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mondofacto - Online Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: 26/01/2008, UK
Words: 138795


acarpous
<botany> Not producing fruit; unfruitful. ... Origin: Gr.; priv. + fruit. ... Source: Websters Dictionary ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

acarus
Origin: NL, from Gr. The cheese mite, tick. ... <zoology> A genus including many species of small mites. ... Source: Websters Dictionary ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

Acarus balatus
A tropical species of mite that causes a particularly severe type of scabies-like irritation. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Acarus folliculorum
Synonym for Demodex folliculorum ... A very common, universally distributed, and usually nonpathogenic species of mite that inhabits the hair follicles and sebaceous glands of humans, commonly around the nose and scalp margins. ... Synonym: Acarus folliculorum, Simonea folliculorum. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Acarus gallinae
Synonym for Dermanyssus gallinae ... The red hen-mite, a parasite of chickens, pigeons, and other birds; it sometimes attacks humans and causes an itching eruption, especially in sensitised individuals. ... Synonym: Acarus gallinae. ... Origin: derm-+ G. Nysso, to prick; L. Gallina, hen ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Acarus hordei
The barley mite, a species that penetrates beneath the skin. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Acarus rhizoglypticus hyacinthi
A species that develops in spoiled onions and may cause dermatitis. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Acarus scabiei
A former term for Sarcoptes scabiei. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acaryote
Synonym for akaryocyte ... A cell without a nucleus (karyon), such as the erythrocyte. ... Synonym: acaryote, akaryote. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + karyon, kernel, + kytos, a hollow (cell) ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acatalasaemia
Synonym for acatalasia ... Absence or deficiency of catalase from blood and tissues, often manifested by recurrent infection or ulceration of the gums and related oral structures. Homozygotes may have complete absence (Japanese variety) or very low levels (Swiss variety) of catalase; heterozygotes have reduced catalase levels (hypocatalasia), which …

acatalasia
Absence or deficiency of catalase from blood and tissues, often manifested by recurrent infection or ulceration of the gums and related oral structures. Homozygotes may have complete absence (Japanese variety) or very low levels (Swiss variety) of catalase; heterozygotes have reduced catalase levels (hypocatalasia), which overlap with the normal ra …

acatamathesia
An obsolete term for the loss or impairment of understanding, especially speech comprehension. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + katamathesis, a thorough knowledge or understanding ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acataphasia
Inability to correctly formulate a statement. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + kataphasis, affirmation ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acathectic
Rarely used term relating to acathexia. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acathexia
Rarely used term for an abnormal release of secretions. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + kathexis, retention ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acathexis
Rarely used term for a mental disorder in which certain objects or ideas fail to arouse an emotional response in the individual. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + kathexis, retention ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acathisia
Synonym for akathisia ... 1. <neurology> A condition of motor restlessness in which there is a feeling of muscular quivering, an urge to move about constantly and an inability to sit still, a common extrapyramidal side effect of neuroleptic drugs. ... 2. An inability to sit down because of intense anxiety at the thought of doing so. ... Origin: …

acaudal
Synonym for acaudate ... Having no tail. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + L. Cauda, tail ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acaudate
Having no tail. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + L. Cauda, tail ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acaulescent
<botany> Describes a plant that lacks or seems to lack a stem. ... (06 May 1997) ...

acauline
<botany> Same as Acaulescent. ... Origin: Pref. A- not + cauline. ... Source: Websters Dictionary ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

acaulous
<botany> Same as Acaulescent. ... Origin: Gr.; priv. + stalk or L. Caulis stalk. See Cole. ... Source: Websters Dictionary ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

accelerans
1. Accelerating. ... 2. Obsolete term for an accelerator (sympathetic) nerve to the heart. ... Origin: L. Accelerator ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accelerant
Synonym for accelerator ... 1. Anything that increases rapidity of action or function. ... 2. In physiology, a nerve, muscle, or substance that quickens movement or response. ... 3. A catalytic agent used to hasten a chemical reaction. ... 4. In nuclear physics, a device that accelerates charged particles (e.g., protons) to high speed in order to produ …

accelerate
1. To cause to move faster; to quicken the motion of; to add to the speed of; opposed to retard. ... 2. To quicken the natural or ordinary progression or process of; as, to accelerate the growth of a plant, the increase of wealth, etc. ... 3. To hasten, as the occurence of an event; as, to accelerate our departure. ... <mechanics> Accelerated mo …

