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Alberta Bone and Joint - Bone terms
Category: Health and Medicine > Osteopathy
Date & country: 04/10/2013, CA
Words: 183


Acetabulum
The curve-shaped cavity on the side of the hip bone into which the thigh bone fits.

Achilles tendon
A tough sinew that attaches the calf muscle to the back of the heel bone.

ACL
See Anterior cruciate ligament.

Acute care
Treatment of a severe medical condition that is of short duration and at a crisis level.

ADL
Activities of daily living.

Alberta Health Services (AHS)
The administrative body responsible for delivering health care services to Albertans. Alberta Health Services, or AHS, was formed in 2009 when the 9 former health authorities and 3 provincial boards were consolidated into a single, provincial organization.

Ambulate
To walk.

Anaesthesiology or Anesthesiology
The study and use of anaesthetics.

Anaesthetic or Anesthetic
A medication to reduce pain; can be administered as a local anaesthetic confined to use around the source of pain, or as a general anaesthetic, producing a loss of sensation through the entire body and loss of consciousness.

Ankylosing spondylitis
Arthritis of the spine, resembling rheumatoid arthritis.

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
A ligament in the knee that crosses from the underside of the thigh bone (femur) to the top of the lower leg bone (tibia).

Anterolisthesis
A medical condition of the spine in which the upper vertebral body

Antibiotic
A substance that attacks and kills bacteria in the body or renders it inactive.

Anticoagulant
A substance that stops blood from clotting, often used after surgery to prevent deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or other blood clots.

Arthritis
A condition that causes inflammation, stiffness and pain in the joints.

Arthrocentesis (joint aspiration)
The clinical procedure where synovial fluid is removed from a joint capsule using a syringe to diagnose gout, arthritis or synovial infection.

Arthrodesis
Surgical fusion of a joint by removing cartilage and positioning adjacent bones to promote bone growth across the joint. A successful fusion eliminates the joint and stops motion, typically to relieve pain or stabilize an unstable joint.

Arthropathy
Joint disease. The term arthropathy does not specify the type of joint disease. The word arthropathy originates from the Greek terms arthron, meaning joint, and pathos, meaning suffering.

Arthroplasty
Repair or replacement of an entire joint or part of a joint in the body, such as a knee or hip. The word arthroplasty originates from the Greek terms arthron, meaning joint, and plassein, meaning to form or shape.

Aseptic loosening
Loosening of an implanted device as a result of tiny particles generated at the bearing couple of a joint. When these particles overwhelm the joint capsule's ability to clear them, they can induce an inflammatory response that can lead to bone loss and subsequent implant loosening.

Aspirate
Remove fluids from a body cavity by suction, typically done to obtain specimens for analysis.

Aspirin
A non-prescription drug commonly used to alleviate pain and inflammation, lower fever and reduce the risk of blood clotting in arteries.

Atrophy
Wasting away of tissue, frequently related to decreased use or decreased blood supply.

Autoimmune disease
An attack initiated by the body's immune system against its own tissues.

Avascular necrosis (AVN)
A condition in which poor blood supply to an area of bone leads to bone death. AVN commonly occurs at the head of the femur (thigh bone).

Ball-and-socket joint
The area where the rounded end of one bone fits into a cavity in an adjoining bone. Ball-and-socket joints allow a wide range of movement, or flexion. For example, ball-and-socket joints of the shoulder and hip can rotate in a complete circle.

Bilateral
Occurring on both sides of the midline point or pertaining to both sides of the body.

Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR)
A type of hip resurfacing that uses a metal-on-metal hip device. The procedure was developed by Derek McMinn in Birmingham, England and has been used in the UK since 1997.

Bladder
The body organ in which urine is stored.

Blood clot
A clump or thickened mass of blood in an artery that may partially or completely block the flow of blood.

Blood vessel
The part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the body. There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry blood away from the heart, the capillaries, which enable the exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues, and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart.

Bone scan
A nuclear scanning test performed to identify new areas of bone growth or breakdown.

