Copy of `UAB Health - Osteology terms`

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UAB Health - Osteology terms
Category: Health and Medicine > Bones and Joint
Date & country: 04/10/2013, US
Words: 88


abdominal bracing
a technique of tensing the stomach muscles to support the spine.

acromion
the roof, or highest point, of the shoulder that is formed by a part of the scapula, or shoulder blade.

adhesions
abnormal bands of tissue that grow between joint surfaces, restricting motion.

allodynia
pain due to a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain.

analgesia
absence of pain in response to stimulation that would normally be painful.

antibody
a special protein produced by the body's immune system that recognizes and helps fight infectious agents and other foreign substances that invade the body.

artery
any tubular, branching vessel that carries blood from the heart throughout the body.

arthralgia
pain in a joint, usually due to arthritis or arthropathy.

arthritis
inflammation of the joint.

arthrogram
x-ray of a joint.

arthroscopy
the use of an intra-articular camera inserted into the joint through a small incision to show the inside of a joint; the procedure allows the physician to also assess, repair, or reconstruct various tissues both within and around joints.

atrophy
wasting away of a body part or tissue.

benign
noncancerous; a mild disease or condition.

bone
living tissue that makes up the body's skeleton.

bone graft
a surgical procedure in which healthy bone is transplanted from another part of the patient's body into the affected area.

bone scan
a nuclear imaging method to evaluate any degenerative and/or arthritic changes in the joints; to detect bone diseases and tumors; to determine the cause of bone pain or inflammation.

bursas
fluid-filled sacs between bones and ligaments, or other adjacent structures.

bursitis
inflammation of the bursas.

cancellous tissue
the sponge-like tissue inside bones.

cartilage
a connective tissue that covers the ends of bones in a joint.

cast
a cast holds a broken bone in place as it heals, prevents or decreases muscle contractures, or provides immobilization, especially after surgery. Casts immobilize the joint above and the joint below the area that is to be kept straight and without motion. For example, a child with a forearm fracture will have a long arm cast to immobilize the wrist and elbow joints.

chondroblasts
immature cartilage-producing cells.

compact tissue
the harder, outer tissue of bones.

congenital
present at birth.

contusion
a bruise caused by a blow to the muscle, tendon, or ligament; caused when blood pools around the injury and discolors the skin.

electromyogram (EMG)
a test that measures the electrical activity of a muscle or a group of muscles. An EMG can detect abnormal electrical muscle activity due to diseases and neuromuscular conditions.

femur
thighbone.

fractures
a partial or complete break in the bone.

hip
the region on each side of the pelvis; made up of three sections: ilium, ischium, and pubis; the upper part of the femur (upper leg bone) fits into the hip via a ball-and-socket joint; the socket is a cup-shaped bone of the pelvis, called the acetabulum, and the ball is the head of the femur.

incidence
statistic that equals the number of new cases of a particular disease that occur in a population during a defined period of time, usually one year.

infectious arthritis
an infection in the joint fluid and tissues.

joint
where the ends of two or more bones meet.

juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA)
a form of arthritis in children ages 16 or younger that causes inflammation and stiffness of the joints.

ligaments
a white, shiny, flexible band of fibrous tissue that binds joints together and connects various bones and cartilage.

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
a diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body.

muscular dystrophy (MD)
is a broad term that describes a genetic (inherited) disorder of the muscles. MD causes the muscles in the body to become very weak. The muscles break down and are replaced with fatty deposits over time. The most common form of MD is called Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD).

musculoskeletal system
the complex system that include: bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves.

neuralgia
pain in distribution of nerve or nerves.

neuritis
inflammation of a nerve or nerves.

nodule
bump.

NSAID
abbreviation for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which do not contain corticosteroids and are used to reduce pain and inflammation; aspirin and ibuprofen are two types of NSAIDs.

nursemaid's elbow
a condition common in children younger than 4 years of age in which the radius (one of the bones of the forearm) slips out of place from its attachment to the elbow joint.

occult
disease or symptoms that are not readily detectable by physical examination or laboratory tests.

