Copy of `Pebble Junction - Stone terms`

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Pebble Junction - Stone terms
Category: Architecture and Buildings > Stones and Rocks
Date & country: 24/09/2013, US
Words: 64


Agglomerate
A man-made product fabricated to look like quarried stone. Usually composed of stone chips or fragments embedded in a matrix of mortar or thermosetting resins.

Alumina
Aluminum oxide (Al2O3)

Anhydrite
A specific calcined gypsum rock whose chemical composition is anhydrous calcium sulfate (CaSO4). It is used in Portland Cement to control set.

Anhydrous
a hydrate which has given up all of its previously held water molecules.

Aragonite
a translucent white mineral found in calcium carbonate.

Argillaceous
Clay-bearing rock.

Arris
The edge of an external angle formed by the intersection of two surfaces.

Artificial Marble
Man-made marble. See Agglomerate.

Bed Joint
A horizontal layer of mortar on which building units are laid.

Breccia
A name applied to both granite and conglomerate stone because of the coarse and angular particles present.

Brick
A man-made solid or hollow building unit which is made from clay or shale.

Brownstone
A dark-brown or reddish-brown sandstone. A sedimentary rock.

Bullnose
A rounded outside corner or edge.

Calcareous
Calcium-bearing rock.

Calcine
The removal of water molecules in hydrates by heat.

Calcite
The natural mineral form of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

Calcite Marble
A crystalline variety of marble or limestone containing not more than 5% magnesium carbonate.

Calcium Oxide
Calcined limestone (CaO).

Carbonate
A salt of carbonic acid.

Carbonic Acid
A weak acid (H2CO3).

Cast Stone
A man-made stone. See Agglomerate.

Conglomerate
A stone similar to sandstone but the rock particles are rounded or angular gravel rather than sand.

Course
A continuous layer of building units running horizontally in a wall.

Cut Stone
See Ashlar

Dolomite
a calcium magnesium carbonate [CaMg(CO3)2]Dolomite Marble

Drip
A slot cut into the bottom of a projected stone to interrupt the capillary action of water.

Face
The exposed surface of a stone with its specified finish.

Foliation
The layered or banded structure of rock in which the mineral grains became re-aligned at right angles to a directional force that existed during metamorphism.

Full Bed Mortar
The troweling of both the setting bed mortar and pointing mortar in one operation. See. Setting Bed and Pointing.

Gneiss
A metamorphic rock with a banded or coarsely foliated structure; often called Trade Granite

Gypsum
A hydrated calcium sulfate (CaSO42H20). It is formed naturally as the result of the reaction of sulfuric acid produced by the decomposition of pyrite upon the calcium carbonate of shells existing in clay. A sedimentary rock.

Halite
Rock salt; Sodium chloride (NaCl). A sedimentary rock.

Hemihydrate
A hydrate which contains one-half of a molecule of water compared to one molecule of the principal element or compound forming the hydrate.

Hydrate
A mineral formed by the combination of water and some other elements or compounds.

Hydrous
Containing chemically combined water.

Igneous Rock
One of the three principal groups of rock that make up the earth

Kaolinite
A hydrous aluminum silicate mineral.

Marble
A metamorphic limestone in a more or less crystalline or crystalline-granular state. Any limestone capable of taking a polish can also be called a marble.

Margin
See Draft.

Metamorphic Rock
One of the three classes of rock making up the earth

Mica
Any of a group of mineral silicates in a muti-layered form.

Natural Bed
The horizontal stratification of rock as it was formed in the earth.

Onyx
A variety of quartz in crystalline form of calcium carbonate. It is characterized by a structure of parallel bands each differing in color or in the degree of translucency. Considered to be a marble because it can take a polish.

Paver
A block or chunk of stone or brick used for paving.

Plaster of Paris
a calcined gypsum in a hemihydrate state (CaSO41/2H2O).

Pointing
the troweling of mortar into a building unit joint after the setting bed mortar has hardened. See Full Bed Mortar and Setting Bed Mortar.

Portland Cement
A hydraulic cement product obtained by pulverizing and calcining a properly proportioned mixture of three minerals

Quarry
The location of a mining operation where a natural deposit of rock is extracted from the earth as stone through an open pit or an underground mine.

Quartz
Silicon dioxide (Si02) occurring in hexagonal crystal form.

Quartzite
A metamorphic rock consisting largely or entirely of quartz. Most quartzites are formed from sandstone.

Quicklime
Calcium oxide which is a crushed limestone that has been calcined.

Quoins
Blocks of stone forming external corners of masonry walls.

Schist
Any metamorphic crystalline rock having a foliated structure. It can easily be split into slabs or sheets.

Sealant
A material used to fill and seal a joint or opening. See Caulking.

Sedimentary Rock
One of three classes of rock which make up the earth

Siliceous
Silica-bearing rock.

Slate
A fine-grained metamorphic rock derived form clays and shales.

Staining
A phenomenon of discoloration on newly installed limestone. Buff limestone will exhibit a brown stain while gray limestone will exhibit a dark gray stain. This staining is similar to efflorescence but it is the organic matter in the stone which is leaching out through the release of excess water of crystallization of the setting mortar.

Trade Granite
See Gneiss.

Travertine
A calcium carbonate rock having a coarsely cellular structure formed form the deposits of spring and cave waters. Travertine stone can be called either a marble or limestone.

Verde Antique
A dark green serpentine marble or granite marked with white veins of calcite

Weep Hole
A small opening in a masonry cavity wall through which accumulated water or condensation can drain to the exterior.

Window Sill
The bottom section of a window frame and/or the bottom section of an exterior masonry window opening.

Window Stool
A marrow shelf fitted across the lower part on the inside of a window opening.