Bowlegged (valgus)
A condition that produces an outward curve at or below the knee area. It is caused by a disorder that slows the growth of the inner portion of the growth plate that runs horizontally across the knee while the outer portion of the plate grows normally.

Brachial
Pertaining to the arm.

Bunion
A localized painful swelling at the base of the big toe, often associated with bursitis or osteoarthritis.

Bursa
A tiny fluid-filled sac that functions as a gliding surface to reduce friction between tissues of the body, found in synovial joints. Major busae are located beside tendons near the large joints, such as the shoulders, elbows, hips and knees.

Bursectomy
The surgical removal of a bursa.

Bursitis
Inflammation of a bursa, a tiny fluid-filled sac that functions as a gliding surface to reduce friction between tissues of the body.

Care protocol
A natural history study that involves providing standard and usual care to patients in order to study the history of a disease or disorder following treatment or a treatment regimen.

Care provider
One who provides medical treatment or assistance to a patient.

Carpal tunnel syndrome
A repetitive stress injury characterized by pain, numbness and weakness in the wrist and hand.

Cartilage
A tough, white elastic tissue that covers the contact points of the bones that make up joints in the body, providing a cushion between the contact points and allowing smooth and painless movement of the joint.

Case manager (CM)
The individual who assembles and coordinates a team of health care service providers, including doctors, nurses and therapists, for a patient.

Catheter
A tube inserted into the body to drain fluid, inject fluid or keep a passage open.

Cervical
Having to do with the neck.

Chronic care
Treatment of a medical condition that is of long duration and occasionally over time can cause changes in the body.

Clavicle
Collar bone.

Coccygeal
Referring to the coccyx, or tailbone.

Coccyx
The small tail-like bone at the very bottom of the spine. The coccyx is made up of 3 to 5 rudimentary vertebrae.

Compartment syndrome
Aa condition in which there is swelling and increased pressure within a limited space (compartment) that presses on and compromises blood vessels, nerves and tendons that run through the compartment. Compartment syndrome commonly occurs in the leg or forearm, but can also occur in the arm, thigh, shoulder and buttocks. If untreated, compartment syndrome can cause necrosis of tissue in the compartment and eventually rhabdomyolysis or kidney failure.

Congenital
Present at birth.

Connective tissue
Tissue that serves as the framework of the body, surrounding, supporting and connecting organs, muscles, joints and other body parts.

Control group
The group of individuals in a study who, unknowingly, are not treated or not given a procedure or medication, and whose response is compared with that of treated individuals in order to validate the results of the study.

CT (computed tomography)
Sometimes called CAT scan, uses special x-ray equipment to obtain images of different angles around the body which can be used to produce a computer-generated cross-section of body tissues and organs. CT imaging produces very detailed images that can help diagnose problems such as cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, trauma and musculoskeletal disorders while exposing patients to very little radiation.

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
A blood clot in a deep vein usually caused by immobilization, obstructed blood flow or injury. DVT commonly affects the leg veins or the deep veins of the pelvis. A DVT may occur without symptoms, but is characterized in many cases with pain, redness, and swelling. Risk factors for developing DVT include recent surgery or hospitalization, obesity, advanced age and tobacco use.

Degenerative joint disease (DJD)
Deterioration of that cartilage that lines a joint, which results in narrowing of the joint space and pain. DJD is often used interchangeably with osteoarthritis.

Diskectomy
Surgical removal of a disk from between two vertebrae in the spine.

Dislocation
The displacement of a bone or other body part from its normal fitting in a joint.

Ectomy
Word termination to indicate removal of the structure or organ by cutting. For example, tonsillectomy or diskectomy.

Edema
Excessive accumulation of fluid in the body tissues.

Epidural
A local anaesthetic administered by injection into the area between the bones of the spine and the outer membrane covering the spinal cord.

Experimental protocol
A clinical trial study that involves the use of new, or previously untested, experimental treatment, screening, or medications.

