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AACR - Cancer terms
Category: Health and Medicine > Cancer Research
Date & country: 27/09/2013, American Association for Cancer Research
Words: 207


ABC drug transporters
A family of membrane proteins that mediate the efflux of drugs from cells in an energy (ATP)-dependent manner.

acinus (plural acini)
One of the small sac-like pouches composing some glands.

acquired resistance
A term used to describe drug resistance in tumors that are initially responsive to drugs, but are resistant at relapse. Acquired resistance is likely due to the accumulation of random mutations in tumor cells that allowed survival following the first round of therapy.

adenoma
A benign or noncancerous tumor made up of glandular tissue.

adjuvant therapy
Treatment given after the primary therapy, which is usually surgery. Adjuvant therapy for cancer may include immune therapy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy or hormone therapy.

adverse effects
Problems that occur when treatment affects healthy cells. Common adverse effects of cancer treatment are fatigue, nausea, vomiting, decreased blood cell counts, hair loss, and mouth sores. Also called side effects.

agent
In a cancer clinical trial, an agent is a substance that produces, or is capable of producing, an effect that fights cancer.

allele
One of the alternate forms of a gene that may occupy a given locus (position on the chromosome).

amino acids
The building blocks of proteins.

angiogenesis
Blood vessel formation. Angiogenesis that occurs in cancer is the growth of blood vessels from surrounding tissue to a solid tumor. Angiogenesis is necessary for a tumor to grow larger and for metastases to grow at secondary sites. It is stimulated by growth factors such as VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor).

angiogenesis inhibitor
A substance that may prevent the formation of blood vessels. In anticancer therapy, an angiogenesis inhibitor prevents the growth of blood vessels from surrounding tissue to a solid tumor. Some naturally occurring inhibitors are thrombospondin, angiostatin and endostatin.

anti-angiogenesis
Prevention of the growth of new blood vessels.

antibody
An antigen-specific receptor, also called an immunoglobulin, made by B-lymphocytes. Antibodies are a critical component of the immune system that circulate in the blood and bind to foreign antigens and tumor cells, marking them for destruction by immune proteins or other immune cells. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are laboratory-produced antibodies that can locate and bind to cancer cells wherever they are in the body. Each one recognizes a different protein on certain cancer cells. They are used in cancer detection or therapy, and can be administered alone or used to deliver drugs, toxins or radioactive material directly to a tumor.

antibody therapy
Treatment with an antibody, a substance that can directly kill specific tumor cells or stimulate the immune system to kill tumor cells.

antigens
Substances that cause the immune system to make a specific immune response. An example would be a protein only found on tumor cells. Another example would be a murine antibody, which is derived solely from mouse proteins and therefore is viewed as foreign by the host (human) body.

antioxidant
Any substance that delays or inhibits oxidative damage to a target molecule. Antioxidants protect cells from free radical damage or oxidation by preventing free radical formation, by scavenging the free radicals before they can cause damage, and by repairing damaged molecules. Vitamin E is an example of an antioxidant.

apoptosis
A normal series of events in a cell that leads to its death. Also called cell-suicide.

B cells or B-lymphocytes
White blood cells that make antibodies and are an important part of the immune system.

basement membrane
A specialized, sheet-like structure of the extracellular matrix that separates cells from the surrounding connective tissue, and thereby serves as a boundary of a tissue. The basement membrane must be broken down in order for cancer cells to invade surrounding tissue.

benign
A swelling or growth that is not cancerous and does not spread from one part of the body to another.

biological therapy
Treatment to stimulate or restore the ability of the immune system to fight infection and disease. Biological therapy is also used to lessen side effects that may be caused by some cancer treatments. Also known as immunotherapy, biotherapy or biological response modifier (BRM) therapy.

biomarker
A substance sometimes found in the blood, other body fluids or tissues. A high level of biomarker may mean that a certain type of cancer is in the body. Examples of biomarkers include CA 125 (ovarian cancer), CA 15-3 (breast cancer), CEA (ovarian, lung, breast, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract cancers), and PSA (prostate cancer). Also called tumor marker.

