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PMEL - roofing glossary
Category: Architecture and Buildings > Roofing glossary
Date & country: 01/09/2008, US
Words: 414


Vent
  Any outlet for air that protrudes through the roof deck such as a pipe or stack. Any device installed on the roof, gable or soffit for the purpose of ventilating the underside of the roof deck.

Vapor retarder
Any material used to prevent the passage of water vapor.

cooling tower
A large device mounted on roofs, consisting of many baffles over which water is pumped in order to reduce its temperature.

coping
A construction unit placed at the top of the parapet wall to serve as a cover for the wall.

Underlayment
  Asphalt saturated felt used beneath roofing to provide additional protection for the deck.

Valley
  The internal angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.

UL
  Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.

UL label
   Label displayed on packaging to indicate the level of fire and/or wind resistance of asphalt roofing.

liquid-applied membrane
Generally applied to cast-in-place concrete surfaces in one or more coats to provide fully-adhered waterproof membranes which conform to all contours.

lintel
or header - A horizontal piece of wood or steel over an opening such as a window or door. to support the walls immediately above the opening. Lintels can also be steel or stone.

liquidated damages
A monetary amount agreed upon by two parties to a contract prior to performance under the contract that specifies what a either party owes the other if that party defaults under the contract.

live load
Loads produced by use and occupancy of the building or other structure and do not include construction or environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, ice load, rain load, seismic load, or dead load.

lite
Another term for a pane of glass. Sometimes spelled 'light' in industry literature but spelled 'lite' in this text to avoid confusion with light as in 'visible light.'

Mansard roof
  A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each of four sides. The lower plane has a much steeper pitch than the upper, often approaching vertical. Contains no gables.

Masonry primer
An asphalt-based primer used to prepare masonry surfaces for bonding with other asphalt products.

Mastic
  See asphalt plastic roofing cement.

Low slope application
Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes between two and four inches per foot.

copper pipe types
Type K has the heaviest or thickest wall and is generally used underground. It has a green stripe. (Kelly Green). Type L has a medium wall thickness and is most commonly used for water service and for general interior water piping. It has a blue stripe (Lavender Blue). Type M has a thin wall and many codes permit its use in general water piping installation. It has a red stripe. (Mad Red)

lean-to-roof
the sloping roof of a building addition having its rafters or supports pitched against and supported by the adjoining wall of a building.

core
A small section cut from any material to show internal composition.

cornice
A horizontal projecting course on the exterior of a building, usually at the base of the parapet.

Top lap
That portion of the roofing covered by the succeeding course after installation.

lead
A malleable metal once extensively used for flashings.

corrosion
The deterioration of metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction resulting from exposure to weathering, moisture, chemicals or other agents or media.

leveling rod
A rod with graduated marks for measuring heights or vertical distances between given points and the line of sight of a leveling instrument. They are longer than a yardstick and are held by a surveyor in a vertical position.

corrugated
Folded or shaped into parallel ridges or furrows so as to form a symmetrically wavy surface.

cost breakdown
A breakdowns of all the anticipated costs on a construction or

ladder, fixed
A ladder which is permanently attached to a building.

laminated glass
Two or more lites of glass permanently bonded together with one or more inter-layers.

Three-dimensional shingles
  See laminated shingles.

Telegraphing
  A shingle distortion that may arise when a new roof is applied over an uneven surface.

Steep slope application
Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes greater than 21 inches per foot.

Tab
  The exposed portion of strip shingles defined by cutouts.

Talc
  See back surfacing.

Lap cement
  An asphalt-based cement used to adhere overlapping plies of roll roofing.

Lap
   To cover the surface of one shingles or roll with another.

course
A single layer of brick or stone or other building material.

coupling
In plumbing, a short collar with only inside threads at each end, for receiving the ends of two pipes which are to be fitted and joined together. A right/left coupling is one used to join 2 gas pipes in limited space.

covenants
Rules usually developed by a builder or developer regarding the physical appearance of buildings in a particular geographic area. Typical covenants address building height, appropriate fencing and landscaping, and the type of exterior material (stucco, brick, stone, siding, etc) that may be used.

cleat
A wedge-shaped piece (usually of metal) which serves as a support or check. A strip fastened across something to give strength or hold something in position.

lap
To extend one material partially over another; the distance so extended.

kraft
A heavy, water resistant paper.

kynar coating
Architectural coating that is UV stable and suitable for exterior use on aluminum and other metal surfaces.

Interlocking shingles
Individual shingles that mechanically fasten to each other to provide wind resistance.

Laminated shingles
  Strip shingles containing more than one layer of tabs to create extra thickness. Also called three-dimensional shingles or architectural shingles.

Horsefeathers
  See feathering strips.

Ice dam
  Condition formed at the lower roof edge by the thawing and re-freezing of melted snow on the overhang. Can force water up and under shingles, causing leaks.

Hip shingles
Shingles used to cover the inclined external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.

circuit breaker
Simple switch-like device which automatically opens a circuit when the rated current is exceeded as in the case of a short circuit.

Starter strip
   Asphalt roofing applied at the eaves that provide protection by filling in the spaces under the cutouts and joints of the first course of shingles.

knife consistency
Compound formulated in a degree of firmness suitable for application with a putty knife such as used for face glazing and other sealant applications.

chair rail
A molding that runs horizontally along the wall at about 3 feet from the ground. In storefront, window wall, or curtain wall systems, a chair rail is an aluminum extrusion applied horizontally to the inside of the system 3 feet from the floor to create a barrier in floor-to-ceiling glazing applications.

channel glazing
The installation of glass products into U-shaped glazing channels. The channels may have fixed stops; however, at least one glazing stop on one edge must be removable.