accelerated conduction
Any pathologically increased speed of conduction; usually occurs between the atrium and ventricles as in the Wolff-Parkinson-White and Lown-Ganong-Levine syndromes; such accelerated pathways provide the bases for particular forms of reentry tachycardia. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accelerated hypertension
<cardiology> A severe form of acute hypertension that results in the abrupt rise in the blood pressure (diastolic pressure often over 120 mmHg). If left untreated, malignant hypertension can cause damage to the blood vessels in the eye, kidneys, brain and heart. Complications include stroke, heart attack, blindness and renal failure. ... Sympt …

accelerated idioventricular rhythm
A transient and intermittent type of arrhythmia with episodes lasting from a few seconds to a minute which usually occurs in patients with acute myocardial infarction or with digitalis toxicity. Suppressive therapy is rarely necessary because the ventricular rate is generally less than 100 beats per minute. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

accelerated phase of leukaemia
Refers to chronic myelogenous leukaemia that is progressing. The number of immature, abnormal white blood cells in the bone marrow and blood is higher than in the chronic phase, but not as high as in the blast phase. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

accelerated reaction
A response occurring in a shorter time than expected; the cutaneous manifestations occurring during the period between the second and tenth day following smallpox vaccination; because it is intermediate between a primary reaction and an immediate reaction, it is regarded as evidence of some degree of resistance. ... Synonym: vaccinoid reaction. ... ( …

accelerated rejection
A transplant rejection manifested in less than three days. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acceleration
The act of accelerating, or the state of being accelerated; increase of motion or action; as, a falling body moves toward the earth with an acceleration of velocity; opposed to retardation. 'A period of social improvement, or of intellectual advancement, contains within itself a principle of acceleration.' (I. ... <astronomy> Taylor) Accelerat …

acceleration phase
<cell biology, cell culture> A period of increasing growth before the log phase in a culture of microbes. ... After the culture is started on a medium, at first there is no growth (the lag phase) and then the microbes start to gradually grow (acceleration phase) until they reach a constant maximum rate of growth (log phase). ... (15 Jan 1998)
accelerator
1. Anything that increases rapidity of action or function. ... 2. In physiology, a nerve, muscle, or substance that quickens movement or response. ... 3. A catalytic agent used to hasten a chemical reaction. ... 4. In nuclear physics, a device that accelerates charged particles (e.g., protons) to high speed in order to produce nuclear reactions in a t …

accelerator factor
Synonym for factor v ... <chemical> Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor v accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor v leads to owren's disease. ... Chemical name: …

accelerator fibres
Postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibre's originating in the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia of the sympathetic trunk, conveying nervous impulses to the heart that increase the rapidity and force of the cardiac pulsations. ... Synonym: augmentor fibres. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accelerator globulin
Globulin in serum that promotes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in the presence of thromboplastin and ionised calcium. ... See: factor Va, factor V, serum accelerator globulin. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accelerator nerves
Certain of the cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves establishing the sympathetic innervation of the heart; originating from ganglion cells of the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, the unmyelinated efferent fibres of the accelerator nerve's stimulate an increase in the heart rate. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accelerin
An obsolete term for what was once considered an intermediary product of coagulation but is no longer thought to exist. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accelerograph
An apparatus for studying the combustion of powder in guns, etc. ... Origin: Accelerate + -graph. ... Source: Websters Dictionary ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

accelerometer
An instrument for measuring the rate of change of velocity per unit of time. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accensor
One of the functionaries who light and trim the tapers. ... Origin: LL, from p. P. Accensus. See Accend ... Source: Websters Dictionary ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

accent
1. A superior force of voice or of articulative effort upon some particular syllable of a word or a phrase, distinguishing it from the others. ... Many English words have two accents, the primary and the secondary; the primary being uttered with a greater stress of voice than the secondary; as in as'pira'tion, where the chief stress is on the third …

accentor
1. One who sings the leading part; the director or leader. ... 2. <ornithology> A genus of European birds (so named from their sweet notes), including the hedge warbler. In America sometimes applied to the water thrushes. ... Origin: L. Ad. + cantor singer, canere to sing. ... Source: Websters Dictionary ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

