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Competitive Magnetics - Electrical terms
Category: Electronics and Engineering > Transformers and electrics
Date & country: 31/05/2011, USA
Words: 76

Air cooled Transformer
A transformer which uses air as the cooling medium. This may be a forced air with the use of fans.

Alternating current (ac)
This is the electricity that you get from your house's wall and that is used to power most of your electrical appliances. It is sinusoidal wave that starts at zero, increases to a maximum value, and then decreases to a minimum value, and repeats.

Ambient Noise level
The level of acoustic noise existing at a given location like room or compartment etc. Ambient noise level is measured based on sound level meter or in decibels (db).

ANSI was formed in 1918. American National Standards Institute is a recognized body which approves standards for transformers. ANSI 89.1 is mostly used for dry type transformers.

Arc voltage
The amount of voltage present between the electrode and the work piece. Arc voltage ranges from 17 to 45 volts.

Auto Transformer
An auto transformer is an electrical transformer in which the primary and secondary coils have some or all windings in common. It uses common windings.

Two or more single-phase transformers connected together to supply a three-phase load.

BIL Basic Insulation level
It is an insulation system that can withstand very high voltage surges.

Breakdown voltage
also known as Zener voltage

Core saturation
Condition that occurs when an inductor or transformer core has reached maximum magnetic strength.

Core Loss
Core loss is also known as iron loss. Core loss is a form of energy loss that occurs in electrical transformers and other inductors. Core losses do not include the losses due to resistance in the conductors of the windings, which is often termed copper loss.

Compensated Transformer
A transformer with a turn

Current Transformer
A current transformer is a device for measuring a current flowing through a power system and inputting the measured current to a protective relay system. A current transformer appears to be the simplest of electrical devices.

A connection between a delta source and a delta load.

Delta is a three phase connection where the ends of each phase winding connection in series to form a closed loop with each phase 120 electrical degrees from the other.

Double conversion
A UPS design in which the primary power path consists of a rectifier and inverter.

Dropout voltage
The voltage at which a device fails to operate properly or safely. Computer systems will reboot, reset, or lose data.

Eddy Currents
It is induced into a metal when magnetic lines of force move across it.

Ratio of its power output to its total power input

Effective Voltage or current
The amount of power being delivered to a DC circuit load can be calculated easily by dividing the load resistance into the applied DC voltage squared.

Electrostatic Shield
A grounded conductor sheet which is connecting primary and secondary winding to decrease or eliminate line to line or line to ground noise. It is also known as Faraday Shield.

Excitation Current
DC is essential to magnetize a piece of metal.

A law that states an electric field is induced in any system in which a magnetic field is changing with time.

Full Capacity above nominal. This is used to specify that a transformer will deliver rated KVA when connected to a voltage source which is higher than rated voltage.

Removing the ripple effect caused by a rectifier.

Filter Press
A device for filtering and absorbing moisture from oil.

It means the number of times an AC voltage will rotate from positive to negative and vice versa within a precise time, usually expressed in cycles per second and identified as Hz as in 60 Hz.

A device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by magnetic induction.

Connected to the earth or some other conductor.

A conducting path, whether intended or unintended, between an electric circuit or equipment and the earth or some other conductor.

Hertz (Hz)
Cycles per second

Horsepower (HP)
One horsepower is 33,000 lb.-ft /minute.

Electricity produced by turbines that are turned by water flow.

Device used for supporting or separating conductors of electricity.

Material with high electrical resistance.

Instrument Transformer
A transformer designed to transform the conditions of current or voltage and phrase position in the primary with a specified accuracy of the secondary circuit.

Isolating Transformer
Transformer in which input windings are connected to the line and are completely isolated from those connected to the load.

Jack Pads
Structural member at bottom of transformer to gather hydraulic jacks which lift onto rollers for moving into position.

Kilovolt-ampere, or thousand volt-ampere. When multiplied by the power factor, will give kilowatts, or KW.