Osgood-Schlatter disease
An overuse condition or injury of the knee that causes pain and swelling below the knee area.

osteitis pubis
an inflammation of the pubic symphysis, the bone to which the two hip bones connect in front of the body.

osteoblast
cell found in bone; its function is to form the tissue and minerals that give bone its strength.

osteocyte
cell found within the bone; its function is to help maintain bone as living tissue.

osteomyelitis
an infection in the bone.

overuse conditions
injuries due to minor trauma involving soft tissue injuries -injuries that affect the bone, muscles, ligaments, and/or tendons.

pain
an unpleasant sensory or emotional experience primarily associated with tissue damage, or described in terms of tissue damage, or both.

pain threshold
the least experience of pain that a person can recognize.

pain tolerance level
the greatest level of pain that a person is prepared to tolerate.

patella
the knee-cap.

pauciarticular
a form of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis that affects four or less joints.

pelvis
a basin-shaped structure that supports the spinal column containing the sacrum, coccyx, and hip bones (ilium, pubis, and ischium).

periosteum
the compact and cancellous tissues of bone together; beneath the hard outer shell of the periosteum, there are tunnels and canals through which blood and lymphatic vessels run to carry nourishment for the bone; muscles, ligaments, and tendons may attach to the periosteum.

polyarticular
a form of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis that affects five or more joints.

polymyalgia rheumatica
condition of unknown cause that affects the lining of joints, particularly in the shoulders and hips.

predisposition
tendency to develop a certain disease.

prevalence
statistic that equals the total number of people in a population with a certain disease at a given time.

psoriatic arthritis
a form of arthritis associated with psoriasis, a skin and nail disease.

R.I.C.E.
rest, ice, compression, and elevation.

range of motion
measurement of the extent to which a joint can go through all its normal spectrum of movements.

rheumatoid factor
special kind of antibody often found in people with rheumatoid arthritis.

rheumatologist
a physician who specializes in the treatment of arthritis and other rheumatic diseases that may affect joints, muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues.

rotator cuff
consists of muscles and tendons that hold the shoulder in place.

scapula
shoulder blade.

scoliosis
a lateral, or sideways curvature and rotation of the back bones (vertebrae), giving the appearance that the person is leaning to one side.

sepsis
the presence of bacteria, virus, fungus, or other organism in the blood or other tissues and the toxins associated with the invasion.

septic (infectious) arthritis
an infection in the joint fluid and tissues.

soft tissue
the ligaments, tendons, and muscles in the musculoskeletal system.

somatosensory
refers to sensory signals from all tissues of the body including skin, viscera, muscles, and joints.

spine
a column in the body consisting of 33 vertebrae.

spondylosis
a degenerative process of the cervical spine that causes narrowing of the spinal canal and neural foramina, and produces compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots.

sprain
a partial or complete tear of a ligament.

strain
a partial or complete tear of a muscle or tendon.

stress fracture
a bone injury caused by overuse.

subchondral tissue
the smooth tissue at the ends of bones, which is covered with another type of tissue called cartilage.

synovial fluid
a clear, sticky fluid that is released by the synovial membrane and acts as a lubricant for joints and tendons.

synovial membrane
a tissue that lines and seals the joint.

synovitis
inflammation of the synovial membrane, the tissue that lines and protects the joint.

synovium
a fibrous envelope that produces a fluid to help to reduce friction and wear in a joint.

systemic
disease or symptoms that affect many different parts of the body.

tendons
the tough cords of tissue that connect muscles to bones.

tibia
the shin bone.

torticollis (Also called wryneck.)
a twisting of the neck that causes the head to rotate and tilt on an angle.

trigger point
hypersensitive area or site in muscle or connective tissue, usually associated with myofascial pain syndromes.

x-ray
a diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.