Copy of `Cliffs Notes - Science terms`
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acid ionization constant
Cliffs Notes - Science terms
Category: Sciences > Chemistry
Date & country: 04/01/2014, USA
the equilibrium constant describing the degree of ionization of an acid.
the row of elements below the periodic table, from thorium to lawrencium.
a hydrocarbon with one or more triple bonds.
a cluster of 2 protons and 2 neutrons emitted from a nucleus in one type of radioactivity.
the column of elements from beryllium to radium.
a hydrocarbon without a double bond, triple bond, or ring structure.
a hydrocarbon with one or more double bonds and no triple bond.
synonym for base.
the column of elements from lithium to francium.
a chemical species with a negative charge.
the negative electrode at which oxidation occurs.
refers to a solution with water as solvent.
refers to an organic compound with a benzene-like ring.
the weight in grams of one mole of the chemical element; approximately the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
the smallest amount of an element; a nucleus surrounded by electrons.
the number of protons in the nucleus of the chemical element.
6.02 x 1023
, the number of molecules in 1 mole of a substance.
equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure that contain the same number of molecules.
a compound that yields OH-
ions in solution or a solution in which the concentration of OH-
an electron emitted from a nucleus in one type of radioactivity.
the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure.
the temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas.
boiling point elevation
an increase in the boiling point of a solution, proportional to the concentration of solute particles.
the electrode at which reduction occurs.
an atom or molecule with a positive charge.
a substance that accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being consumed.
a unit of energy, equal to 4.184 joules.
a representation of a compound to show its composition using symbols and subscript numbers.
the volume of a gas varies directly with absolute temperature.
a shorthand way of describing a chemical change using symbols of elements and formulas of compounds.
atoms linked together by sharing valence electrons.
an acid and base that are related by removing or adding a single hydrogen ion.
elements with similar properties, arranged in columns of the periodic table.
the relative abundance of a solute in a solution.
a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements.
a point in a phase diagram where the liquid and gas states cease to be distinct.
the regular, geometric arrangement of atoms in a solid.
a chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into simpler compounds or elements.
the separation of a solute into constituent ions.
a substance that cannot be decomposed; each chemical element is characterized by the number of protons in the nucleus.
a number describing the attraction of an element for electrons in a chemical bond.
force the electrical potential produced by a chemical reaction voltage.
a light subatomic particle with negative charge; found in orbitals surrounding an atomic nucleus.
the decomposition of a substance by an electric current.
a substance that forms ions when dissolved in water.
the point in an electrochemical cell at which reduction or oxidation occurs.
cell a device that uses a chemical reaction to produce an electric current.
See electromotive force.
the thermodynamic quantity measuring the disorder of a substance.
the concept of motion or heat required to do work.
the thermodynamic quantity measuring the heat of a substance.
refers to a reaction that requires heat.
constant the ratio of concentrations of products to reactants for a reaction at chemical equilibrium.
a balanced condition resulting from two opposing reactions.
refers to a reaction that releases heat.
a unit of electric charge equal to that on 1 mole of electrons.
two laws of electrolysis relating the amount of substance to the quantity of electric charge.
a liquid or gas.
freezing point depression
the decrease in freezing point of a solution, proportional to the concentration of solute particles.
the thermodynamic quantity measuring the tendency of a reaction to proceed; also called Gibbs free energy.
the temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid.
R equals 0.082 liter-atmospheres per mole-degree.
a state of matter in which molecules are widely separated, fluid, expandable, and compressible.
the electronic configuration of lowest energy for an atom.
a column of elements in the periodic table.
weight an amount of a substance equal in grams to the sum of the atomic weights.
an oxidation or reduction reaction with free electrons as a product or reactant.
the column of elements from fluorine to astatine.
a form of energy that spontaneously flows from a warm body to a cold body.
the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of a substance by one degree Celsius.
refers to the OH- ion.
an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen.
a weak, secondary bond between a partially positive hydrogen atom and a partially negative N, O, or F atom. An inter-molecular force of attraction.
ideal gas equation
the equation relating the volume of a gas to its pressure, temperature and moles of gas.
the column of elements from helium to radon; also called noble gases.
atoms linked together by the attraction of unlike charges.
an atom with an electric charge due to gain or loss of electrons.
adding or subtracting electrons from an atom; alternatively, the dissociation of a solute into ions.
a variety of an element characterized by a specific number of neutrons in the nucleus.
several molecules with the same composition but different structures.
refers to several dissimilar atoms or ions with identical electronic configurations.
a unit of energy equal to 0.239 calorie.
the row of elements beneath the periodic table, from cerium to lutetium; also called rare earths.
Le Chatelier's principle
a system that in equilibrium is disturbed adjusts so as to minimize the disturbance.
an indicator that turns red in acid and blue in alkaline solution.
a state of matter in which the molecules are touching, fluid, incompressible.
atoms linked together by the migration of electrons from atom to atom.
the elements in the middle and left parts of the periodic table, except for hydrogen.
the temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid.
a group of atoms linked together by covalent bonds.
describes the ratio of elements in a molecule.
an amount of a substance equal in grams to the sum of the atomic weights.
the fraction of moles (or molecules) of one substance in the total moles (or molecules) of all substances in the mixture. If the mole fraction of substance A is 0.1, one-tenth of all the molecules in a mixture are A molecules.
the number of moles of solute in 1 liter of solution.
molar heat capacity
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 mole of substance 1 degree Celsius.
the number of moles of solute in 1 kilogram of solvent.
a heavy subatomic particle with zero charge; found in an atomic nucleus.
the chemical reaction of an acid and base to yield a salt and water.
the column of elements from helium to radon; also called inert gases.