accentuation
Act of accentuating; applications of accent. Specifically . ... Pitch or modulation of the voice in reciting portions of the liturgy. ... Origin: LL. Accentuatio: cf. F. Accentuation. ... Source: Websters Dictionary ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

accentuator
A substance, such as aniline, the presence of which allows a combination between a tissue or histologic element and a stain that might otherwise be impossible. ... Origin: L. Accentus, accent, fr. Cano, to sing ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acceptable daily intake
<pharmacology> This is an estimate of the amount of a substance in food that can be ingested daily over a lifetime by humans without appreciable health risk. ... The concept of the acceptable daily intake has been developed principally by who and FAO and is relevant to chemicals such as additives to foods, residues of pesticides and veterinary …

acceptable risk
<statistics> This relates to the potential for suffering disease or injury that will be tolerated by an individual, group, or society in exchange for the benefits of using a substance or process that will cause such disease or injury. ... Acceptability of risk depends on scientific data, social, economic, and political factors, and on the perc …

acception
Acceptation; the received meaning. 'Here the word 'baron' is not to be taken in that restrictive sense to which the modern acception hath confined it.' (Fuller) Acception of persons or faces, favoritism; partiality. ... Origin: L. Acceptio a receiving, accepting: cf. F. Acception. ... Source: Websters Dictionary ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

acceptor
A compound that will take up a chemical group (e.g., an amine group, a methyl group, a carbamoyl group) from another compound (the donor); under the action of alanine transaminase, l-glutamic acid is an amine donor while pyruvic acid is an amine acceptor. ... Origin: L. Ac-cipio, pp. -ceptus, to accept ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acceptor control
<biochemistry> The regulation of the respiration rate, governed by ADP's ability to be a phosphate group acceptor. ... (06 May 1997) ...

acceptor RNA
Synonym for transfer RNA ... rNA ...

acceptor site
The ribosomal binding site for the aminoacyl-tRNA during protein synthesis. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acceptor splicing site
Synonym for right splicing junction ... Boundary between the right end of an intron and the left end of the adjacent exon. ... Synonym: acceptor splicing site. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acces pernicieux
A series of severe attacks of falciparum malaria, sometimes occurring in apparently mild cases; roughly classified as cerebral and algid. ... Origin: Fr., pernicious attacks or symptoms ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

access
1. A coming to, or near approach; admittance; admission; accessibility; as, to gain access to a prince. 'I did repel his letters, and denied His access to me.' (Shak) ... 2. The means, place, or way by which a thing may be approached; passage way; as, the access is by a neck of land. 'All access was thronged.' ... 3. Admission to sexual intercourse. …

access opening
Synonym for access ... 1. A coming to, or near approach; admittance; admission; accessibility; as, to gain access to a prince. 'I did repel his letters, and denied His access to me.' (Shak) ... 2. The means, place, or way by which a thing may be approached; passage way; as, the access is by a neck of land. 'All access was thronged.' ... 3. Admission t …

accessible
<surgery> Refers to tissue that can be approached by a surgical procedure. In surgical oncology it refers to tumours that are not deep in the brain or beneath vital structures. Inaccessible tumours cannot be approached by standard surgical techniques. ... (06 Oct 1997) ...

accession
1. A coming to; the act of acceding and becoming joined; as, a king's accession to a confederacy. ... 2. Increase by something added; that which is added; augmentation from without; as, an accession of wealth or territory. 'The only accession which the Roman empire received was the province of Britain.' (Gibbon) ... 3. A mode of acquiring property, b …

accessorius
Synonym: accessory. ... Origin: L. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessorius willisii
Synonym for accessory nerve ... <anatomy, nerve> The accessory nerve enervates the sternocleidomastoid muscles and the trapezius muscles. ... Lesions of the eleventh result in drooping of the shoulder and inability to rotate the head away from the affected side. ... Synonym: cranial nerve XI. ... (27 Sep 1997) ...

