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Oxford University Press - Glossary of printing
Category: Agriculture and Industry > Printing
Date & country: 22/09/2007, UK
Words: 37


Advance
Often a pre-payment, given to the author at various stages during development of a book, typically half is paid on signature of contract and half on publication of the book. The sum is an advance on the royalties that will be paid to the author once the book has been published.

ASCII
ASCII is the most common format for text files in computers and on the Internet. It can be converted into other formats and is the simplest form of electronic text for manuscript submission.

Backlist
A generic term for books more than a year old, which are still available for sale.

Blad (Book Layout and Design)
blad is a marketing and sales tool, used for titles that will sell heavily through the trade, where advanced colour material is needed by the sales force to sell the title. A blad will often feature sections from the finished book, including the cover artwork, page layouts and images.

Blurb
The short promotional text, which usually appears on the back or inside cover of a book. An extended version of the blurb is included in the NBA. The blurb may also form part of any marketing or promotional copy used.

Bound Proofs
A copy of the page proofs received from the typesetter, bound up with the appearance of the final book. Bound proofs can be used to show a book at a conference, when final copies are not available, or carried by the sales force, to promote a book before copies are available. The text of bound proofs can be subject to change, once the author and copy-editor have made final changes.

Camera Ready Copy (CRC)
Laser printed A4 pages supplied direct by the author can be used to print the final book. The process involves 'photographing' the pages, and reducing the size by 30% to fit on a standard book page. OUP can supply authors with templates for creating CRC manuscripts. The main advantage with CRC is that it can significantly shorten the time to publication, although there are no opportunities for making last minute changes.

Chromalin
The final stage for checking a colour proof before printing. Used primarily to check that all the colours are correct. Chromalins are very important for checking the accuracy of colour medical images.

CIP data
Operated by the British Library and the American Library of Congress, it is a program, which creates classified entries which can be inserted into the prelim pages of a book, these records are compiled into national biographies.

Copy
This can refer to any quantity of text, from the descriptive texts used in marketing and promotional literature, to the entire manuscript. It can be in print or electronic form.

Copy-editing
Copy-editing is the meticulous task of checking the final details of text before submission for typesetting. Copy-editing involves putting text into OUP house style as well as checking the grammar and accuracy of the text. Copy-editors refer queries back to the authors directly, to ensure they have a correct understanding of the material. Because OUP publishes many specialist texts we use a wide variety of freelance copy-editors, who can provide us with top quality skills as well as an understanding of the subject area.

Copyright
The right of an author to control the use of their original work. Copyright is broadly controlled by international agreement, but there are substantial differences between countries. Costing For each book that we publish, we need to assess the actual cost to physically produce that book. Our production department provides a detailed costing, which take into account the cost of typesetting, paper, cover artwork, redrawing illustrations, permissions fees for reuse of text and mages, as well as copy-editing and proof-reading.

Delegates
The Delegates must approve all books published by OUP before we can proceed to contract. The Delegates are a group of 21 men and women appointed from the academic staff of the University. They meet fortnightly during term-time under the chairmanship of the Vice-Chancellor. They are actively involved in the publishing programme: all books are referred to them for approval and individual Delegates maintain a dialogue with editors in their specialist subject areas. More than 30 USA Delegates are appointed from American universities to advise on the publishing programme for OUP USA.

Edition
A number of identical copies, printed at the same time. The initial printing is the first edition, when changes are made these are called for example, revised edition, second edition.

Endpapers
The pages that are pasted onto the binding of a hardback book, to fasten the body of the book to the cover. In most cases these are blank, but occasionally feature some design or text.

Extent
The number of pages in the printed book.

Film
The positive or negative used for making the printing plates, which incorporate all the text, line artwork and halftones. Film and plates are now being replaced with purely digital printing processes.

Formats
We use a wide range of formats for publishing our books, the formats chosen will depend on the type of book being published, and the most appropriate layout for the material in the book. Textbooks often require large formats with wide margins for students to make notes. Standard British book sizes include Demy Octavo - 216x138mm Royal Octavo - 234x156mm Wide Royal Octavo - 234x165mm Crown Quarto 246x189mm

Frontlist
A generic term used to describe books in their first year of publication.

Halftones
A photograph printed in a book, using a variety of printing processes.

Line Drawing or Line Artwork
A drawing in black ink, producing a single tone.

NBA
Short for New Book Announcement, NBA's are the tool most widely used by our sales and marketing teams, when promoting your book. They carry all the essential information about your book.

Net Receipts
The revenue that the publisher receives from the sale of the book, less any deductions for discounts offered to customers. Net receipts form the most common basis of royalty payments to authors.

Origination
The preparatory stages for printing a book. It can include typesetting, redrawing artwork, making halftones and colour reproduction of photographs.

PDF - Portable Document Format
An electronic file format that has captured all the elements of a printed page as an electronic image that can be viewed, printed, or forwarded to someone else. PDF files are created using Adobe Acrobat. PDF files are especially useful for preserving the original graphic appearance online. OUP uses the PDF format for e-books, and for putting sample chapters or pages from books on our website.

Permissions
If you include material in your book, which has been previously published elsewhere, you will need to seek permission from the original copyright holder to reuse that material. There is often a cost attached to the use of such material, this is a permission fee.

Plate section
A collection of pages of photographs, usually colour, which are bound together in sections in the book. This is the most cost-effective way of incorporating colour into specialist books.

Prelims
The prelims are the introductory pages at the beginning of a book before the actual text itself begins. The prelims will contain a title page, half title page, the copyright page, preface, acknowledgements, forwards, and any other material not forming the main part of the book.

Proofs
The output from the typesetting process, these are sent to the author and the proof-readers, who will check that the typesetters have not introduced errors into the book. At this stage corrections can still be made on a manuscript, but it can be very costly, especially if corrections lead to a change in pagination.

Reissue
A reissue is a kind of reprint but one which involves either changes to the text or to the cover. Typically, a reissue will generate more attention from booksellers and reviewers than a reprint.

Reprint
Any printing of a book, subsequent to the first edition, that involves little or no change to that edition. If small changes are required this is called a revised reprint; the changes are not significant enough for a new edition.

Review
As part of the commissioning process, books are peer-reviewed by specialists in that area, to assure us that the material is suitable for its market. Authors are invited to suggest potential reviewers, but OUP will have a number of specialist reviewers at hand within each of its subject areas.

Revises
After corrected proofs are returned to the printer, they will make corrections, and supply a set of revises, or revised proofs, which the publisher uses to check that the corrections have been made accurately.

Royalties
All authors receive a percentage of revenue from each copy of their book sold, these are called royalties. The level of royalties will vary according to the type of book.

SGML
Standard Generalised Markup Language is a standard text markup language or tag set, which can be used in the typesetting process of a book. SGML tagging allows the publisher to re-adapt the text for other media. The tags used allow us to use any computer system or typesetting system to process the data according to the tags given. Examples of the types of tag used are for headings, tables, bold, italic, or special characters. HTML, (Hypertext Markup Language) used by all web browsers, is a subset of SGML. XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is the most recent subset of SGML, and is rapidly being used to replace HTML on the web.

Trade
Shorthand name for 'the book trade', meaning booksellers, and wholesalers, etc.

Typesetting
The process of converting the copyedited text files supplied by the author into the final style, layout and design of the printed book. The typesetter will often follow a house or series style for the book. Today, typesetting can often involve inserting tags into the text to allow the text to be used electronically in other applications. This tagging can be in a number of formats, but predominantly SGML or XML.