Femoral head
The ball-shaped top of the femur (thigh bone) that fits into the hip socket, creating a

Femoral nerve block
A technique used to block the sensation in the femoral nerve as a means of controlling pain during and after surgery.

Femur
The main bone in the thigh that extends from the hip to the knee. The femur is the strongest bone in the human body.

Fibula
The narrower of the two bones in the leg below the knee.

Flexion
Bending a joint, such as a hip or knee joint.

Focused facility
A clinic that specializes in a single area of health care, such as bone and joint care.

Fracture
A break in the continuity of bone.

Fragmin
A drug used to reduce the risk of blood clotting.

Fusion (arthrodesis)
Joining of two bones into a single unit, removing motion between the two. See arthrodesis.

Gliding joint
The area where two flat-surfaced bones, such as those in the wrist and foot, slide over one another, providing for limited movement.

Gout
A medical condition caused by elevated levels of uric acid in the blood that presents as recurring episodes of inflammatory arthritis. It is estimated that gout will affect 1% of Western populations at some point in their lives.

Hammertoes
A deformed toe that is bent or curled under the foot as a result of a weakened muscle that makes tendons shorter.

Hamstrings
Three muscles in the posterior region of the buttock and thigh.

Health educator
An individual who informs and trains patients on health-related topics.

Hemoglobin
A protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to body tissues.

Hemovac
A drain inserted into the area of surgery to allow excess fluids, such as blood, to escape.

Herniated disk
Rupturing of the tissue that separates the vertebral bones of the spinal column.

Hinge joint
A body joint, such as the elbow and knee, that allows for movement in one plane, such as up and down.

Hip abduction
Use of the hip muscles to move the leg away from the central line of the body.

Hip adduction
Use of the hip muscles to move the leg toward the central line of the body.

Hip resurfacing
A type of arthroplasty surgery which has been developed as an alternative to total hip replacement. Hip resurfacing includes less bone removal and is generally suitable for younger patients who suffer from non-inflammatory arthritis and who are not morbidly obese. Potential complications from hip resurfacing as compared to total hip replacement include femoral neck fractures, aseptic loosening and metal wear.

Humerus
The upper arm bone.

Ibuprofen
A drug commonly used to alleviate pain, and reduce inflammation and fever; available in non-prescription and prescription forms, depending on strength.

Ilium
The upper part of the bony pelvis which forms the receptacle for the head of the femur.

IM
Internal medicine; diagnosis and treatment of diseases that affect the internal organs.

In-patient
A patient who remains overnight in a medical facility, such as a hospital or clinic, for treatment.

Incision
A surgical cut.

Inflammation
Swelling, redness, and pain experienced in an area of the body.

Inflammatory arthritis
A condition that causes joints to become inflamed.

Informed consent
Related to participation in a research study or medical procedure; the process of ensuring that patients have all pertinent information and providing them with answers to their questions and concerns about the research study or medical procedure prior to their consent or agreement to participate in a research protocol or undergo the medical procedure.

Intravenous (IV)
The provision of drugs or nutrition directly into the bloodstream through a vein. Also refers to the actual tube used to provide drugs or nutrition directly into the bloodstream through a vein.

Joint
The area where two or more bones meet.

Joint aspiration (arthrocentesis)
A clinical procedure where synovial fluid is removed from a joint capsule using a syringe to diagnose gout, arthritis or synovial infection. See arthrocentesis.

Joint capsule
An envelope that surrounds a synovial joint.

Knock-kneed (varus)
A condition that produces an inward curve at or below the knee area so that the knees are permanently close together and the ankles are spread apart.

Kyphosis
A medical condition where there is an exaggerated outward curvature of the spine, resulting in a rounded upper back. (See other spine conditions Scoliosis and Lordosis).

Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN)
A nurse that provides basic bedside care under the direction of registered nurses and physicians. LPNs perform many care duties, including measuring and recording patient's vital signs, preparing and giving injections, monitoring catheters, dressing wounds and assisting with bathing, dressing and personal hygiene.

Ligament
A fibrous band of dense collagen bundles that connect one bone to another.