Copy of `British Urological Institute - Urology terms`

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British Urological Institute - Urology terms
Category: Health and Medicine > Urology
Date & country: 01/10/2013, UK
Words: 120

a condition where the acidity of body fluids and tissues is abnormally high. It can arise because of a failure of the mechanisms responsible for maintaining a balance between acids and alkalis in the blood

a type of cancer that involves cells from the lining of the walls of various different organs of the body. Breast cancer is a type of adenocarcinoma

a benign tumour of epithelial origin that exhibits clearly defined glandular structures or is derived from glandular tissue or .

general term for glandular disease

substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents contain bacterial antigens and some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific (i.e. affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens). The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity

excision of either one or both adrenal glands.

Bacille Calmette Guerin

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

radiation therapy in which radioactive materials are placed in direct contact with the tissue being treated.

a powerful vasodilator which causes contraction of smooth muscle. It is thought to play an important role as a mediator of inflammation.

Calix (calyces)
the collecting ducts of the kidney open into eight cup-shaped minor calyces. They are recognised as the first element in the duct system of the kidney, the minor calyces empty into two or three larger major calyces, draining the superior, middle and inferior portions of the kidney.

surgical removal of the gall bladder (usually for gallstones).

carcinoma in situ

a papilloma with a central core of connective tissue in a treelike structure covered with epithelium. It usually occurs on the mucous membrane or skin of the external genitals or in the perianal region

a substance derived from creatine phosphate and creatine in muscle. It is excreted in the urine.

computed tomography

cerebral vascular accident

surgical removal of the urinary bladder. This is necessary in the treatment of certain bladder conditions, notably cancer, and makes subsequent urinary diversion necessary: the ureters draining the urine from the kidneys are reimplanted into the colon or into an isolated segment of intestine which is brought to the skin surface as a spout. Alternatively, in bladder replacement, a segment of ileum or colon is reconstructed to form a pouch which is anastomosed to the urethra and acts as a reservoir for the urine. Emptying is achieved by abdominal straining or intermittant self-catheterisation.

a splitting open (e.g. of a surgical wound)

the muscle of the bladder wall


Diverticular disease
a condition in which diverticula (a sac or pouch formed at weak points in the walls of the alimentary canal) appear in the colon and cause lower abdominal pain and disturbed bowel habit.

dimercaptosuccinic acid labelled with technetium-99. It is used as a tracer to obtain scintigrams (diagrams showing the distribution of radiactive tracer in the body) of the kidney. It is particularly useful to show scarring from infection and to assess the relative function of each kidney.

digital rectal examination, click here to read more

abnormal development of skin, bone or other tissue.

difficult or painful urination.

involuntary discharge of urine (after the age at which urinary control should have been achieved). It is often used with specific reference to involuntary discharge of urine during sleep at night (bed wetting, nocturnal enuresis).

congenital abnormality in which the opening of the urethra is on the dorsal surface of the penis.

severe congenital abnormality where the bladder fails to close during development. It is associated with epispadias, total urinary incontinence and undescended testis.

outside of a capsule, especially the capsular ligament of a joint.

Fournier's gangrene
A life-threatening infection, usually of the genital region, resulting in death of tissue and profound collapse (due to the toxins released by the dead tissue)

The thin bridge of skin on the under-surface of the penis joining the head of the penis to the inside of the foreskin

follicle stimulating hormone

gonadotropin-releasing hormone test

genuine stress incontinence

packed cell volume

blood in the urine.

a basophilic stain that produces a blue colour. It is commonly used in conjunction with eosin that stains the cytoplasm pink or red. Various modifications of haematoxylin have been developed.

paralysis affecting only one side of the body.

Hilum (hila)
a hollow on the surface of an organ e.g. kidney or spleen where blood vessels, nerve fibres and ducts enter or leave it.

the study of the identification and distribution of chemical compounds within and between cells.

higher surgical training

dilatation and distension of the pelvis of the kidney. It is due to an obstruction of the free flow of the urine from the kidney. An obstruction at or below the neck of the bladder will result in hydronephrosis of both kidneys.

a general term for elevated concentrations of any or all of the lipids in the plasma (e.g. cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins).

an abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in a tissue

exaggeration of reflexes

increased rigidity, tension and spasticity of the muscles.

increased uric acid level in the bloodstream, often seen in association with chemotherapy. Hyperuricaemia is considered a risk factor for the development or gout and may lead to renal disease. Also called uric acidaemia and previously known as lithaemia.

underdevelopment of an organ or tissue.

interstitial cystitis

of the nature of an idiopathy, self originated, of unknown causation.

an area of tissue death due to local lack of oxygen.