Square-tab shingles
  Shingles on which tabs are all the same size and exposure.

Step flashing
   Flashing application method used where a vertical surface meets a sloping roof plane.

Hip
  The inclined external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes. Runs from the ridge to the eaves.

Hip roof
A type of roof containing sloping planes of the same pitch on each of four sides. Contains no gables.

HEX shingles
   Shingles that have the appearance of a hexagon after installation.

Square
  A unit of roof measure covering 100 square feet.

kick hole
A defect frequently found in perimeter flashings arising from being stepped on or kicked. A small fracture of the base flashing in the area of the cant.

kelvin
Thermometer scale on which a unit of measurement equals the Celsius degree.

checking
A pattern of surface cracks running in irregular lines. When found in the top pour of an asphalt built-up roof, checking is the preliminary stage of alligatoring.

Soil stack
A vent pipe that penetrates the roof.

Span
The horizontal distance from eaves to eaves.

Specialty eaves flashing membrane
  A self-adhering, waterproofing shingle underlayment designed to protect against water infiltration due to ice dams or wind driven rain.

joist
The horizontal framing members that support the floors.

joint
The space or opening between two or more adjoining surfaces.

jamb
The frame in which a door or window sits.

Gutter
  The trough that channels water from the eaves to the downspouts.

Head lap
  Shortest distance from the butt edge of an overlapping shingle to the upper edge of a shingle in the second course below. The triple coverage portion of the top lap of strip shingles.

irma
Insulated (or Inverted) Roof Membrane Assembly. In this system the roof membrane is laid directly on the roof deck, covered with extruded foam insulation and ballasted with stone, minimum of 1000 lbs. per square.

incompatibility
Descriptive of two or more materials which are not suitable to be used together.

indemnification clause
Provision in a contract in which one party agrees to be financially responsible for specified types of damages, claims, or losses.

Granules
  Ceramic-coated colored crushed rock that is applied to the exposed surface of asphalt roofing products.

chemical injection grouting
Leak repair technique usually used below grade in cracks and joints in concrete walls and floors that involves injection of sealant (usually urethane) that reacts with water to form a seal.

cfm
(Cubic Feet per Minute) The measure of volume of air. When testing systems, find the CFM by multiplying the face velocity times the free area in square feet. The face velocity is the amount of air passing through the face of an outlet or return. Free area is the total area of the openings in the outlet or inlet through which air can pass.

Smooth-surfaced roofing
Roll roofing that is covered with ground talc or mica instead of granules (coated).

Soffit
The finished underside of the eaves.

infiltration
The process by which air leaks into a building. In either case, heat loss results. To find the infiltration heating load factor (HLF), the formula to account for the extra BTU's needed to heat the infiltrated air is: BTU/HR building volume x air changes x BTU/cu.ft/hr x TD (TD is temperature difference)

inside drain
In roofing, a drain positioned on a roof at some location other than the perimeter. It drains surface water inside the building through closed pipes to a drainage system.

Slope
The degree of roof incline expressed as the ratio of the rise, in inches, to the run, in feet.

insulating glass unit
Two or more lites of glass spaced apart and hermetically sealed to form a single-glazed unit with an air space between each lite. (Commonly called IG units.)

cement mixtures
Rich - 1 part cement, 2 parts sand, 3 parts coarse aggregate. Used for concrete roads and waterproof structures. Standard - 1 part cement, 2 parts sand, 4 parts coarse aggregate. Used for reinforced work floors, roofs, columns, arches, tanks, sewers, conduits, etc. Medium - 1 part cement, 2 1/2 parts sand, 5 parts coarse aggregate. Used for foundations, walls, abutments, piers, etc. Lean - 1 part ...

insulation
(1) Generally, any material which slows down or retards the flow or transfer of heat. Building insulation types are classified according to form as loose fill, flexible, rigid, reflective, and foamed-in-place. All types are rated according to their ability to resist heat flow (R-Value). (2) In electrical contracting, rubber, thermoplastic, or asbestos wire covering. The thickness of insulation var...

interior glazed
Glazing infills set from the interior of the building.

insulation fasteners
Any of several specialized mechanical fasteners designed to hold insulation down to a steel or a nailable deck.

Shed roof
  A roof containing only one sloping plane. Has no hips, ridges, valleys or gables.

Single coverage
  Asphalt roofing that provides one layer of roofing material over the deck.

interply
Between two layers of roofing felts that have been laminated together.

interlayer
In glazing, any material used to bond two lites of glass and/or plastic together to form a laminate.

Gambrel roof
  A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each side of the ridge. The lower plane has a steeper slope than the upper. Contains a gable at each end.

hydroelectric elevator
An elevator where liquid is pumped under pressure directly into the cylinder by a pump driven by an electric motor without an accumulator between the pump and cylinder.

hub
In plumbing, the enlarged end of a pipe which is made to provide a connection into which the end of the joining pipe will fit.

hvac
Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning.

Shading
  Slight differences in shingle color that may occur as a result of normal manufacturing operations.

Sheathing
Exterior grade boards used as a roof deck material.

Self-sealing strip or spot
  Factory-applied adhesive that bonds shingle courses together when exposed to the heat of the sun after application.

cellulose insulation
Ground up newspaper that is treated with a fire retardant.

cement types
Type I Normal - is a general purpose cement suitable for practically all uses in residential construction but should not be used where it will be in contact with high sulfate soils or be subject to excessive temperatures during curing. Type II Moderate is used where precaution against moderate sulfate attack is important, as in drainage structures where sulfate concentrations in groundwater's are...

canopy
An overhanging roof.