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MSC - PC and Internet glossary
Category: Technical and IT > PC and Internet
Date & country: 15/11/2007, UK
Words: 49


Adapter
The term used to describe expansion cards that are inserted into bus expansion slots.

AFP
Apple Filing Protocol

AppleTalk
Inexpensive LAN Architecture Built into Apple Macintosh Computers and Laser Printers

Arbitration
A process where devices compete for possession of the channel on a prioritized basis.

Array
An array of disk drives combines the storage space on the disk drives into a single segment of contiguous storage space. MegaRAID can group disk drives on one or more SCSI channels into an array. A hot spare drive does not participate in an array.

Asynchronous Data Transfer
Data transfer (usually at a low rate and independent of any external timing constraints) performed by a SCSI device involving the interlocking of a signal to the initiator (REQ) and a signal to the target (ACK) such that each step of the data transfer protocol must occur before the next step can begin.

Asynchronous Event Notification
A process when a SCSI target can send unsolicited sense information to an initiator using the SCSI SEND command.

Asynchronous Operations
Those operations that bear no relationship to each other in time and can overlap. The concept of asynchronous I/O operations is central to independent access arrays in throughput-intensive applications.

ATAPI
ATAPI (AT Attachment Packet Interface) is an interface between your computer and attached CD-ROM drives and tape backup drives. Most of today's PC computers use the standard Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface to address hard disk drives. ATAPI provides the additional commands needed for controlling a CD-ROM player or tape backup so that y

ATX
ATX is an industry-wide open specification for a desktop computer's motherboard. ATX improves the motherboard design by taking the small AT motherboard that has been an industry standard and rotating by 90 degrees the layout of the microprocessor and expansion slots. This allows space for more full-length add-in cards. A double-height aperture is s

Baud
A unit of measurement of the discrete number of signal elements that can be transmitted per second by a device. It is not an exact measure of the amount of information being transmitted and is not the same as Bits Per Second.

BBS
Bios Boot Specification - A Plug and Play BIOS format that enables the user to determine the boot sequence.

Binary Coded Decimal
A method of encoding decimal digits into four binary bits.

Bit
A binary digit that can take either the value 0 or 1. A bit is the smallest unit of information that a computer can process. Bits are often used to measure transfer speeds. This can be noted in bits per second (bps).

Bridge
A term used to identify a motherboard component that ties one bus to another. A PCI-to-PCI bridge will tie two PCI busses together. A PCI-to-CardBus bridge will tie PCI and CardBus together.

Buffer
An area of memory or storage that is temporarily reserved for I/O processing.

Burst Mode
A method of data transfer that allows a device to remain inactive for long periods of time and then send large amounts of data in a short time without interruption. Can be used for DMA transfers on the EISA bus.

Bus Free Phase
The phase when no SCSI device is actively using the SCSI bus and the bus is available for use.

Chipset
A term used to describe the northbridge and southbridge combination on the motherboard.

CIFS
Common Internet File System - File Sharing Protocol Used in Windows-Based Networks

DHCP
The dynamic host configuration protocol is an addressing protocol for TCP/IP networks. IP addresses are leased to individual computers on the network from a DHCP server. DHCP allows users to move to different locations on a network without having to bother a network administrator to manually assign a new IP address. DHCP is useful in homes with sev

Disk Mirroring
Also known as RAID Level 1. A form of RAID in which the Array Management Function maintains two or more identical copies of data on separate disks. Also known as RAID Level 1 and disk shadowing.

Disk Striping
Also known as RAID Level 0. A mapping technique in which fixed-size consecutive ranges of virtual disk data addresses are mapped to successive array members in a cyclical pattern.

DMI (Desktop Management Interface)
An industry framework for managing and keeping track of hardware and software components in a system of personal computers from a central location. DMI was created by the Desktop Management Task Force (DMTF) to automate system management and is particularly beneficial in a network computing environment where dozens or more computers are managed. DM

Fibre - Fibre channel
A serial data transfer architecture developed by a consortium of computer and mass storage device manufacturers and now being standardized by ANSI. The most prominent Fibre Channel standard is Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL). FC-AL was designed for new mass storage devices and other peripheral devices that require very high bandwidth. Using o

FSB
Front side bus â€` the physical interface between processor and main memory in Intel chipsets.

FTP
File Transfer Protocol

Hot Plug (Hot Swap)
The ability to add and remove devices to a computer while the computer is running and have the operating system automatically recognize the change. Two new external bus standards -- Universal Serial Bus (USB ) and IEEE 1394 -- support hot plugging. This is also a feature of PCMCIA. Hot plugging is also called hot swapping.

IPsec
IP Security - Set of Protocols Developed to Support a Secure Exchange of Packets at the IP Layer; Has Been Deployed Widely to Implement Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)

IPX
Internetwork Packet Exchange - Networking Protocol used by the Novell NetWare OS

Mirroring
Short for disk mirroring; Also known as RAID Level 1. A form of RAID in which the Array Management Function maintains two or more identical copies of data on separate disks. Also known as RAID Level 1 and disk shadowing.

MPS
(MultiProcessing Specification) A specification from Intel for designing SMP-based PCs using its Pentium processors. It defines how memory and interrupts are shared.

NCP
NetWare Core Protocol - A Set of Server Protocols Available in the Novell NetWare Network Software. An Interface to Request Network Services from Hosts that Provide Services.

NFS
Network File System - Most Common File Sharing Protocol Used in UNIX OSes

NTP
Network Time Protocol

Parity
The quality of being either odd or even. The fact that all numbers have a parity is commonly used in data communications to ensure the validity of data. This is called parity checking.

PC133 SDRAM
PC133 SDRAM is SDRAM that is designed to work with a 133 MHz system bus speed.

PC2001
The PC2001 System Design Guide provides open specifications from Microsoft and Intel for PCs running Windows ME or later.

Porting
The process of adapting generic BIOS code to a specific motherboard. A “BIOS porting engineer� will take core & chipset code to “port� BIOS for a customer.

Processor
A processor is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer. The term processor has generally replaced the term central processing unit (CPU). The processor in a personal computer or that is embedded in small devices is often called a microprocessor.

RLM - RAID Level Migration
Allows a user to change RAID levels. Dynamic RLM allows the user to do this without restarting the system.

Runtime
BIOS services offered after the operating system has booted.

SMTP
Simple Mail Transport Protocol

SPD
Serial Presence Detection (SPD) allows a small ROM chip on each memory module to report memory properties. This allows fast detection of installed memory by the system BIOS.

SSE2
(Single SIMD Extensions) A group of 70 instructions added to the Pentium III chip that improves 3-D graphics performance. It includes floating point capability for 3-D geometry calculations. SSE is the second set of enhancements to the Intel CPU chips for multimedia operations (MMX was the first). The Pentium 4 added 144 more instructions known as

Striped Array
Distributes application data across two or more members disks in a regular pattern.

Striping
Short for disk striping; also known as RAID Level 0. A mapping technique in which fixed-size consecutive ranges of virtual disk data addresses are mapped to successive array members in a cyclical pattern.

ULTRASCSI (Ultra160 - Ultra320)
A method that enables very fast data transfer rate on the SCSI bus. The maximum UltraSCSI data transfer rates are 20 MBytes/second(160Mbits/second) and 40 MBytes/second(320Mbits/second) for Wide SCSI host adapters.

Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)
Wi-Fi is the popular term for a high-frequency wireless local area network (WLAN). The Wi-Fi technology is rapidly gaining acceptance in many companies as an alternative to a wired LAN. It can also be installed for a home network. Wi-Fi is specified in the 802.11b specification from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and i