biospecimens
Samples of tissue that can be used to study various aspects of cancer.

bone marrow
The soft, sponge-like tissue in the center of bones that produces white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets.

bone marrow toxicity
The destruction of bone marrow using radiation or drugs.

breast cancer
A malignant tumor that has developed from cells in the breast. It is the most common form of cancer in women and is the second leading cause of cancer death in women, exceeded only by lung cancer.

cancer
A term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control. Cancer cells can invade nearby tissues and can spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body. Cancers are classified according to the tissue and cell type from which they arise. Also called a malignant tumor or neoplasm.

cancer in situ
The stage where the cancer is still confined to the tissue in which it started.

cancer stem cells
A small population of cells inside tumors that have the ability to self-renew while giving rise to different types of cells. It is thought that cancer stem cells might be resistant to many cancer drugs and reconstitute a tumor after chemotherapy has eradicated the bulk of the tumor cells.

cancer vaccine
A form of biological therapy which may help a person's immune system to recognize cancer cells. These vaccines may help the body reject tumors and prevent cancer from recurring.

carcinogen
A substance that increases the risk of developing cancer. Chemical carcinogens such as tobacco smoke typically cause simple local changes in the DNA sequence. Physical carcinogens such as ionizing radiation typically cause chromosome breaks and translocations.

carcinogenesis
The process by which normal cells are transformed into malignant cells. Multiple genetic and environmental factors are involved in the generation of cancer.

carcinoma
A type of cancer that arises in epithelial cells such as those in the skin or lining of organs. About 90 percent of human cancers are carcinomas.

CCSS
Childhood cancer survivor study.

cell
The fundamental living unit of animals and plants. Cells vary in appearance, structure and function. Examples of types of cells are epithelial cells, endothelial cells, squamous cells and stromal cells.

cell cycle
The sequence of events by which a cell enlarges, duplicates it DNA and divides. The cell cycle consists of four successive phases (G1, S, G2 and M), and involves many genes including cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). Access to growth factors, adhesion to extracellular matrix, and cell cycle checkpoints are some of the many factors that regulate the cell cycle. Disregulation of the cell cycle can lead to the uncontrolled growth characteristic of cancer cells.

cell division
The process by which two daughter cells are produced from one parent cell.

chemoprevention
The use of drugs, vitamins or other agents to try to reduce the risk of or delay the development or recurrence of cancer.

chemotherapy
Treatment with anticancer drugs.

chimeric antibody
An antibody that is made of segments of both mouse and human antibodies, usually a 30/70 percent split, respectively.

chondroma
A benign tumor of cartilage.

chromosome
A long, tightly packaged DNA molecule that contains the genetic instructions essential for the life of a cell and allows the transmission of genetic information from generation to generation.

clinical trial
A research study that tests how well new medical treatments or other interventions work in people. Each study is designed to test new methods of screening, prevention, diagnosis or treatment of a disease.

codon
A triplet of three bases or nucleotides that specify a single amino acid. Nucleic acid sequences (DNA and RNA) are read three nucleotides at a time to reveal the genetic code.

colorectal cancer
A disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the colon or rectum.

combination therapy
Treatment using more than one anticancer drug.

complete remission
The disappearance of all detectable signs of cancer. This does not mean the cancer has been cured. Also called a complete response.

concurrent therapy
A treatment that is given at the same time as another.

consolidation therapy
Chemotherapy treatments given after induction chemotherapy to further reduce the number of cancer cells.

control group
In a randomized clinical trial, the group that receives standard treatment.

cytokines
Secreted proteins that are important for interactions between immune cells and help orchestrate an immune response. Some cytokines stimulate or suppress the activity of immune cells. Others, such as lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor, are cytotoxic. T cells, B cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and many other types of cells make cytokines. Cytokines can also be produced in the laboratory by recombinant DNA technology and given to people to affect immune responses. Also called interleukins or lymphokines.