international prostate symptom score

an inadequate blood flow to a part of the body, caused by constriction or blockage of the blood vessels supplying it

intravenous pyelogram

Juxta-glomerular apparatus (JGA)
A specialised cluster of blood vessels which secrete hormones that govern blood pressure & salt balance in the body

the presence of ketone (acetone) bodies in the urine. It may occur in diabetes mellitus, starvation or after persistant vomiting. It results from the partial oxidation of fats.

a surgical incision into the abdominal cavity, often to examine the abdominal organs to help diagnosis.

firmly attached thick white patches on the tongue and other mucous membranes (e.g. genitalia). It often occurs as a pre-cancerous growth. Leukoplakia develops on the oral mucosa in response to chronic irritation (for example ill-fitting dentures, smoking, chewing tobacco).

lutenising hormone

swelling of the lymph nodes.

a type of white blood cell, also present in the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland, gut wall and bone marrow.

the change in the type of adult cells in a tissue to a form which is not normal for that tissue.

the spread of a malignant tumour from its site of origin. This occurs by three main routes either through the bloodstream, through the lymphatic system and/or across body cavities.

the periodic discharge of urine from the bladder through the urethra. It is initiated by voluntary relaxation of the sphincter muscle below the bladder and then maintained by reflex contraction of the muscles of the bladder wall.

mid-stream specimen of urine

new and abnormal growth of tissue that may be benign or cancerous

surgical removal of a kidney.

the presence of calculi in the kidney or collecting system. The calculi are usually small (2-12mm) solid, crystalline, concretions that develop in the kidney and eventually pass through the genitourinary tract. Stones can be composed of calcium, phosphate or uric acid.

the surgical removal of a stone from the kidney by an incision into the kidney substance. It is normally performed with an incision into the renal pelvis.

a variety of granulocyte (type of white blood cell) capable of ingesting and killing bacteria.

excessive urination at night

the presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body. Oedema may be localised, due to venous or lymphatic obstruction or to increased vascular permeability or it may be systemic due to heart failure or renal disease. Collections of oedema fluid are designated according to the site, for example ascites (peritoneal cavity), hydrothorax (pleural cavity) and hydropericardium (pericardial sac). Massive generalised oedema is called anasarca.

the production of an abnormally small volume of urine. This may be a result of copious sweating associated with intense physical activity and/or hot weather. It can also be due to kidney disease, retention of water in the tissues, loss of blood, diarrhoea, or poisoning.

a process where opsonins (serum components) render bacteria more attractive to phagocytes by attaching to their outer surface and altering their physical and chemical compositions.

surgical removal of the testis. A recognised form of treatment for prostate cancer

the surgical removal of the testicles

a medicine that gives temporary relief from the symptoms of a disease but does not actually cure the disease.

the functional part of an organ (in contrast to its supporting tissue)

a substance or drug administered in any way but the mouth, e.g. by injection

performed through the skin, as injection of radiopacque material in radiological examination or the removal of tissue for biopsy accomplished by a needle

the region between the thighs.

pertaining to the period extending from the time of hospitalisation for surgery to the time of discharge

PET scan
(positron emission tomography) a scanning device which uses low-dose radioactive sugar to measure brain activity

prostate intraepithelial neoplasia

increase in the haemaglobin concentration of the blood

persistent abnormal erection of the penis, usually without sexual desire and accompanied by pain and tenderness. It is seen in diseases and injuries of the spinal cord and may be caused by vesical calculus and certain injuries to the penis.

the prevention of disease, preventive treatment

the surgical removal of the prostate gland

cleavage of proteins by proteases. Limited proteolysis occurs where proteins are functionally modified (activated in the case of zymogens) by highly specific proteases.

prostate specific antigen

pelvic ureteric junction

consisting of or containing pus.

X-ray study of the kidney, especially showing the pelvis (urine-collecting basin) of the kidney and the ureter

obstruction and infection of the kidney resulting in pus formation. A kidney stone is the usual cause of the obstruction, and the kidney becomes distended by pus and destroyed by the inflammation, which extends into the kidney substance itself and sometimes into the surrounding tissues.

a fever or a febrile condition, abnormal elevation of the body temperature

Quality of Life Score (QoL)
A means of assessing the impact of symptoms on the overall day-today activities of patients

Renal acidosis
kidney failure results in excessive loss of bicarbonate or retention of phosphoric and sulphuric acids. Patients with diabetes mellitus suffer from a form of acidosis in which sodium, potassium and ketone bodies are lost in the urine.

a disease (bilharzia) caused by digenetic trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma, the adults of which live in the urinary or mesenteric blood vessels. Eggs shed by the female worms pass to the outside in the urine or faeces, but many also lodge in and obstruct the blood flow in the liver.

the destruction of tissues by bacteria or their toxins.