accessory
In anatomy, denoting certain muscles, nerves, glands, etc. That are auxiliary or supernumerary to some similar, generally more important thing. ... Synonym: accessorius. ... Origin: L. Accessorius, fr. Ac-cedo, pp. -cessus, to move toward ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory adrenal
An island of cortical tissue separate from the adrenal gland, usually found in the retroperitoneal tissues, kidney, or genital organs. ... Synonym: adrenal rest. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory atrium
Synonym for cor triatriatum ... <cardiology, embryology> A congenital anomaly characterised by the presence in the atrium of a perforated muscular membrane which separates the atrium into upper and lower chambers. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

accessory auricles
Small, fleshy nodules or folds, sometimes with supporting cartilage, occasionally found along the margins of the embryonic branchial clefts. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory breast
Synonym for supernumerary breast ... A milk-secreting gland located elsewhere than at the normal place on the chest and existing in addition to the two usual mammae. ... Synonym: mamma accessoria, accessory breast, supernumerary mamma. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory canal
A channel leading from the root pulp laterally through the dentin to the periodontal tissue; may be found anywhere in the tooth root, but is more common in the apical third of the root. ... Synonym: lateral canal. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory cartilage
A sesamoid cartilage. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory cephalic vein
<anatomy, vein> A variable vein that passes along the radial border of the forearm to join the cephalic vein near the elbow. ... Synonym: vena cephalica accessoria. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory chromosome
A chromosome existing without its normal homologous chromosome; at the reduction division of gametogenesis an accessory chromosome is likely to be included in one daughter cell and not in the other, but may be lost completely by lagging behind on the equatorial plate. ... Synonym: monosome, odd chromosome, unpaired allosome, unpaired chromosome. ... …

accessory cramp
Synonym for torticollis ... <neurology> A wry neck, a contracted state of the cervical muscles, producing twisting of the neck and an unnatural position of the head. ... Origin: L. Tortus = twisted, collum = neck ... (18 Nov 1997) ...

accessory cuneate nucleus
A cell group lateral to the cuneate nucleus which receives posterior-root fibres corresponding to the proprioceptive innervation of the arm and hand; it projects to the cerebellum by way of the cuneocerebellar tract, and can be considered the upper-extremity equivalent of the thoracic nucleus. ... Synonym: nucleus cuneatus accessorius, external cune …

accessory flexor muscle of foot
Synonym for quadratus plantae ... <anatomy, muscle> Origin, by two heads from the lateral and medial borders of the inferior surface of the calcaneus; insertion, tendons of flexor digitorum longus; action, assists long flexor; nerve supply, lateral plantar. ... Synonym: musculus flexor accessorius, musculus quadratus plantae, accessory flexor m …

accessory flower part
<plant biology> Sepal and petal organs found on flowers. The sepals and petals are not essential for pollination but may aid in attracting insects or other organisms. ... (15 Jan 1998) ...

accessory fruit
<plant biology> A fruit, or group of fruits derived from one flower, in which the conspicuous, fleshy portion develops from the receptacle and is shed with the true fruit attached. ... (15 Jan 1998) ...

accessory gland
A small mass of glandular structure, detached from but lying near another and larger gland, to which it is similar in structure and probably in function. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory hemiazygos vein
<anatomy, vein> Formed by the union of the fourth to seventh left posterior intercostal veins, passes along the side of the bodies of the fifth, sixth, and seventh thoracic vertebrae, then crosses the midline behind the aorta, oesophagus, and thoracic duct, and empties into the azygos vein, sometimes in common with the hemiazygos vein. ... Syn …

accessory lacrimal glands
Small, compound, branched, tubular glands located in the middle part of the lid (Wolfring's glands, 1872, or Ciaccio's glands, 1874) and along the superior and inferior fornices of the conjunctival sac (Krause's glands, 1854). These accessory glands are just scattered scraps of lacrimal gland tissue; all of them produce the same kind of tears and d …

accessory ligaments
Ligament's about a joint that are in addition to the articular capsule. They may lie within, or on the outside of the latter. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory molecules
Cell surface adhesion molecules on T-cells that are involved in binding of one cell to another cell or in signal transduction, e.g., CD4. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory nasal cartilages
Variable small plates of cartilage located in the interval between the greater alar and lateral nasal cartilages. ... Synonym: cartilagines nasales accessoriae, sesamoid cartilages of nose. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory nerve
<anatomy, nerve> The accessory nerve enervates the sternocleidomastoid muscles and the trapezius muscles. ... Lesions of the eleventh result in drooping of the shoulder and inability to rotate the head away from the affected side. ... Synonym: cranial nerve XI. ... (27 Sep 1997) ...