cytoplasm
The part of the cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus.

cytotoxic
Has the ability to kill a cell.

dendritic cell
A type of antigen presenting cell named for its long arms or dendrites that is important for initiating and controlling the overall immune response. These cells exist in many tissues including the skin and mucous membranes and can travel to lymph nodes or spleen to interact with other immune cells. In a sense, dendritic cells are the sentinels that alert other immune cells of an attack.

disease progression
Cancer that continues to grow or spread.

disease-free survival
The length of time after treatment during which no cancer is found. It can be reported for an individual patient or for a study population.

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
A nucleic acid made of deoxyribose and four different types of bases or nucleotides (A, T, G, C) that pair with each other to form a linear, double-stranded DNA helix. The order of the bases in a gene is called the DNA sequence. DNA is the molecule that encodes genes.

DNA methylation
A type of epigenetic mark. Changes in methylation affect gene expression; the more methylated a stretch of DNA, the less likely it is to be transcribed to RNA.

DNA repair
The process through which mutations in DNA are repaired. The basic DNA repair mechanism involves nucleases that cut out the damaged area of DNA, polymerases that fill in the gap with the correct nucleotides, and ligases that seal the nick between the new segment of DNA and the original DNA strand.

DNA replication
The copying or duplication of a DNA molecule. DNA in a cell is replicated in preparation for cell division so that the two daughter cells will each receive a complete copy of the DNA of the parent cell. While this process is extremely accurate, errors do occur. The cell has proofreading and DNA repair mechanisms to fix these mistakes.

double-blind
A clinical trial in which the method for analyzing data has been specified in the protocol before the study has begun (prospective), the patients have been randomly assigned to receive either the study drug or alternative treatment, and in which neither the patient nor the physician(s) conducting the study know which treatment is being given to the patient.

drug resistance
The ability of a tumor cell to survive in the presence of drugs that are normally toxic.

duration of response
The length of time between anticancer treatments where a patient's cancer shrinks, disappears or remains stable.

dysplasia
Condition in which cells proliferate excessively and appear abnormal in shape and orientation.

eligibility criteria
Participant eligibility criteria for clinical trials can range from general (age, sex, type of cancer) to specific (prior treatment, tumor characteristics, blood cell counts, organ function). Eligibility criteria may also vary with trial phase. In phase I and II trials, the criteria often focus on making sure that people who might be harmed because of abnormal organ function or other factors are not put at risk. Phase II and III trials often add criteria regarding disease type and stage, and number of prior treatments.

endpoint
What researchers measure to evaluate the results of a new treatment being tested in a clinical trial. Research teams establish the endpoints of a trial before it begins. Examples of endpoints include toxicity, tumor response, survival time and quality of life.

epidemiology
The study of the incidence, distribution, causes and control of disease in a population.

epigenetic
Having to do with the chemical attachments to DNA or the histone proteins around which it coils. Epigenetic marks change the pattern of genes expressed in a given cell or tissue by amplifying or muting the effect of a gene, but do not alter the actual DNA sequence. Unlike mutations to DNA sequence, epigenetic modifications are typically reversible. Epigenetic markers include acetyl groups, methyl groups, phosphate groups and the peptide ubiquitin. Tumor cells often contain epigenetic abnormalities.

epithelium
The most common cell of origin for human cancer.

etiology
The study of the cause or origin of a disease.

extracellular
Outside of the cell.

extracellular matrix
A complex network of fiber-forming proteins interwoven in a hydrated polysaccharide gel that helps hold cells and tissues together and provides a meshwork for cells to migrate on and interact with one another. The extracellular matrix influences cell development, migration, proliferation, shape and metabolic functions.

