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REI - Outdoor Fitness Glossary
Category: Sport and Leisure > Outdoor Fitness
Date & country: 16/01/2008, UK
Words: 34


Asana
the term for any of the many poses done in yoga.

Ballistic stretching
a kind of stretchingthat advocates bouncing to increase the amount of stretch. This is no longer recommended as it has been found to cause muscle tears and soreness.

Barbell
weights attached to a long bar which requires both hands to pick up.

Biomechanics
the study of the mechanics of muscular activity.

Board-lasted
shoe construction featuring a piece of stiff fiberboard glued to the upper and then to the mid

Cardiovascular
relating to or involving the heart and blood vessels.

Cool-down
slowing down at the end of a workout to allow your body temperature and heart rate to decrease gradually.

Creatine
a proteinlike substance manufactured by your muscles (but also found in some meats) that has been found to increase athletic performance and delay fatigue. Gives the muscles strength and a greater ability to do high-intensity exercise such as sprinting. Also helps buffer the lactic acid that accumulates during high-intensity exercise.

Dumbbell
weights attached to a short bar that can be held in one hand. Often used in pairs.

Endorphins
any of a group of proteins with potent analgesic properties that occur naturally in the brain. These are the brain chemicals that contribute to the 'runner's high' or good feelings during and after exercise.

External obliques
muscles running diagonally downward and inward from the lower ribs to the pelvis that allow you to bend forward and twist at the waist. These lie on top of the internal obliques. The kayaking stroke uses these muscles much more than the arms.

Flexibility
the range of motion around a joint. This can be increased with stretching and yoga.

Free weights
weights not attached to a machine nor driven by cables or chains. Barbells and dumbbells are examples of free weights.

Glycogen
the form carbohydrates take when stored in the muscles.

Isometrics
exercise or a system of exercises in which opposing muscles are so contracted that there is little shortening but great increase in tone of muscle fibers involved.

Kickboard
small foam board used for short sprints to develop leg power and speed when swimming. Held under the chest so that the arms are not involved in the swimming stroke.

Kinesiology
the study of the principles of mechanics and anatomy in relation to human movement.

Nutrition
the sum of the processes by which an animal or plant takes in and utilizes food substances.

Osteoporosis
a condition that affects especially older women and is characterized by decrease in bone mass with decreased density and enlargement of bone spaces producing porosity and fragility.

Overpronation
excessive inward foot motion during running that can lead to injury.

Perceived exertion
the level of intensity you feel your body is exerting during exercise on a scale of 0 to 10. An unscientific way of staying within your target heart rate zone.

Pronation
the natural inward motion of the foot after heel strike and before pushing off again with the ball of the foot. Overpronation is excessive inward motion and can lead to running injuries.

Pull buoy
a foam flotation device designed to fit between your legs and keep the lower part of your body afloat without kicking. It allows you to work only your upper body and concentrate on your swimming stroke.

Pyruvate
a nutritional supplement that has been found to enhance athletic performance and possibly aid in burning fat.

Resistive cuffs and boots
foam buoyancy devices placed on the ankles and/or wrists to create extra resistance for water aerobics and water running. Shown to increase workout intensity up to 5 times.

Rhomboids
the muscles that pull your shoulder blades inward. They attach to the vertebrae at the base of the neck and go diagonally to the inside edges of the shoulder blades.

Sprain
an injury to the ligament.

Static stretch
a simple muscle stretchthat goes just to the point of gentle tension and is held steadily for several seconds without moving or bouncing.

Strain
an injury to the tendon or muscle.

Threshold
the heart rate at which lactic acid begins to build up faster than you can break it down. You should do the bulk of your training at just below that level.

Trapezius or traps
the triangular muscles stretching across your back from the spine to the shoulder blades and collarbone. They work with the deltoids to lift your arms and shoulders. Good to have strong ones for carrying a backpack!

Triceps
the muscles on the back of the upper arms that straighten your elbows and allow you to push your arms forward. You use them when you're fly-fishing or pushing a running stroller.

VO2 max
the largest volume of oxygen your body can take in and assimilate. This figure is very high in trained endurance athletes.

Water dumbbells-water barbells
flotation devices shaped like paddles that provide extra resistance to your arm muscles when used underwater. They can also be used to hold you at the surface for back and leg exercises.