogen on some tissues but blocks the effect of estrogen on other tissues. Tamoxifen and raloxifene are SERMs.

Morbidity
A disease or the incidence of disease within a population. Morbidity also refers to adverse effects caused by a treatment.

Neoplasm
Any new abnormal growth of cells that is uncontrolled and progressive.

of malignancy
Abnormally high blood calcium levels, resulting from cancer.

Oophorectomy
Removal of an ovary or ovaries (bilateral); also called ovariectomy.

Orchiectomy
Excision of one or both testes; if both, also called castration.

Osteoblast
A cell that forms bone in the bone remodeling process.

Osteoclast
A cell that resorbs bone into the body in the bone remodeling process.

Osteoclastogenesis
Formation of osteoclasts (bones cells)

Osteolysis
Destruction of bone.

Osteopenia
Reduced bone mass due to a decrease in the rate of osteoid (bone) synthesis or production to a level insufficient to compensate for normal bone lysis (destruction). The term is also used to refer to any decrease in bone mass below normal. (Osteopenia T-score = -1 to -2.5)

Osteoporosis
A condition that is characterized by a decrease in bone mass and density, causing bones to become fragile and at risk of fracture. (Osteoporosis T-score = ≤-2.5)

P value
A statistics term. A measure of probability that a difference between groups during an experiment happened by chance. For example, a P value of .01 (P=.01) means there is a 1 in 100 chance that the result of an experiment occurred by chance. The lower the P value, the more likely it is that the difference between groups was caused by treatment and not by chance.

Palliative care
Care given to improve the quality of life of patients who have a serious or life-threatening disease. The goal of palliative care is to prevent or treat as early as possible the symptoms of the disease, side effects caused by treatment of the disease, and psychological, social, and spiritual problems related to the disease or its treatment. Also called comfort care, supportive care, and symptom ma...

Panocytopenia
Deficiency of all elements of the blood.

Parathyroid hormone
A polypeptide hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands. It activates osteoclasts and inhibits osteoblasts.

Pathologic fracture
A broken bone caused by disease, often by the spread of cancer to the bone.

period rate
Number of 12-week periods with new skeletal complications (vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, bone radiotherapy, or bone surgery), divided by the number of periods on the study. (Source Tripathy D et al. Annals Oncol. 2004;15743-750, p744).

Placebo
An inactive substance or treatment that looks the same as, and is given the same way as, an active drug or treatment being tested. The effects of the active drug or treatment are compared to the effects of the placebo.

Plain radiograph
Plain x-ray film. Image produced by x-ray imaging.

Prenylation
The covalent addition of prenyl and multiprenyl residues to a macromolecule.

Prevalence
Reflects the number of patients with a certain disease in a population at a given time.

Randomize
Randomization. When referring to an experiment or clinical trial, the process by which animal or human subjects are assigned by chance to separate groups that compare different treatments or other interventions. Randomization gives each participant an equal chance of being assigned to any of the groups.

refractory
In oncology, this term describes cancer that does not respond to hormone treatment. Also known as hormone resistant.

related peptide
A substance secreted by certain types of cancer cells that causes hypocalcemia.

releasing hormone
Any hypothalamic factor that stimulates release of both follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.

releasing hormone
Any hypothalamic factor that stimulates release of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone; also called follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing hormone or gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

Resorption
A process by which a substance in the body, such as bone tissue, is lost by being destroyed and then absorbed by the body.

responsive
In oncology, this term describes cancer that responds to hormone treatment.

Side chain
A group of atoms attached to another chain or ring of atoms. It also can be a group of radicals in a chemical compound.

significance
A mathematical measure of the difference between groups. The difference is said to be statistically significant if it is greater than what might be expected to happen by chance alone. (See P value)

Skeletal wellness
An integrated approach to recognize the impact of cancer and cancer treatment on bone health and to adopt methods to treat and prevent bone complications so as to optimize quality of life.

Stromal
From stroma, which is the connective tissue forming the framework or matrix of an organ.

study
A study that compares two groups of people those with the disease or condition under study (cases) and a very similar group of people who do not have the disease or condition (controls). Researchers study the medical and lifestyle histories of the people in each group to learn what factors may be associated with the disease or condition. For example, one group may have been exposed to a particular...

Supportive care
See palliative care.

T-score
Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement is commonly reported in terms of a T-score, which is measured against the bone mineral density of a reference population of young healthy adult women. The T-score is also used to define osteoporosis and osteopenia.

Tetany
Hyperexcitability of nerves and muscles caused by a decrease in the concentration of extracellular calcium.

therapy (ADT)
Hormone therapy to lower levels of the male hormones (androgens) in the body.

Ureter
The fibromuscular tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.