Fast Track status
Under the FDA Modernization Act of 1997, the Fast Track Program of the FDA is designed to facilitate the development and expedite the review of a new drug that is intended for the treatment of a serious or a life-threatening condition, and demonstrates the potential of a drug candidate to address unmet medical needs for such a condition.

first-line therapy
The first therapy given in the treatment for cancer.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
An agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services whose mission is to promote and protect the public health by ensuring that medical products are proven safe and effective before they can be used by patients and by monitoring products for continued safety after they are in use.

free radical
An atom or group of atoms that has at least one unpaired electron and is therefore unstable and highly reactive. Free radicals are produced by the body as part of its normal activity (e.g., during an immune response) and are also present in the environment (e.g., cigarette smoke, asbestos). In animal tissues, excess free radicals can damage cells by stealing electrons from the lipids, proteins and/or DNA of the cell (a process called oxidation or oxidative damage). They are believed to accelerate the progression of many diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Also referred to as reactive species (e.g., reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species).

gamete
A reproductive cell that contains a single set of unpaired chromosomes (egg or sperm). Mutations in the DNA of a gamete are inherited by next generation of offspring. Also called germ cells.

gene
The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are segments of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein. The DNA sequence of a gene determines the amino acid sequence of a protein.

genetic
Inherited, or having to do with information that is passed from parents to offspring through genes in sperm and egg cells.

genetic testing
Analyzing DNA to look for a genetic alteration that may indicate an increased risk for developing a specific disease or disorder.

genetics research
Research that focuses on how someone's genetic makeup can assist in the early detection, diagnosis or treatment of cancer. Genetics research may be a part of screening or treatment trials.

genome
The total genetic information that is stored in the chromosomes and that governs how an organism develops.

genotype
The genetic makeup of an organism, or the combination of alleles located on homologous chromosomes that determines a specific characteristic or trait.

germ line
Genetic material that is passed down through the gametes (sperm and egg).

glioma
Cancer of non-neuronal brain cells.

growth factors
Substances made by the body that function to regulate cell division and cell survival. Some growth factors are also produced in the laboratory and used in biological therapy. Growth factors bind specific receptors expressed on the surface of the cells they affect.

hazard ratio
A summary of the difference between two survival curves, representing the reduction in the risk of death on treatment compared to control. A control experiment is an experiment where the variable that is being investigated is kept constant.

HER2 overexpression
A genetic alteration in the HER2 gene that produces an increased amount of the growth factor receptor protein on the tumor cell surface, causing cells to divide, multiply and grow more rapidly than normal. Women whose tumors overexpress the HER2 protein are likely to have a more aggressive type of breast cancer with a poorer prognosis, shorter time to disease progression, increased relapse rate, shortened survival, and disease that is not as responsive to standard therapies, including certain chemotherapy regimens.

HER2 tumor marker test
Detects overproduction of HER2 protein and/or gene amplification, both of which contribute to aggressive growth of the cancer and its spread to other parts of the body. HER2 overexpression occurs in approximately 25 percent of women with breast cancer.

histones
Proteins that bind DNA and help wrap it into tightly packaged chromatin. Histones and other DNA-binding proteins can affect the pattern of gene expression in different cell types by controlling access to the DNA.

humanized antibody
An antibody that contains over 90 percent human material.

hyperplasia
An overgrowth of cells.

imaging
Tests that produce pictures of areas inside the body.

immune response
The activity of the immune system against foreign substances called antigens.

immune system
The complex group of organs and cells that defends the body against infection or disease.

immunotherapy
See biological therapy.

in situ cancer
A tumor that has not broken through the basement membrane to invade surrounding tissue.

induction therapy
Treatment designed to be used as a first step toward shrinking the cancer and in evaluating response to drugs and other agents. Induction therapy is followed by additional therapy to eliminate whatever cancer remains.

infection
Up to one third of the world's cancers are associated with infectious diseases caused by pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori (stomach cancer) or viruses such as the human papillomavirus (HPV, cervical cancer), hepatitis B virus (HBV, liver), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, lymphoma) and HIV (Kaposi's sarcoma).

inflammation
The cellular and vascular changes that occur after tissue injury. Chronic inflammation may promote tumor growth and progression.