Kilowatt hour, one kilowatt for one hour.

The sheets of steel making up the core of the transformer.

Linear Load
A load in which the relationship between current and voltage is directly proportional. For example

Line voltage
Voltage of a power line

Magnetic Shielding
Conductive material placed around a transformer

Multiple Winding
A winding which consists of two or more sections that can be paralleled to specific mode of operation.

Network Transformer
Transformer which is electrically and mechanically connected to and coordinated in design with switch-gear or motor control assemblies for use on a utility network power system.

NEMA Standard
Any standard recommended by the National Electrical manufacturers Association.

Non-Ventilated Construction
The core and coil assembly is mounted inside an enclosure which has no ventilation openings.

Non Linear Load
A load in which the relationship between current and voltage is not directly proportional.

Open Frame
A method of transformer construction utilized when the transformer will be combined with other components inside an enclosure.

The variation, usually with time, of the magnitude of quantity with respect to a specified reference when the magnitude is alternately greater and smaller than the reference.

When a transformer is overloaded, too much heat is developed, and insulation system begins to break down out of proportion to the amount of overload. Life expectancy decreases due to over heating which results in break down of insulation system.

Peak voltage
Current voltage that reaches its maximum or peak level. This occurs twice and lasts for only a fraction of the cycle. Direct current voltage is peak voltage at all times.

Circuits have single-phase, three and four phase. Usually circuits are rated single-phase three wires or four wires. Single-phase transformers can be used on a three-phase source when tow wires of the three-phase system are connected to the primary of the single-phase transformer.

Power Factor
Watts divided by volt amps, Kw divided by KVA

Primary winding
The coil winding that is directly connected to the input power.

Rated Power
Expressed in volt-amperes (VA) or Kilovolt amperes (KVA).

Resin Filled Construction
The core and coil assembly is completely encapsulated with a resin-sand compound and contained in a metal enclosure.

The percentage difference between a secondary winding

An electrical device used to change AC power into DC power.

Short circuit
A low resistance connection, usually accidental, across part of a circuit, resulting in excessive current flow.

Having the form of a sine wave.

Step up/step-down transformers
A step-up transformer is one in which the output voltage is greater than input voltage. In a step-down transformer, the input voltage is greater than the output voltage.

Incoming plant voltage varies according to the distance from the substation and other factors. Taps allow a distribution transformer to provide secondary voltage as close as possible to the desired operating voltage.

Three phase Power
Three separate outputs from a single source with a phase differential of 120 electrial degrees between any two adjacent voltages or currents.

A high amplitude, short duration pulse superimposed on the normal voltage wave form or ground line.

Transformer Regulation
The percentage difference between voltage at the secondary terminals under no-load condition versus voltage under full-load. This value depends on the load power factor and is usually reported at 1.0 PF and 0.8 PF.

Ventilated Enclosure
Ventilated Enclosure allows air to flow directly over the core and coil assembly for cooling.

Providing circulation of external air.

Transformers are related in volt-amperes (the product of volts and amperes in the input winding). Capacities of very large transformers are rated in thousands of volt-amperes and in millions of volt-amperes. Input KVA is equal to output KVA.

Unit of electrical power when the current in the circuit is one ampere and the voltage is one volt.

Weather shield
When added to ventilated enclosures, allow indoor-rated units to be situated outdoors, changing the enclosure rating to NEMA 3R.

Zig-Zag Transformer
A transformer where the windings are physically manipulated to achieve certain voltage and current phase relationships. A zig-zag winding arrangement is commonly found in harmonic mitigating or grounding styles of transformers.

H type core
It is one type of transformer core that surrounds the windings on four sides. This helps lessen flux leakage.

this is used to point out a full rated transformer which is specifically designed to handle non-linear loads. Numerical values taking into account both the magnitude and frequency of any component of a current waveform.

A Scott connected three-phase transformer utilizing two primary and two secondary coils called the main and teaser coils.