accessory nerve lymph nodes
The nodes of the lateral deep cervical group that are located along the accessory nerve; their efferent vessels pass to the supraclavicular lymph nodes. ... Synonym: companion lymph nodes of accessory nerve, nodi lymphatici comitantes nervi accessorii. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory nerve trunk
Part of the accessory nerve formed within the cranial cavity by the union of the cranial and spinal roots, which then divides within the jugular foramen into internal and external branches, the former uniting with the vagus, the latter exiting the foramen as in independent branch which is commonly considered to be the accessory nerve. ... (05 Mar 20 …

accessory obturator artery
<anatomy, artery> Term applied to the anastomosis of pubic branch of the inferior epigastric artery with the pubic branch of the obturator artery when it contributes a significant supply through the obturator canal. ... Synonym: arteria obturatoria accessoria, ramus obturatorius arteriae epigastricae inferioris. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory olivary nuclei
See: dorsal accessory olivary nucleus, medial accessory olivary nucleus. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory organs
Synonym for supernumerary organs ... Organ's exceeding the normal number, which may develop from multiple foci of organization in an organ-formative field larger (originally) than that of the definitive main organ; such organ's are aberrant but frequently not a cause of disease; illness may persist if they are left in the body after therapeutic remo …

accessory organs of the eye
The eyelids, with lashes and eyebrows, lacrimal apparatus, conjunctival sac, and extrinsic muscles of the eyeball. ... Synonym: organa oculi accessoria, accessory organs, accessory visual apparatus, adnexa oculi, appendages of eye. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory pancreas
A detached portion of pancreatic tissue, usually the uncinate process, and hence most often found in the vicinity of the head of the pancreas, but may occur within the gut wall (stomach or duodenum). ... Synonym: pancreas accessorium. ... Annular pancreas, a ring of pancreas encircling the duodenum, caused by a failure of the embryologic ventral panc …

accessory pancreatic duct
The excretory duct of the head of the pancreas, one branch of which joins the pancreatic duct, the other opening independently into the duodenum at the lesser duodenal papilla. ... Synonym: ductus pancreaticus accessorius, Bernard's canal, Bernard's duct, ductus dorsopancreaticus, Santorini's canal, Santorini's duct. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory parotid gland
An occasional islet of parotid tissue separate from the mass of the gland, lying anteriorly just above the commencement of the parotid duct. ... Synonym: glandula parotidea accessoria, admaxillary gland, glandula parotis accessoria, socia parotidis. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory phrenic nerves
Accessory nerve strands that arise from the fifth cervical nerve, often as branches of the nerve to the subclavius, passing downward to join the phrenic nerve. ... Synonym: nervi phrenici accessorii. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory pigment
<biochemistry> Light-absorbing pigments such as carotenoids and phycobilins that serve as complements to photosynthesis. ... (06 May 1997) ...

accessory placenta
An extra placenta separate from the main placenta. Also called a succenturiate or supernumerary placenta. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

accessory plantar ligaments
Synonym for plantar ligaments ... The counterparts in the foot of the palmar ligaments in the hand. ... Synonym: ligamenta plantaria, accessory plantar ligaments, Cruveilhier's ligaments, glenoid ligament. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory process
A small apophysis at the posterior part of the base of the transverse process of each of the lumbar vertebrae. ... Synonym: processus accessorius, accessory tubercle. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory quadrate cartilage
Synonym for lesser alar cartilages ... The two to four cartilaginous plates of the wing of the nose posterior to the greater alar cartilage. ... Synonym: cartilagines alares minores, accessory quadrate cartilage. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory saphenous vein
<anatomy, vein> An occasional vein running in the thigh parallel to the great saphenous vein which it joins just before the latter empties into the femoral vein. ... Synonym: vena saphena accessoria. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory sign
<clinical sign> A finding frequently but not consistently present in a disease. ... Synonym: assident sign. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

accessory spleen
<radiology> Found in 10% of normal population, clinically important in: haemolytic anaemia, ITP, hereditary spherocytosis, may cause relapse s/p splenectomy, none found larger than 2.5 cm ... (12 Dec 1998) ...